Jaitapur nuclear power plant ppt


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Jaitapur nuclear power plant ppt

  1. 1. Jaitapur nuclear power plant
  2. 2. Brief about the project o Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project is a proposed 9900 MW power project of Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) at Madban village of Ratnagiri district in Maharashtra. o If built, it would be the largest nuclear power generating station in the world by net electrical power rating. o On December 6, 2010 agreement was signed for the construction of first set of two third-generation European Pressurized Reactors and the supply of nuclear fuel for 25 years in the presence of French President Nicolas Sarkozy and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. o French nuclear engineering firm Areva S.A. and Indian state-owned nuclear operator Nuclear Power Corporation of India signed this multibillion valued agreement of about $9.3 billion. o This is a general framework agreement along with agreement on 'Protection of Confidentiality of Technical Data and Information Relating to Nuclear Power Corporation in the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy' was also signed.
  3. 3. o It is purposed to construct 6 European pressurized reactors designed and developed b Areva of France each of 1650 megawatts thus totalling to 9900 megawatts o These are third generation pressurized water reactors (PWR) o Estimated cost of project is around 1000000 crore (US $ 18.2 billion) o This type of reactor is not currently operational anywhere in the world o Though the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission had expressed concerns about the safety of the computer system in this reactor but Finland has ordered one such reactor none the less o The cost of building the plant is about Rs. 20 crore /Mwe capacity compared with Rs. 5 crore /Mwe for coal power station o The cost of electricity from this power plant will be below Rs. 4 per kilowatt hour o The Jaitapur project in Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra has been in the public eye in recent months due to a host of controversies that surround the project.
  4. 4. Location
  5. 5. Jaitapur as location o The proposed Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project is located at the west coast with an average elevation of 90 feet o This project will spread over 968 hectares of land o Jaitapur is on the Arabian Sea coast in Ratnagiri district on the south-western part of Maharashtra, India o The district is the part of the Konkan in Western Ghats. It is known as one of the best ports from Neolithic era.
  6. 6. Technical and Economic Reasons for Selection of Jaitapur Site o The Site Selection Committee recommended setting up a nuclear power plant at Jaitapur, based on the suitability of meeting criteria like which include availability of land vs. population density, available source of cooling water , seismicity, safe-grade elevation at site (flood analysis etc), environment aspects and proper access for transportation of heavy/over-dimensional equipment to plant site. o The Jaitapur site is not considered earthquake-prone. As per seismic zoning map of Government of India, Jaitapur site falls within zone III. The longitude and latitude of the land covered for Jaitapur nuclear power project are given below: Latitude of JNPP site: 16° 34’ 38” N to 16° 36’ 29” N Longitude of JNPP site: 73° 19’ 02” E to 73° 20’ 48” E
  7. 7. • • • • • • • • • • NPCIL intends to establish a Nuclear Power Park by installing 6x1650 MWe PWR category NPPs at this location in a phased manner Required land is available for establishing the NPP and the residential complex at Jaitapur. land being acquired for JNPP (site and residential complex) admeasuring around 938.026 ha is rocky with poor fertility and barren with small patches of agriculture. The land is non forest and is privately owned. There is no physical displacement of any family from the proposed land being acquired for the project (site and residential complex). Abundant sea water is available for Condenser Cooling and desalination plant. The project site is far away from urban area. The population density on land within 10 km around the site is estimated to be about 150 persons / sq. km considering approx. 50% of the area falling into sea The average elevation of the site is about RL +24.5 m above mean sea level while the safe grade elevation is +7.0 m with respect to Chart Datum (as per the study of CWPRC, Pune)
  8. 8. Need for this project o Nuclear power is green and clean source of energy o very much necessary for India to complement the electricity production in the country which is mostly by thermal power plants (with 63.95% share) o The present share of nuclear power in total generation of electricity in the country is only 2.83% as on 31st July 2008 o India is poised to go largely for peaceful use of nuclear energy in generating electricity, which resulted in the waiver from Nuclear Supplier Group, enabling India to have nuclear trade o India, thus, aims at increasing the share of nuclear energy to reach from the present 4120 MWe to 23000 MWe by the end of XIIth National Plan. o The electricity generated by Jaitapur Nuclear Power Park (JNPP) will be supplied to the beneficiary states in westerns region with possibility of inter regional transfer.
  9. 9. Importance to region & country • power plants do not generate conventional pollutants. • The radio-nuclides generated from nuclear power plants are handled, processed and disposed off carefully within the limits, which are specified by Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) of India. • Nuclear power in India has been established to be safe, reliable, clean & environment friendly and economically compatible with other sources of power generation of the NPP units in India. • much needed electricity with minimal environmental impact and with comparable cost of electricity generation.
  10. 10. Terms Of Reference Proposed by NPCIL a) Assessment of the present status of Air, Noise, Water, Land, Biological, Marine and Socio-economic components of environment including biodiversity and also parameters of human interest and health up to 25 km radius from the project site. b) Identification of potential impacts due to proposed Nuclear Power Park, residential complex and desalination plant (proposed to be installed at plant site) on various environmental components including
  11. 11. c)Prediction of significant impacts due to proposed nuclear power plant, residential complex and desalination plant (proposed to be installed at plant site) through identification, calibration and validation of appropriate mathematical/simulation models. d) The database collected during the status survey should be utilized and additional data should be generated if required for calibrating the prediction models for the future dose/pollution level scenarios so as to enhance the reliability of the prediction.
  12. 12. e) Evaluation of impacts through appropriate evaluation technique and preparation of environmental impact statements based on the identification, prediction and evaluation of impacts. f) Delineation of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) outlining preventive and control strategies for minimizing adverse impacts during construction and operational stages of the proposed project.
  13. 13. g) Formulation of environmental quality monitoring programs for construction and operational phases to be undertaken by the project proponent as per the requirements of the statutory authorities. h) Radiological Risk assessment and emergency preparedness plan
  14. 14. • Environment impact assessment as any Environmental impact can be defined alteration of environmental conditions, which could be either adverse or beneficial, caused or induced by the set of project activities. Therefore, the present Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is also based on three sequential elements: • Identification of Impacts based on baseline status of environment • Prediction of Impacts due to proposed project activity and identification of mitigation measures • Delineation of Environmental Management Plan
  15. 15. • The EIA of proposed JNPP site has been carried out through Reconnaissance survey and assessment of baseline status of three seasons by identification, prediction and evaluation of impacts under each environmental component viz. air, noise, water, land, biological and socioeconomic environment. Identification of the Environmental Parameters: • Air Environment • Water Environment • Land Environment • Biological Environment • Noise Environment • Socio-economic Environment
  16. 16. Issues • Social impact • Environment • Human rights
  17. 17. Other issues • • • • Earthquake zone Nuclear safety India’s weak regulatory environment Lack of transparency
  18. 18. Threat to unique ecosystem • The Jaitapur is located in a seismically sensitive region. • It comes under Zone IV as per the earthquake hazard zoning of India. • This zone is called the High Damage Risk Zone. • According to Greenpeace, “Over the past 20 years alone, there have been three earthquakes in Jaitapur exceeding 5 points on the Richter scale. • The Konkan region’s rich natural resources are already under severe threat on account of several “development” projects along the Western Ghats. • Water discharged from the plant will be 5 °C hotter than the ambient sea temperature. But “even a 0.5 °C of continual thermal stress will lead to mortality of marine species.” • The BNHS has also mapped 407 hectares of mangrove vegetation around a 10 km-radius of the nuclear plant.
  19. 19. • The report also holds that the Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) conducted in the region by the government are flawed “almost without exception.” • Dr. D R Gadgil also laments the utter disrespect shown by the state agencies for civil rights in pushing for these “development” projects. • The EIA report wholly ignores the serious environmental problems posed by nuclear power, including potentially catastrophic accidents and routine radioactivity exposure through effluents and emissions.
  20. 20. THE INDIAN ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) ACT, 1986 An Act to provide for the protection and improvement of environment and for matters connected therewith. • Environment • Environmental pollutant • Environment pollution • Handling • Hazardous substance • Occupier • Prescribed
  21. 21. Social Impact Assessment and R&R (rehabilitation & resettlement) Action Plan • NPCIL had submitted a request to the office of the District Collector, Ratnagiri for acquisition of land admeasuring approximately 975 hectares in October, 2005, which includes land for site as well as for residential complex. • Notifications under the Land Acquisition Act of Maharashtra State and joint survey of the proposed land, finally total land of 938.026 hectares with a break up of 692.311 hectares from Madban & Warilpada for Project Site and 245.715 hectares from the village Mithgavane, Karel & Niveli for residential complex is being acquired.
  22. 22. Nuclear Liability Act 2010 • it is a highly debated and controversial Act • The Act aims to provide a civil liability for nuclear damage and prompt compensation to the victims of a nuclear incident • through a nofault liability to the operator, appointment of Claims Commissioner, establishment of Nuclear Damage Claims Commission and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. • This is one of the last steps needed to activate the 2008 Indo-U.S. civilian nuclear agreement as the United state nuclear reactor manufacturing companies will require the liability bill to get insurance in their home state.
  23. 23. • After this Act was passed, India became a member of the international convention on liability in the civil nuclear arena. • The Act effectively caps the maximum amount of liability in case of each nuclear accident at 500 crore (US$91 million) to be paid by the operator of the nuclear plant • and if the cost of the damages exceeds this amount, Special drawing rights up to 300 million will be paid by the Central Government. • The Act made amendments in the Atomic Energy Act 1962 allowing private investment in the Indian nuclear power program
  24. 24. • The issue of an accident is sensitive in India, where a gas leak in a Union Carbide factory in Bhopal city killed about 20,000 people in 1984 in one of the world's worst industrial disasters. • The Act came into force from 11 November 2011.
  25. 25. Facts of the Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project 1 Power generation 1. First stage: 1650 MW x 2 = 3,300 MW 2. Completion: 1650 MW x 6 = 9900 MW 2 Reactors 1. 6 European Pressurized Reactors (EPRs) of 1650 MW each (India’s installed capacity: 4780 MW). In first phase, 2 reactors will be operated 2. Total 4 EPRs in world under construction: 2 in China, 1 in Finland (Olkiluoto), 1 in France (Flamanville); none operational, none proven 3 Expected date of 2018 commissioning of first 2 reactors 4 Land requirement 938 Ha land in Madban and Jaitapur, of which 938 Ha already Procured
  26. 26. 5 Investment USD 25 billion (Kakodkar’s interview in Sakal (05 Jan 2011)) Our estimate @ USD 6.5 million per MW, works out to USD 64.36 billion = Rs. 283,140 Crores (ref needed) 6 Fuel supply 25 years by France, this is less than the operating life of the plant, 35 years (AREVA claims it is 60 years) 7 Type of fuel Fuel will be 5% enriched uranium oxide or uranium-plutonium Oxide 8 Joint venture 1. Areva (France) and Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) for EPRs (Areva is Supplier) 2. Department of Atomic Energy will sign a separate agreement for supply of nuclear fuel.
  27. 27. 9 Required manpower 6,000 to 8,000 (during construction); i.e. Rs. 35 to 46 Crores/job. At this level of investment, each job is equivalent to a factory. (However, operations needs only 800 highly skilled personnel) 10 Exclusion zone 1.6 km radius from the centre of reactor 11 Expected electricity generation (9,900 MW) 12 Nuclear waste 69.4 billion units per annum @ 80% PLF and best assumptions 1. The waste will be buried in cement-concrete based blocks 2. Waste will be under surveillance for 30 years 13 Cooling Water 1. The plant will suck in 5,200 Cr lit. of water every day from the sea & throw it back into sea at a higher (+50C) temperature
  28. 28. 14 Affected land owners 2355 15 Possible objections from 1. A critical component in Areva's Japan and Australia architecture is "extra-large forgings", is only available in Japan. 2. Japan has consistently demanded India's signature to the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT), which New Delhi has refused 3. Australia has recently refused to supply uranium fuel, citing NPT 16 Cost of electricity Not revealed
  29. 29. Debate • Environmental effects of nuclear power and geological issues have been raised by anti nuclear activists of India • The public hearing became controversial as the EIA report was not delivered for study to 3 of the 4 Gram panchayat (local village bodies) a month in advance • A Public Interest Litigation (PIL) has also been filed against the government's civil nuclear program at the apex Supreme Court. • The PIL specifically asks for the "staying of all proposed nuclear power plants till satisfactory safety measures and cost-benefit analyses are completed by independent agencies"
  30. 30. Opponents • According to the Earthquake hazard zoning of India, Jaitapur comes under Zone III. This zone is called the moderate Risk Zone and covers areas liable to MSK VIII • The presence of two major creeks on the proposed site has been ignored while clearing the site • Moreover jaitapur is located on plateau probability of tsunami reaching jaitapur is quite less • It is not clear where the nuclear waste emanating from the site will be dumped. The plant is estimated to generate 300 tonnes of waste each year. • Government of India is not fully transparent with its own citizens • the government also manipulating notification of the area from high severity earthquake zone to moderate seismic severity zone
  31. 31. Protests • Many protests have been carried out by local people against the proposed nuclear power plant. On 29 December 2009, 12 January 2010, and 22 January 2010. • When the government authorities visited Madban for distribution of cheques in lieu of compulsory land acquisition, the villagers refused to accept the cheques. • Government officials were shown black flags, denied any co-operation in carrying out their activities. 72 people were arrested on 22 January 2010 when people protested against the compulsory land acquisition. • On December 4, 2010, protests became violent when over 1500 people were detained from among thousands of protesters, who included environmentalists and local villagers. • Members and leaders of the Konkan Bachao Samiti (KBS) and the Janahit Seva Samiti were also detained. • On April 18, 2011, one man was shot and killed by police and eight were injured after protests turned violent
  32. 32. News articles • France in talks with India on nuclear law implications, Oct 29, 2013 • Jaitapur: Govt promises speedy payment of compensation, Sep 7, 2013 • Committed to Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project, India tells France, January 10, 2013 • Pune man files PIL against nuke project, January 21, 2012 • State needs N-plant to meet power demand, says CM, Dec 2, 2011
  33. 33. • Public court's 'verdict' on nuke plant in August, May 22, 2011 • Jaitapur protests intensify, policemen injured in stone-pelting, Apr 18, 2011 • Govt to review safety at nuclear plants, March 15, 2011 • Fukushima gives boost to nay-sayers in Jaitapur, Mar 24, 2011 • Jaitapur to be a reality: CM, Dec 15, 2010
  34. 34. Konkan thumbs down nuclear plant • KONKAN villagers waved black flags and shouted protests at the public hearing for the Jaitapur nuclear power plant on May 16. • Over 1,000 villagers who turned up for the hearing in Madban village in Ratnagiri district stalled the proceedings saying it was illegal. • They did not get time to study Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report – said the villagers
  35. 35. • Three villages did not receive the report at all. • The district officials accepted their mistake and the public hearing was allowed to proceed under protest. • The report overlooks the impact of the project on fishers and marine ecology • Sakri Nate and Tulsunde are important fishing ports 4 km from the project site. • About 11,000 fishers use these ports for fishing. • Amjed Borkar of Maharashtra Macchi-mar Kruti Samiti, the fishers’ association in Ratnagiri, said NEERIdid not contact fishers. • NPCIL spokesperson Ranjit Raj Kakde said there was no question of the EIA report being flawed as NEERI is a professional organization.
  36. 36. Compensation to farmers • Meeting between prime minister Manmohan Singh and chief minister Prithviraj Chavan in the presence of Union environment minister Jairam Ramesh over the controversial nuclear power project, the highest-ever compensation is on the cards for Jaitapur’s farmers. • It has been proposed to acquire 938 hectares for the 10,000 mw nuclear power project in Jaitapur. • According to Land Acquisition Act, the farmers are eligible for Rs. 50,000/- to Rs.2.5 lakh per hectare. But, in view of the massive agitation launched by local farmers, it was proposed to enhance the amount to ` 8-10 lakh. • Now, it has been proposed to offer ` 20-22 lakh. • In addition, NPCIL will provide each family member a job or an additional compensation of ` 5 lakh.
  37. 37. Jaitapur plant at present • Meeting between prime minister Manmohan Singh and chief minister Prithviraj Chavan in the presence of Union environment minister Jairam Ramesh over the controversial nuclear power project, the highest-ever compensation is on the cards for Jaitapur’s farmers. • It has been proposed to acquire 938 hectares for the 10,000 mw nuclear power project in Jaitapur. • According to Land Acquisition Act, the farmers are eligible for Rs. 50,000/- to Rs.2.5 lakh per hectare. But, in view of the massive agitation launched by local farmers, it was proposed to enhance the amount to ` 8-10 lakh. • Now, it has been proposed to offer ` 20-22 lakh. • In addition, NPCIL will provide each family member a job or an additional compensation of ` 5 lakh.
  38. 38. jaitapur nuclear project in India: The next Fukushima? • The French nuclear industry, supported by a group of European commercial banks • is lining up to build two European Pressurised Reactors (EPRs) in India. Jaitapur in Maharastra state, the only part of the whole Indian coast officially classed as a ‘highrisk’ earthquake zone has been chosen as the site.
  39. 39. • The project has a planned second phase that would add four more reactors, becoming the largest nuclear power plant in the world. Despite the EPR being celebrated by the nuclear industry as the safest reactor in the world. • The reactor design itself also has several alarming parallels to Fukushima nuclear power plant that continues to be a major disaster following the earthquake and subsequent tsunami of 11 March, 2011.
  40. 40. • In October 2009 NPCIL announced it was in talks with a group of French banks on a loan of $3.2 bn US dollars. The group consists of: BNP Paribas France; Calyon, part of Crédit Agricole France; HSBC Bank United Kingdom; Natixis France; and Société Générale France. Hindu Business Line, “Jaitapur nuclear plant will cost Rs 1-lakh cr”, Hindu Business Line, 15 October 2009.
  41. 41. conclusion • Most decision makers and investors talk about sustainability and corporate social responsibility, yet the entire nuclear cycle blatantly contradicts this. Radioactive contamination routinely occurs throughout the fuel chain, from uranium mining to processing, reactor operation to the management of nuclear waste. • A severe accident of a typical pressurized water nuclear reactor, due to technical or human failure, could affect many millions of people, causing tens of thousands of victims and forcing the evacuation of areas as large as Belgium. • The nuclear industry has spent the past decade trying to convince the public and decision makers that, despite its downsides, nuclear power is needed to tackle the climate crisis. The industry promised to have learned from past disasters, and that it would offer a clean, safe, cheap and reliable source of energy. None of these claims is true.
  42. 42. • The 2010 International Energy Agency (IEA) energy scenario clearly shows that, even if the world were to build 1,300 new reactors and quadruple nuclear power generation by 2050, greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced by less than 4%. Given the long planning and construction schedules required, this would come far too late to meet the imperative to significantly decline greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 and thus prevent climate chaos. • In addition, implementing the IEA scenario would require $10 trillion US dollars for reactor construction, massively increase the amount of nuclear waste that we and future generations will have to deal with, and create enormous proliferation hazards. A single reactor typically produces several hundred kilograms of plutonium every year – an amount sufficient for dozens of nuclear of nuclear weapons.