Introduction to Information Architecture & DesignSchool of Visual Arts  | Summer 2010Robert Stribley<br />
Introduction<br />
Introduction<br />Aussie-Style Liquorice<br />
Intro<br />Introduction<br />Robert Stribley<br />I’m an senior information architect at Razorfish,<br />writer of music a...
Intro<br />Robert Stribley<br />I’ve worked with clients such as,<br />Bank of America, Smith Barney, Wachovia<br />Boston...
Intro<br />About You<br />What’s your name?<br />What do you do for work?<br />What do you do for fun?<br /><ul><li>Coffee...
Intro<br />Introduction<br />Goals of this workshop<br />Understand the basic concepts of user experience design<br />Expe...
Butterfly on the New York City Highline<br />
Pattern Recognition:<br />In cognitive psychology, the ability to identify familiar forms within a complex arrangement of ...
Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. <br />
Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. <br />
Owl butterfly at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. <br />
Prints from EuropasbekanntesteSchmetterlinge(ca. 1895), by Dr. F. Nemos<br />
Agenda<br />
Agenda<br />Agenda<br />Morning<br />Background<br />User Research<br />Our Project<br />Competitive Review<br />Personas<...
Agenda<br />Agenda<br />Afternoon<br />Card Sorting<br />Design Concepts<br />Grids<br />Sketches<br />Q&A<br />
Background<br />
Background<br />Background: Defining IA<br />in•for•ma•tionar•chi•tec•ture n.<br /><ul><li>The combination of organization...
The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content.
The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information.
An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital ...
Background<br />Background: Defining IA<br />The Information Architecture Institute defines information architecture as “t...
Background<br />Background: Defining IA<br />	"It's hard to say who really is an information architect. In some sense, we ...
Background: History <br />A Brief History of IA<br />1975 <br />Richard Saul Wurman coined the term “information architect...
Background: History<br />A Brief History of IA<br />2000<br /><ul><li>First IA Summit, Boston, MA – Defining Information A...
3 new books on IA published, including Jesse James Garrett’sThe Elements of User Experience</li></ul>2009<br /><ul><li> 10...
Design Process<br />
Design Process<br />context<br />IA<br />users<br />content<br />
Design Process<br />interface<br />information architecture<br />
Design Process<br />skin<br />(sexy)<br />skeleton<br />(supportive)<br />
Design Process<br />Design Process<br />metaphor: architectural plans<br />Flickr.com: Cornell University Library<br />
Design Process<br />The goal of user experience (or user centered)	 design<br />Communicate a message that allows users to...
Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<br />
Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<br /><ul><li> Stakeholder i...
 Business requirements
 Competitive & comparative audits
 User research
 Site inventory</li></li></ul><li>Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Devel...
Content & meta data audits
Card sorts
Use cases
Moodboards
Creative brief
Sketching
UX Brief</li></li></ul><li>Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<...
 Task flows
 Wireframes
 Stakeholder reviews
 Prototypes
Usability testing
 Visual design</li></li></ul><li>Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Develo...
Quality assurance
Site development</li></li></ul><li>Background<br />Deliverables<br />IA Deliverables<br />discover<br />design<br />define...
Background<br />Deliverables<br />IA Deliverables<br />discover<br />design<br />define<br />requirements document<br />sk...
Our Project<br />
Our Project<br />What to do? <br />
Our Project<br />Events.comwants to revamp its website to become the go-to online resource people wanting to both attend a...
Discover<br />
User Research<br />User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes<br />
User Research<br />	“Through research, we aim to learn enough about the business goals, the users, and the information eco...
User Research<br />Discovery: User Research<br />Flickr.com: yandle<br />
User Research<br />Methodology<br />Focus Groups<br />Surveys<br />Interviews<br />Goals<br />Identify patterns and trends...
User Research<br />Class Exercise: Survey Questions<br />How do you learn about events in NYC? <br />What type of events a...
Competitive Review<br />
Discovery: Competitive Audit<br />	“This type of assessment helps set an industry ‘marker’ by looking at what the competit...
Competitive Review<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Methodology<br />Usability Criteria<br />Scorecard<br />Heurist...
Competitive Review<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Competitors<br />
Competitive Review: Flavorpill<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Flavorpill<br />“<br />Flavorpill loves culture. We...
Competitive Review: Flavorpill<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Home Page<br />Search<br />Recent Activity<br />Our...
Competitive Review: Flavorpill<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Navigation<br />Primary<br /><ul><li>Events
Today
Editor Picks
Giveaways
Venues
Daily Dose
Flavorwire</li></ul>Secondary<br /><ul><li>City Dropdown</li></ul>Utility<br /><ul><li>Sign In/Sign Out
SignUp/ Profile
Follow Us (RSS, Facebook, Twitter)
Search</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Search
Calendar
Filtering
Google maps
Comments
Profile</li></ul>Competitive Review: Flavorpill<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Functionality<br />
Going.com<br />Competitive Review: Going.com<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />“<br />Going helps you find fun thing...
Home Page<br />Post an Event<br />Search<br />Inbox<br />Organizer Tools<br />What’s Popular this Week<br />City Feed<br /...
Competitive Review: Going.com<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Navigation<br />Primary<br /><ul><li>Things to Do
Places to Go
People to See</li></ul>Secondary<br /><ul><li>Recession Busters
More Cities</li></ul>Utility<br /><ul><li>Profile
Inbox
Post an Event
Search
Settings
Logout</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Search
Calendar
Profiles
Picture rating
Who likes it?
Comments
Event posting and promoting
RSVP online
Buy tickets
Event filtering
Link to Google Maps</li></ul>Competitive Review: Going.com<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Functionality<br />
Discovery: Competitive Review<br />NYCgo.com<br />“<br />NYC & Company is New York City’s official marketing, tourism and ...
Competitive Review: NYCgo.com<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Home Page<br /><ul><li>Search
This Week carousel
NYC Highlights
Events calendar
Recent News
Plan Your Trip
Deals & Offers
Filter by borough
My NYC profiles</li></li></ul><li>Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Navigation<br />Primary<br /><ul><li>Top Attractions
What to Do
Where to Stay
Plan Your Trip
Deals
Broadway
NYC Restaurant Week
Free</li></ul>Secondary<br /><ul><li>Travel Trade
Meeting Planners
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SVA Summer 0710

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  • Introduction to Information Architecture &amp; DesignSchool of Visual Arts | Winter 2010Robert StribleyMail Box Planes - Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Aussie-Style Liquorice,Razorfish War Room
  • Butterfly on the New York City HighlinePhoto: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Butterfly on the New York City HighlinePhoto: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Owl butterfly at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory.  Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • Prints from EuropasbekanntesteSchmetterlinge (ca. 1895), by Dr. F. Nemos – “Europe’s best-Known Butterflies” – link is to a PDF, 77 MB, 179 pages
  • Navigation, interaction design, art/science, discipline/community
  • Or not.
  • The 2010 Summit is in Phoenix, AZPartially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter MorvilleInformation Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon
  • Using architectural plans as a metaphor for an IA’s work
  • Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes - http://www.localhiddenvariable.com/ciid/user-research-in-copenhagens-elderly-homes/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/yandle/3231980616/sizes/l/
  • Discovery: Competitive Review – or Audit
  • Goals and data from focus groups, stakeholder interviews, etc – including user behaviors and opinions
  • Wikipedia: Cluster analysis or clustering is the assignment of a set of observations into subsets (called clusters) so that observations in the same cluster are similar in some sense
  • As part of our analysis of the user research, we mapped the participants onto the behavioral matrix identified. The mapping revealed clusters of people with a similar observed behavior. These clusters helped us to determine key attributes for the personas.
  • Ordering lunch on a Virgin America flight - http://www.flickr.com/photos/stribs/sets/72157603319502113/ - Photo: stribs
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cannedtuna/
  • Nathan Shedroff is Program Director of the MBA in Design Strategy program at the California College of the Arts. His books include Experience Design 1, Making Meaning, and contributing to Richard Saul Wurman&apos;s Information Anxiety 2. Advisor for Rosenfeld Media
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/stribs/sets/72157603319502113/
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/stribs/sets/72157603319502113/
  • http://flickr.com/photos/huladancer22/530743543/
  • Adapted from Atsushi HASEGAWA’s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Siteshttp://www.slideshare.net/atsushi/the-7-navigation-types-of-web-site
  • Head of design at Braun, the German consumer electronics manufacturer, DIETER RAMS (1932-) was one of the most influential industrial designers of the late 20th century
  • Northern End of the High Line, NYC – Photo: Flickr.com/stribs
  • SVA Summer 0710

    1. 1. Introduction to Information Architecture & DesignSchool of Visual Arts | Summer 2010Robert Stribley<br />
    2. 2. Introduction<br />
    3. 3. Introduction<br />Aussie-Style Liquorice<br />
    4. 4. Intro<br />Introduction<br />Robert Stribley<br />I’m an senior information architect at Razorfish,<br />writer of music and arts reviews,<br />producer/promoter for a variety show,<br />photographer of various things<br />
    5. 5. Intro<br />Robert Stribley<br />I’ve worked with clients such as,<br />Bank of America, Smith Barney, Wachovia<br />Boston Scientific, Nasonex<br />Choice Hotels<br />Computer Associates, EMC<br />Ford<br />Nextel<br />Travel Channel, Women’s Wear Daily<br />Introduction<br />
    6. 6. Intro<br />About You<br />What’s your name?<br />What do you do for work?<br />What do you do for fun?<br /><ul><li>Coffee, tea or bottled water?</li></ul>Introduction<br />
    7. 7. Intro<br />Introduction<br />Goals of this workshop<br />Understand the basic concepts of user experience design<br />Experience the general process and techniques used on a design project<br />
    8. 8. Butterfly on the New York City Highline<br />
    9. 9. Pattern Recognition:<br />In cognitive psychology, the ability to identify familiar forms within a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli <br />Butterfly on the New York City Highline<br />
    10. 10. Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. <br />
    11. 11. Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. <br />
    12. 12. Owl butterfly at the American Museum of Natural History’s Butterfly Conservatory. <br />
    13. 13. Prints from EuropasbekanntesteSchmetterlinge(ca. 1895), by Dr. F. Nemos<br />
    14. 14. Agenda<br />
    15. 15. Agenda<br />Agenda<br />Morning<br />Background<br />User Research<br />Our Project<br />Competitive Review<br />Personas<br />Lunch<br />
    16. 16. Agenda<br />Agenda<br />Afternoon<br />Card Sorting<br />Design Concepts<br />Grids<br />Sketches<br />Q&A<br />
    17. 17. Background<br />
    18. 18. Background<br />Background: Defining IA<br />in•for•ma•tionar•chi•tec•ture n.<br /><ul><li>The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system.
    19. 19. The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content.
    20. 20. The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information.
    21. 21. An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape.</li></ul>Navigation<br />Interaction<br />Art/Science<br />Discipline/ Community<br />Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (1st Edition), p . 4, Rosenfeld and Morville<br />
    22. 22. Background<br />Background: Defining IA<br />The Information Architecture Institute defines information architecture as “the art and science of organizing and labeling websites, intranets, online communities and software to support usability.”<br />
    23. 23. Background<br />Background: Defining IA<br /> "It's hard to say who really is an information architect. In some sense, we all are.”<br /> — Alex Wright, Author Glut<br />
    24. 24. Background: History <br />A Brief History of IA<br />1975 <br />Richard Saul Wurman coined the term “information architecture” to describe the field now more likely described as “information design”<br />1994<br />Formation of Argus Associates in Ann Arbor, WI, the first firm devoted to IA<br />1998<br />First edition of Peter Morville and Lou Rosenfeld’s Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, affectionately known as “The Polar Bear” book<br />
    25. 25. Background: History<br />A Brief History of IA<br />2000<br /><ul><li>First IA Summit, Boston, MA – Defining Information Architecture</li></ul>2002<br /><ul><li>Boxes & Arrows, online journal for information architects goes live
    26. 26. 3 new books on IA published, including Jesse James Garrett’sThe Elements of User Experience</li></ul>2009<br /><ul><li> 10th Annual IA Summit held in Memphis, TN</li></ul>Partially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter Morville and Information Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon<br />
    27. 27. Design Process<br />
    28. 28. Design Process<br />context<br />IA<br />users<br />content<br />
    29. 29. Design Process<br />interface<br />information architecture<br />
    30. 30. Design Process<br />skin<br />(sexy)<br />skeleton<br />(supportive)<br />
    31. 31. Design Process<br />Design Process<br />metaphor: architectural plans<br />Flickr.com: Cornell University Library<br />
    32. 32. Design Process<br />The goal of user experience (or user centered) design<br />Communicate a message that allows users to accomplish their goals easily, simply, and rapidly.<br />Design Process<br />
    33. 33. Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<br />
    34. 34. Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<br /><ul><li> Stakeholder interviewers
    35. 35. Business requirements
    36. 36. Competitive & comparative audits
    37. 37. User research
    38. 38. Site inventory</li></li></ul><li>Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<br /><ul><li>Persona/scenario development
    39. 39. Content & meta data audits
    40. 40. Card sorts
    41. 41. Use cases
    42. 42. Moodboards
    43. 43. Creative brief
    44. 44. Sketching
    45. 45. UX Brief</li></li></ul><li>Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<br /><ul><li> Site maps
    46. 46. Task flows
    47. 47. Wireframes
    48. 48. Stakeholder reviews
    49. 49. Prototypes
    50. 50. Usability testing
    51. 51. Visual design</li></li></ul><li>Design Process<br />Design Process<br />Discovery<br />Design<br />Definition<br />Development<br /><ul><li>Functional specifications
    52. 52. Quality assurance
    53. 53. Site development</li></li></ul><li>Background<br />Deliverables<br />IA Deliverables<br />discover<br />design<br />define<br />requirements document<br />sketches<br />site map<br />comparative/competitive <br />review<br />personas<br />wireframes<br />feature/functionality <br />inventory<br />user flows<br />prototype<br />experience brief<br />use cases<br />
    54. 54. Background<br />Deliverables<br />IA Deliverables<br />discover<br />design<br />define<br />requirements document<br />sketches<br />site map<br />comparative/competitive <br />review<br />personas<br />wireframes<br />feature/functionality <br />inventory<br />user flows<br />prototype<br />experience brief<br />use cases<br />visual design<br />
    55. 55. Our Project<br />
    56. 56. Our Project<br />What to do? <br />
    57. 57. Our Project<br />Events.comwants to revamp its website to become the go-to online resource people wanting to both attend and promote events across the United States.<br />Our Project<br />
    58. 58. Discover<br />
    59. 59. User Research<br />User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes<br />
    60. 60. User Research<br /> “Through research, we aim to learn enough about the business goals, the users, and the information ecology to develop a solid strategy.”<br /> Louis Rosenfield & Peter Morville<br />Discovery: User Research<br />
    61. 61. User Research<br />Discovery: User Research<br />Flickr.com: yandle<br />
    62. 62. User Research<br />Methodology<br />Focus Groups<br />Surveys<br />Interviews<br />Goals<br />Identify patterns and trends in user behavior, tasks, preferences, obstacles. <br />Discovery: User Research<br />
    63. 63. User Research<br />Class Exercise: Survey Questions<br />How do you learn about events in NYC? <br />What type of events are you interested in?<br />What’s more important to you:<br /> Price <br /> Type of Event<br /> Location<br /> Date <br />How often do you attend the events?<br />Do you ever need to promote an event?<br />Do you ever invite people to an event?<br />Discovery:User Research<br />
    64. 64. Competitive Review<br />
    65. 65. Discovery: Competitive Audit<br /> “This type of assessment helps set an industry ‘marker’ by looking at what the competition is up to, what features and functionalities are standard, and how others have solved the same problems you might be tasked with.”<br /> Dorelle Rabinowitz<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />
    66. 66. Competitive Review<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Methodology<br />Usability Criteria<br />Scorecard<br />Heuristic Evaluation<br />Goals<br />Review and analyze competitor sites according to particular criteria<br />Draw key findings, which can influence and guide IA through the design phase<br />Also:<br />Comparative Reviews<br />
    67. 67. Competitive Review<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Competitors<br />
    68. 68. Competitive Review: Flavorpill<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Flavorpill<br />“<br />Flavorpill loves culture. We embrace the high-brow, low-brow, underground, mainstream, and everything in between — as long as it's good.<br />A city guide for those who like to go out, Flavorpill publishes a daily update of worthwhile cultural-event listings, from art exhibits and readings to concerts, plays, and festivals.<br />”<br />http://flavorpill.com/about<br />
    69. 69. Competitive Review: Flavorpill<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Home Page<br />Search<br />Recent Activity<br />Our Pick<br />What’s Happening Today<br />Events calendar<br />Featured Venue<br />Featured Events<br />Giveaways<br />New York Guide<br />
    70. 70. Competitive Review: Flavorpill<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Navigation<br />Primary<br /><ul><li>Events
    71. 71. Today
    72. 72. Editor Picks
    73. 73. Giveaways
    74. 74. Venues
    75. 75. Daily Dose
    76. 76. Flavorwire</li></ul>Secondary<br /><ul><li>City Dropdown</li></ul>Utility<br /><ul><li>Sign In/Sign Out
    77. 77. SignUp/ Profile
    78. 78. Follow Us (RSS, Facebook, Twitter)
    79. 79. Search</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Search
    80. 80. Calendar
    81. 81. Filtering
    82. 82. Google maps
    83. 83. Comments
    84. 84. Profile</li></ul>Competitive Review: Flavorpill<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Functionality<br />
    85. 85. Going.com<br />Competitive Review: Going.com<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />“<br />Going helps you find fun things to do and fun people to meet.<br />Ever wish there were one place where you can find all the events around town?<br />Want to know whether an event is worth going to and see who else likes it?<br />Looking to meet some new people who are up for doing fun things?<br />We felt the same frustration and decided to do something about it. The result is Going: we now have hundreds of events a day and thousands of people who are up for doing fun things.<br />”<br />http://newyork.going.com/about_site<br />
    86. 86. Home Page<br />Post an Event<br />Search<br />Inbox<br />Organizer Tools<br />What’s Popular this Week<br />City Feed<br />Recession Busters<br />Top Searches (tag cloud)<br />Photo Booth<br />Competitive Review: Going.com<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />
    87. 87. Competitive Review: Going.com<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Navigation<br />Primary<br /><ul><li>Things to Do
    88. 88. Places to Go
    89. 89. People to See</li></ul>Secondary<br /><ul><li>Recession Busters
    90. 90. More Cities</li></ul>Utility<br /><ul><li>Profile
    91. 91. Inbox
    92. 92. Post an Event
    93. 93. Search
    94. 94. Settings
    95. 95. Logout</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Search
    96. 96. Calendar
    97. 97. Profiles
    98. 98. Picture rating
    99. 99. Who likes it?
    100. 100. Comments
    101. 101. Event posting and promoting
    102. 102. RSVP online
    103. 103. Buy tickets
    104. 104. Event filtering
    105. 105. Link to Google Maps</li></ul>Competitive Review: Going.com<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Functionality<br />
    106. 106. Discovery: Competitive Review<br />NYCgo.com<br />“<br />NYC & Company is New York City’s official marketing, tourism and partnership organization. <br />Our mission is to maximize travel and tourism opportunities throughout the five boroughs, build economic prosperity and spread the dynamic image of New York City around the world. <br />”<br />http://nycgo.com/?event=view.footerArticle&id=49568<br />Competitive Review: NYCgo.com<br />
    107. 107. Competitive Review: NYCgo.com<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Home Page<br /><ul><li>Search
    108. 108. This Week carousel
    109. 109. NYC Highlights
    110. 110. Events calendar
    111. 111. Recent News
    112. 112. Plan Your Trip
    113. 113. Deals & Offers
    114. 114. Filter by borough
    115. 115. My NYC profiles</li></li></ul><li>Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Navigation<br />Primary<br /><ul><li>Top Attractions
    116. 116. What to Do
    117. 117. Where to Stay
    118. 118. Plan Your Trip
    119. 119. Deals
    120. 120. Broadway
    121. 121. NYC Restaurant Week
    122. 122. Free</li></ul>Secondary<br /><ul><li>Travel Trade
    123. 123. Meeting Planners
    124. 124. Membership
    125. 125. Press</li></ul>Utility<br /><ul><li>Search (with categories)
    126. 126. Language Selector
    127. 127. Temperature
    128. 128. Follow: Twitter, Facebook, Email</li></ul>Competitive Review: NYCgo.com<br />
    129. 129. Competitive Review: NYCgo.com<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Functionality<br /><ul><li>Search
    130. 130. Google maps
    131. 131. Calendar
    132. 132. Find an event
    133. 133. Filtering
    134. 134. MyNYC</li></li></ul><li>Competitive Review<br />Discovery: Competitive Review<br />Key Findings<br /><ul><li>Search placed prominently on each site, sometimes with advanced search
    135. 135. Clear need for and emphasis on filtering of events
    136. 136. Calendars provide obvious benefit but are handled with varying degree of success
    137. 137. Maps also prove helpful, if not as necessary
    138. 138. Profiles and community features are also common, but handled with varying degrees of detail, success
    139. 139. Free events often highlighted/bubbled up
    140. 140. Event detail pages vary, may have maps, RSVP, sharing, rating, commenting functionality
    141. 141. The ability to add or promote an event is not always present or prominent</li></li></ul><li>Competitive Review<br />What else have we learned?<br /><ul><li>Who are the audiences of these sites?
    142. 142. What are the strengths of these sites?
    143. 143. What are their weaknesses?
    144. 144. How might another event site differentiate itself from these sites?</li></ul>Discovery: Competitive Review<br />
    145. 145. Define<br />
    146. 146. Personas<br />
    147. 147. Definition: Personas<br />
    148. 148. Personas<br /> “Personas summarize user research findings and bring that research to life in such a way that everyone can make decisions based on these personas, not based on themselves.” <br />Steve Mulder<br />Definition: Personas<br />
    149. 149. Personas<br />Characteristics of Effective Personas<br />Varied and distinct<br />Detailed<br />Not weighed down with minutiae<br />Tied into business-specific goals<br />Backed by data<br />Definition: Personas<br />
    150. 150. Personas<br />Methodology<br />Cluster Analysis <br />Goals<br />Create a narrative based on real data to illustrate user behavior, motivations, goals<br />Definition: Personas<br />
    151. 151. Definition: Personas<br />Big Budget<br />Promoter<br />Planner<br />Small Budget<br />
    152. 152. Personas<br />Definition: Personas<br />Sabrina, 27<br />The party planner<br />Location: <br />Gramercy Park<br />Attitude: <br />Organized, outgoing<br />Financial Perspective: <br />Generous, bit of spendthrift<br />Online Habits: <br />Avid user of social networking sites, Twitter, Facebook, etc<br />Quote: <br />“I love getting bunches of friends together to attend all these NYC events. There’s so much great stuff to do in this city!”<br />Big Budget<br />Planner<br />Promoter<br />Small Budget<br />
    153. 153. Definition: Personas<br />Jerry, 44<br />The out-of-towner<br />Location:<br />Cincinnati, OH<br />Attitude: <br />Casual, yet adventurous<br />Financial Perspective: <br />Moderate spender<br />Online Habits: <br />Utilitarian use of the Web to research trips, read about the arts and pay bills<br />Quote: <br />“I’m visiting the Big Apple with my wife and we want to check out some art-related events.”<br />Big Budget<br />Planner<br />Promoter<br />Small Budget<br />
    154. 154. Personas<br />Definition: Personas<br />Donny, 38<br />The local comedian<br />Location: <br />East Village<br />Attitude: <br />Laidback, loosely organized<br />Financial Perspective: <br />Frugal, paycheck to paycheck<br />Online Habits: <br />Spends time networking, promoting his act online, haunts comedy sites<br />Quote: <br />“I land a few comedy gigs around the city and I want to promote them better.”<br />Big Budget<br />Promoter<br />Planned<br />Small Budget<br />
    155. 155. Personas<br />Definition: Personas<br />Jenny, 33<br />The professional promoter<br />Location: <br />Williamsburg<br />Attitude: <br />Busy, disciplined, professional<br />Financial Perspective: <br />Healthy budget for promotions and<br />advertising<br />Online Habits: <br />Heavy use of social networking sites both professionally and personally, shops online<br />Quote:<br />“I manage a few bands and DJs and I have to ensure they’re listed in the right, targeted places.”<br />Big Budget<br />Planned<br />Promoter<br />Small Budget<br />
    156. 156. Class Exercise: Personas<br />Each team is assigned a Persona. <br />Discuss your persona to give us a good picture of who you are and what your behaviors are<br /><ul><li>Characteristics (likes, dislikes, etc.)
    157. 157. Goals
    158. 158. Obstacles/pain points</li></ul>Determine 3 tasks your persona might attempt to complete on Events.com<br />Select a spokesperson to share your findings with us<br />Definition: Personas<br />
    159. 159. Lunch Break<br />
    160. 160. Agenda<br />Afternoon<br />Card Sorting<br />Sketches<br />Wireframes<br />Q&A<br />Agenda<br />
    161. 161. Card Sorting<br />
    162. 162. Card Sorting<br />Definition: Card Sorting<br /> “There are often better ways to organize data than the traditional ones that first occur to us. Each organization of the same set of data expresses different attributes and messages. It is also important to experiment, reflect, and chose which organization best communicates our messages.” <br />Nathan Shedroff, Experience Strategist<br />
    163. 163. Methodology<br />Grouping and labeling with index cards, post it notes<br />Goals<br />Find names for groups of content based on user’s perspective<br />Organize content more efficiently<br />Definition: Card Sorting<br />
    164. 164. Class Exercise: Card Sorting<br />As individuals:<br />Take 5 minutes to think of all events a person could attend<br />Definition: Card Sorting<br />
    165. 165. Class Exercise: Card Sorting<br />Now:<br />Take 2 or 3 minutes to organize your events into categories (group & label)<br />Then we’ll share some categories<br />Definition: Card Sorting<br />
    166. 166. Design<br />
    167. 167. Design Concepts<br />Design Concepts<br />Donald Norman, Co-Founder, Nielsen Norman Group<br />
    168. 168. Design Concepts<br />Key Concepts<br />Affordance<br />Mapping<br />Constraints<br />Visibility<br />Feedback<br />Design Concepts<br />
    169. 169. 85<br />Design Concepts<br />Affordance<br /> “Perceived properties that determine how a thing is used [and] provide strong cues to the operations of things.” <br /> - Donald Norman<br />
    170. 170. Design Concepts<br />Design Concepts<br />Mapping<br />Relationship between two things<br />http://flickr.com/photos/annavsculture/441610821/<br />
    171. 171. Design Concepts<br />Design Concepts<br />Constraints<br /> Limitations that constrain possible interactions<br />http://flickr.com/photos/hippie/2561854165/<br />
    172. 172. Design Concepts<br />Design Concepts<br />Visibility<br /> “Just the right things have to be visible: to indicate what parts operate and how, to indicate how the user is to interact with the device.” <br /> - Donald Norman<br />http://flickr.com/photos/huladancer22/530743543/<br />
    173. 173. 89<br />Design Concepts<br />Design Concepts<br />Feedback<br /> “Sending back to the user information about what action has actually been done, what result has been accomplished.” <br /> - Donald Norman<br />
    174. 174. Conceptual Design<br />
    175. 175. Conceptual Design<br />Design: Conceptual Design<br />Home Page<br />Category Page<br />Details Page<br />
    176. 176. Grids<br />
    177. 177. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br /> “The true benefit of using a grid is that as you learn how to use a grid, you start to think systemically about the solutions you design. You start to try and see how various details can echo one another, how different regions of the canvas can be reused or used for similar things, how like elements can be grouped together.”<br />KhoiVinh, design Director, NYTimes.com<br />
    178. 178. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />
    179. 179. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />
    180. 180. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />
    181. 181. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />12 column grid<br />
    182. 182. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />3 columns of 4 units<br />
    183. 183. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />4 columns of 3 units<br />
    184. 184. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />6 columns of 2 units<br />
    185. 185. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />Variations of the 12 column grid<br />
    186. 186. Grids<br />Design: Grids<br />Learn more about design by grids:<br />960 Grid System<br />960.gs<br />Design by Grid <br />www.designbygrid.com<br />Hashgrid<br />www.hashgrid.com<br />
    187. 187. Navigation<br />
    188. 188. Grids<br />Design: Navigation<br />Types of Navigation<br />Site Structure – major nav<br />Hierarchical – product families<br />Function – sitemap privacy<br />Direct – banner ad/shortcut<br />Reference – related links<br />Dynamic – search results<br />Breadcrumb – location <br />Step Navigation – sequence through forms/results<br />Faceted Navigation – filters results<br />Areas of Navigation<br /><ul><li>Global – universal header/footer
    189. 189. Local – left nav/right nav
    190. 190. Local content –text links, buttons</li></ul>Styles of Navigation<br /><ul><li>Rollover
    191. 191. Dropdown
    192. 192. Tabs</li></ul>Adapted from Atsushi Hasegagwa’s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Sites<br />
    193. 193. Sketching<br />
    194. 194. Design: Sketching<br />Sketching Through the Ages<br />1485-1487<br />Ornithopter by Leonardo da Vinci<br />2005 <br />Schematic representation of the major components of a helicopter by Richard Wheeler <br />
    195. 195. Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br /> “There are techniques and processes whereby we can put experience front and center in design. My belief is that the basis for doing so lies in extending the traditional practice of sketching. ”<br /> - Bill Buxton <br />
    196. 196. Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br />
    197. 197. Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br />
    198. 198. Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br />Any guesses as to what this is a sketch of?<br />
    199. 199. Twitter.com<br />“twttr sketch”<br />Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br />Twitter<br />[This sketch] has very special significance – it's hanging in the office somewhere with one other page. <br />Whenever I'm thinking about something, I really like to take out the yellow notepad and get it down. <br />– Jack Dorsey, Twitter<br />
    200. 200. Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br />Attributes of a Sketch<br /><ul><li>Quick
    201. 201. Timely
    202. 202. Inexpensive
    203. 203. Disposable
    204. 204. Plentiful
    205. 205. Clear vocabulary
    206. 206. Distinct gesture
    207. 207. Minimal detail
    208. 208. Appropriate degree of refinement
    209. 209. Suggest & explore rather than confirm
    210. 210. Ambiguity</li></ul>Bill Buxton<br />Sketching User Experiences<br />
    211. 211. Sketching<br />Design: Sketching<br />Methodology<br />Draw<br />Limit your time<br />Don’t worry about mistakes or style<br />Goals<br />Benefit from the participation of your colleagues<br />Quickly generate ideas and refine through iterations<br />
    212. 212. Design: Sketching<br />Class Exercise: Sketching & Wireframes<br />In teams, sketch your ideas.<br />Event Detail Page<br />Design: Sketching<br />
    213. 213. Design: Sketching<br />Class Exercise: Sketching & Wireframes<br />In teams, sketch your ideas.<br />1) Event Detail Page<br />2) Create & Promote an Event<br />Design: Sketching<br />
    214. 214. Design: Sketching<br />Class Exercise: Sketching & Wireframes<br />In teams, sketch your ideas.<br />1) Event Detail Page<br />2) Create & Promote an Event<br />3) A Homepage<br />Design: Sketching<br />
    215. 215. Design: Sketching<br />Design: Wireframes <br />Develop<br />Wireframe & Prototyping Tools<br />Axure<br />Dreamweaver<br />InDesign<br />Visio<br />
    216. 216. Dieter Rams: 10 principles of good design<br />Good design is…<br />Good design is innovative.Good design makes a product useful.Good design is aesthetic.Good design makes a product understandable.Good design is unobtrusive.Good design is honest.Good design is long-lasting.Good design is thorough down to the last detail.Good design is environmentally friendly.Good design is as little design as possible.<br />© Dieter Rams, amended March 2003 and October 2009<br />
    217. 217. Wireframing/Prototype Tools:<br />Adobe InDesign<br />Axure<br />Omnigraffle (Mac)<br />Microsoft Visio<br />Info<br />Additional Resources<br />
    218. 218. Books:<br />Information Architecture for the World Wide Web – Louis Rosenfeld, Peter Morville<br />Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web – Christina Wodtke, Austin Govella<br />The Elements of User Experience – Jesse James Garrett<br />Designing Web Navigation: Optimizing the User Experience – James Kalbach, Aaron Gustafson<br />Design of Everyday Things – Donald Norman<br />Local Events:<br />Dot DotDot, SVA Lecture Series<br />IA Meetup<br />Info<br />Additional Resources<br />Web Sites:<br /><ul><li>Alertbox
    219. 219. A List Apart
    220. 220. Boxes & Arrows</li></ul>Organizations:<br /><ul><li>Human Computer Interactions (HCI)
    221. 221. Interaction Designers Association (IxDA)
    222. 222. Usability Professionals Association (UPA)</li></ul>Further Studies:<br /><ul><li>Adaptive Path
    223. 223. The Information Architecture Institute
    224. 224. The IA Summit
    225. 225. Pratt – Course in Information Design
    226. 226. Nielsen Norman Group
    227. 227. Rosenfeld Media
    228. 228. User Interface Engineering</li></li></ul><li>Q & A<br />
    229. 229. Slideshare address:<br />http://www.slideshare.net/stribs<br />Additional credit:<br />Thanks to Anh Dang<br />Info<br />Additional Info<br />
    230. 230. The End.<br />
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