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ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
ISES 2013  - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe
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ISES 2013 - Day 1 - Prof. Koichi Kitazawa, Former Executive Director, Japan Science and Technology Agency - Nuclear Friend or Foe

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With the growing need for energy, and the goal to reduce CO2emissions, the safety of nuclear power is much debated. Can nuclear energy contribute to a more sustainable energy future? …

With the growing need for energy, and the goal to reduce CO2emissions, the safety of nuclear power is much debated. Can nuclear energy contribute to a more sustainable energy future?

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  • 1. Lessens Learned from 3.11 Fukushima Nuclear Accident Koichi Kitazawa Private Sector Investigation Committee on Fukushima Nuclear Accident Japan Science council, energy policy options Japan Science and Technology Agency ISES 2013-Nuclear Energy, Trondheim June12-15, 2013
  • 2. 500km Hokkaido Tokyo Sendai The Great East Japan Earthquake 3.11 2011 The largest ever in Japan, mag. 9.0
  • 3. Total casualties 18600. 97% due to Tsunami
  • 4. Tsunami invaded along 500km coast with av. 1km into land 500km x 1km 5 of 17NPS stations in the Tsunami area . 30% of total elec. power generated by NP.
  • 5. Nuclear fission : a million times larger energy than chemical burning →1kg fuel vs. 1000 tons/day/1GW power station A BWR NPS Tsunami →damage of sea water inlet + SBO →Water supply stopped.→Severe Accident
  • 6. 10000 fuel rods for nuclear fission     7% of heat from residual radio- activity even after stopping of fission Cooling!! Gasket sealant Several t ons/h H2 Suppression chamber Reactor container Pressure vessel Spent fuel rod pool BWR reactor of Fukushima Daiichi Loss of Water → H2, meltdown
  • 7. Unit 1 2 3 4 Turbine bldg Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant
  • 8. Discharge of Radioactive Substances from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station • The second worst in the world history • Level 7, the worst level ( INES ) • 1/7 of contamination of Chernobyl • It could have been much more serious or much less  ←  prepared?
  • 9. Contamination With 134Cs & 137Cs 2012 Nov. 5 Evacuation < 20mSv/y area 20-50mSv/y area >50mSv/y area Tokyo Sendai 80,000 evacuated additional 80,000 on own willKyoto
  • 10. New regulations in the area of contamination • De-contamination of radioactive substance for earlier return to home 50-20mSv/y areas to reduce anxiety of residents 1 ~ 20mSv/y areas 1mSv/y---conventional regulation level Areas >50mSv/y: assigned for no-return area within 5 yrs
  • 11. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident • It could have been much worse than the reality. Fortuitous developments saved the spent fuel pool of No.4 unit from loosing water. Unit No.2 worried for possible explosion of the reactor vessel ←Pressure went up. • It could have been much less serious if proper counter measures taken to introduce water into the core earlier. Unprepared against the “severe accident” Too late!! when sea water was introduced. Fukushima 50 still appreciated to have prevented the further worsening of the reactors.
  • 12. The worst case scenario • Reactor unit #4 lost the building roof←H2 leak • The spent fuel pool exposed directly to the air No confinement vessel if radio activity leaks • The sfp is much more radio active. • The sfp needed water cooling. • Dry up feared ← The cooling stopped ←SBO • “after shock” feared • Evacuation of 30M metropolitan people possible • Unexpected water supply to sfp from neighbor.
  • 13. Spent fuel rods for ca. 10 years stored.     To introduce water in emergency, the pressure must be released by “vent”. Gasket sealant Several t ons/h H2 Suppression chamber Reactor container Pressure vessel Spent fuel rod pool BWR reactor of Fukushima Daiichi
  • 14. Indirect/essential causes of the accident • Lack of precautions for the severe accidents better knowledge about the emergency cooling system storage of supplementary batteries matching of external electric power supplier cars knowledge of manual vent systems extension of the valve shaft for safer vent lack of vent filter rehearsal of residents to escape for evacuation • Negligence of the regulatory agencies safety guide no consideration necessary for long hour“ black-out” by the Nuclear Safety Commission Oral regulation to avoid written specifications by
  • 15. 54 nuclear reactors in Japan Only 2 on operation at the moment.
  • 16. 18 http://vitalsigns.worldwatch.org/vs-trend/global-nuclear-generation-capacity-falls Three Mile Island Pennsilvania Fukushima Chernobyl, Soviet Union
  • 17. ● : Nuclear reactors     Location of earthquakes bigger than Mg 6.0 ●    20% near Japan(50 times more frequent)   Additional special condition in Japan    
  • 18. People’s desire of de-nuclearization if possible Finite risk does remain. nuclear plant not “fail safe” A gigantic risk →collapse of a whole country possible + Nuclear waste negative heritage >10000yrs Are alternative energy sources feasible? Fossil energy: coal, oil, natural gas, shale gas Renewable energy: expensive initial cost unstable (intermittent) wide space needed CO2 emission, depleting resource Exceptions: Hydro Stable geothermal Low cost
  • 19. Crude oil price & import 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 ( / )原油価格 円 kℓ 原油輸入額(兆円) 円 /kℓ 兆円 年度 Energy White Paper 2011 1st oil shock ’79 2nd oil shock ‘90 Gulf war ‘05 3rd oil shock 1980 1990 2000 2010 1970 Energy import of Japan: $2000/yr person
  • 20. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 2010 2012 2016 2020 2030 2040 年度 TWh発電量() 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 2010 2012 2016 2020 2030 2040 年度 TWh発電量() Japan Science Council Proposed options for shift Sept. 2011scenario  A scenario  B Scenario C scenario  D scenario  E scenario  F 化石燃料 再生可能エネルギー Fossil RENuc Hydrp 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 2010 2012 2016 2020 2030 2040 年度 TWh発電量() 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 2010 2012 2016 2020 2030 2040 年度 TWh発電量() 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 2010 2012 2016 2020 2030 2040 年度 TWh発電量() 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 2010 2012 2016 2010 2030 2040 年度 TWh発電量() 大規模水力 大規模水力 大規模水力 大規模水力 大規模水力 再生可能エネルギー 再生可能エネルギー 再生可能エネルギー 再生可能エネルギー 化石燃料 化石燃料 化石燃料 化石燃料 原子 力発電 原子力発電 原子力発電 原子力発電 原子力発電 2020
  • 21. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 2010 2012 2016 2020 2030 年度 TWh発電量() Nucl.30% Fossile Fuel 60% Renewable 50% FY Dam hydro 9% Energy Saving Electricpower(TWh) 1% GDP (500USD/yr/person) investment needed for RE To grow to 50% of elec. power By 2020 to keep UN promise Sci.Council J 2011 Efficiency improvement
  • 22. The Empirical Rule by Kitazawa  “ Land Area determines for nuclear or de-nuclear”    Russia, China, US> India>(Chile)>Ukrain> France>Spain>Sweden>(Ecuador) Japan>Germany>Italy>Korea>Austria> Switzerland>Taiwan>Belgium  “ One Fukushima may destroy the whole country”             Additional factors: latent threat from other type of energy security economic growth more urgent for developing countries  
  • 23. Japanese policy for future energy Dec. 2012 General Election • “Democrat party government” till the end of 2012 ex-nuclear at ca. 2030 by gradual decrease • New Gov “Liberal Democratic party” “decision suspended for 3-4 years” “restart of the stopping nuclear plants as far as their safety confirmed by the new Nuclear Regulatory Authority” “Efforts paid to introduce renewable energy”
  • 24. Efficient energy conversion and energy saving Now it is the time to pay every efforts for energy saving the first. •combined cycle power generator→triple cycle •Energy saving fuel cell +gas turbine +steam turbine
  • 25. Carbon tax to provide comprehensive incentives final target 50(-80)% by 2050 Manufacturing, transportation and daily life cost of energy ↑by 2 energy saving to 1/2⇔ three important area for energy saving
  • 26. Heat pumps Thermal insulation underground heat LED Heat pumps Fuel cell + water heating (Enefarm) IH heater microwave
  • 27. CAR WEIGHTCAR WEIGHT kg HYBRID CAR EV, FC CAR FUEL CONSUMPTION FOREIGN CAR DOMESTIC CAR Energy Saving with automobiles 1/4
  • 28. ENERGY SAVING OF HOME REFREGERATOR 80% in 20 yrs Heat pumps (kWh/L/yr)
  • 29. 34 REN 2011 World Investment for Renewable E Exceeding 200 B$ /yr Becoming a gigantic world industry B$
  • 30. 35 自然エネルギー白書 2012 より http://www.map.ren21.net/GSR/GSR2012.pdf
  • 31. 36 http://www.isep.or.jp/images/press/Eneshift-ISEP20110614.pdf   Wind power accumulated capacity → >100GW   US,China: asset finance Europe: Feed-in-tariff China US Germ Spain India Denm Japan  Capacity(MW)  
  • 32. 37
  • 33. 38 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feed-in_tariff#Germany Price of electricity by solar cells in Germany 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2010 2012 Rooftop >1MW Rooftop <30kW Japanese FIT Yen/kWh FY Grid-parity at home achieved in 2010 →no more FIT needed German FIT price
  • 34. 39 39 Stability of power supply Pump-up hydro + Gas turbine Batteries + Fuel cells Typical solar cell output Typical wind mill monthly output fine cloudy rainy Taking average by connection of many Power generators desired
  • 35. Red Eléctrica de España   HP より Spanish example of adjusting for supply-demand gap ( CECRC ) 2009.12.31 Hydro Nuclear Oil/GasWind Other renewables export 0 O’clock 24 O’clock RE/total electric consumption 40-60% import
  • 36. Japanese Feed-in-Tariff • Started in 2012 July 3GW contracted for solar (doubling) easy installation 0.5 GW with wind (← slow due to regulation)       cost effectiveness highest geothermal not yet (←national park law ) good because of stability, low cost wave, tidal, ocean current: on R&D stage
  • 37. 42 Windy area Weak power transmission lines in north areas (Hokkaido and Tohoku)
  • 38. Total farmland abandoned House land Needed area to support total electricity roof Solar Panel Area Needed 3960km2 46100km2 21500 km24000km2 6550km2 63km2 20km 圏内 1820km2 43 Parking area
  • 39. land shortage problems→solar sharing
  • 40. 45 45 Hywind Floating Windmill (Norway) http://webronza.asahi.com/ global/2011041400011.html Off-shore Floating Windmill Wind lens type with fish cultivation pool Kyushu Univ. Prof. Kyozuka Lower noise by 10dB Output enhancement 3X No bird strike fish culture pond
  • 41. 4646 0 250 500 750 1 ,000 1 ,250 1 ,500 1 ,750 2,000 2,250 2,500 2,750 3,000 2010 総 発 電 量 ( 実 績 ) 2010 原 子 力 ( 実 績 ) 太 陽 光 風 力 (陸 上 ) 風 力 (洋 上 ) 地 熱 中 小 水 力 等 環境省「平成 22 年度度再生可能エネルギー導入ポテンシャル調査」 か ら試算 ※ 原子力は資源エネルギー庁統計より TWh 46 Electricity generated 2010 Nuclear 2010 Solar W ind (land) W ind (off shore) Geotherm al Sm all hydro potential development of RE in Japan Assumption: The current legal and cost status (Ministry of Environments)
  • 42. Which direction to go? • Japanese import of fossil fuel max in 2008 $2,000/y/person • Electric power total sales $1,300 (2010) • Nuclear energy share (30%) $400 • Investment needed for RE $500 fast case • Investment for transmission line $100 • Solar power: 30% for panels, 70% for the rest • Population 125M GDP/person $45,000 • Total expenditure for amusement $8,000 • Education of children $500 • net income from overseas investment $1,000 What is worth to be paid? What do we live for? RE industry? Amusement? Moral?, happiness?
  • 43. land shortage problems Ichihara-shi, Chiba Pref. proposed by Nagashima & Matsuoka Solar sharing :Cell stripe and interval space to leave enough light for agriculture 。 49 Growth rate saturates with light intensity
  • 44. Farm lands and solar cell • Farm houses with wider roofs • doubling of peasant’s income possible 14000$ →28000$ by 200m2 solar panel good timing for Tohoku area restoration ←FIT, restoration policy    pension plan for local enterprises    low risk with 6% interest rate →Fishery + wind mill
  • 45. • JST (ALCA project for game changing tech.) Japan Science and Technology Agency • NEDO (road map R&D for commercialization) New Energy Development Organization Researches at universities (game changing technologies)
  • 46. Organic liquid Si Prof. Shimoda (JAIST) organic molecular thin film solar cell Mitsubishi Chem. > 10% Prof. E.Nakamura (Tokyo Univ) Si painting?
  • 47. Umena Y., Kawakami K., Shen J.-R., Kamiya N. Nature:   473,Pages:55–60   (05 May 2011) Crystal structure of oxygen-evolving photosystem II (Okayama, Osaka city Univ) Distorted Chair str. Mn Mn M Ca O O O O O Mn PHOTOSYNTHESIS  ARTIFICIAL PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • 48. Efforts toward artificial photo synthesis • Tokyo Univ. Prof. Domen, Honda-Fujishima H2 evolution photo-catalyst (TiO2) • Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. Prof. Inoue Organic complex photo-catalyst
  • 49. Performance revolution in 2005 HTS cable 臨 界 電 流 x 線 材 長 さLxIc(77K) Tc 20 years needed to enhance Ic
  • 50. 56 150 230 超電導ケーブル 150 管路 既存CV ケーブル 600800 2100 340 水冷管 トラフ 洞道 ~ 66kV HTS Cable 66kV Switching Station 66kV Switching Station 684MW 684kV 500kV (Existing Conduit) Conventional Cable HTS Cable 100% shield (New & Large Diameter Tunnel ) ~ ~ 275kV 275kV S/S 275kV S/S 66kV 66kV 684MW 684MW 275kV ~ 500kV Substation mm mm (T. Hara et al., Advances in Superconductivity II, (1990) 1059.) YOKOHAMA HTS Cable Project HTS Cable Demonstration Project in Live Grid •66kV - 2kA - 200MVA Bi2223 wire • ~ 250 meter long, One cable-to-cable Joint
  • 51. The 1st practical superconducting cable To be instaled in Sapporo in 2014. Data center – power plant Planned to extend the superconducting Low-V large-I line to wind mills.
  • 52. K. Kitazawa “Newton”   Jan. (2001) Global Superconducting Grid with natural renewable energy resources
  • 53. Global superconducting grid No loss in transmission (DC mode)
  • 54. JR type MAGLEV test since 1964 SC perp- etual magnet Ground coil(Cu) Ground Propul- sion coil levitation propulsion
  • 55. 推進コイル ガイドウェイ 超電導磁石 浮上・案内兼用コイル Superconducting MAGLEV Japan Railway Company 2025 Tokyo-Nagoya Propulsion coil Levitation and guide coil Guide way SC magnet Perpetual current mode
  • 56. ☆No limit on traveling speed     business speed : 500km/h (2,000km/h possible under depressurized atmosphere)     Jet Aircraft: 1,000km/h ☆No exhaust gas ☆Quieter than automobiles ☆Energy saving: one-third of domestic airplanes ☆Safer than railways Floating clearance (10cm)     Volume supported (not point contact) ☆Ease of maintenance: resistant to sand, earthquakes, and snow superconducting MAGLEV (JR) Yamanashi test line

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