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―Diggin for Dummies‖ Sign, The Thing, Greenpoint, NY

Introduction to Information Architecture & Design
School of Visual A...
Introduction
Today‘s presentation will be available on
SlideShare following the workshop:

www.slideshare.net/stribs
Chocolate display, Xocolatti, SoHo, New York
Body Gel, Sabon, SoHo, New York
Pattern Recognition:
In cognitive psychology, the ability
to identify familiar forms within a
complex arrangement of senso...
Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History‘s Butterfly Conservatory.
Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History‘s Butterfly Conservatory.
Introduction
Intro

Robert Stribley
• I‘m an Associate Experience
Director at Razorfish
• I like literature, cinema, music...
Introduction
Intro

About You
•
•
•
•

What‘s your name?
What do you do for work?
What do you do for fun?
Coffee, tea or b...
Introduction
Intro

Goals of this workshop
• Understand the basic concepts of information
architecture
• Experience the ge...
Agenda
Agenda
Agenda

Morning
• Background
• Design Process
• Our Project
• User Research
• Competitive Review
• Personas
• Lunch
Agenda
Agenda

Afternoon
•Card Sorting
•Site Maps
•Page Types
•Navigation
•Sketching
•Wireframes
•Q&A
Background
Background: Defining IA
Background

in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tec•ture n.
Navigation

• The combination of organization,
label...
Background: Defining IA
Background

―It's hard to say who really is an
information architect. In some
sense, we all are.‖
...
Background: Defining IA

context

IA
content

users
Background: Defining IA

Interface
(skin)

information architecture
(skeleton)
Background: Defining IA
Design Process

metaphor: architectural plans
Flickr.com: Cornell University Library
Background: History

A Brief History of IA
1975
• Richard Saul Wurman coined the term ―information
architecture‖ to descri...
Background: History

A Brief History of IA
2000
• First IA Summit, Boston, MA – Defining
Information Architecture

2002
• ...
Design Process

satire on project phases
by Harold Kerzner
Design Process
Design Process

Discovery

Definition

Design

Development
Design Process
Design Process

Discovery

Definition

• Stakeholder interviews
• Business requirements
• Competitive & com...
Design Process
Design Process

Discovery

Definition
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Personas
Content Audit
Card sorts
Use Cases
Sketchin...
Design Process
Design Process

Discovery

Definition

Design

Development

• Site Map
• Task Flows
• Sketching
• Wireframe...
Design Process
Design Process

Discovery

Definition

Design

Development
• Site Development
• User Acceptance
Testing (UA...
Deliverables
Background

IA Deliverables

discover

define

design

requirements document

sketches

site map

comparative...
Deliverables
Background

IA Deliverables

discover

define

design

requirements document

sketches

site map

comparative...
Our Project
Our Project

What to do?
Our Project
Our Project

Events.com wants to revamp its website to
become the go-to online resource for people
wanting to ...
Discover
User Research

User Research in Copenhagen‘s Elderly Homes
Discovery: User Research
User Research

―Through research, we aim to learn enough
about the business goals, the users, and...
Discovery: User Research
User Research

Methodology
• Focus Groups
• Surveys
• Interviews
Goals
• Identify patterns and tr...
Discovery: User Research
User Research

Class Exercise: Survey Questions
• How do you learn about events in NYC?
• What ty...
Competitive Review

image by
brandon schauer
Discovery: Competitive Review
Discovery: Competitive Audit

―This type of assessment helps set an
industry ‗marker‘ by loo...
Discovery: Competitive Review
Competitive Review

Heuristic Evaluation

… involves evaluators examining the
interface and ...
Discovery: Competitive Review
Competitive Review

Heuristic Evaluation
Ten Usability Heuristics by Jakob Nielsen
•Visibili...
Discovery: Competitive Review
Competitive Review

Methodology
• Review and analyze competitor sites according to
particula...
Discovery: Competitive Review
Competitive Review

Examples of Usability Criteria
Note: These examples are not intended to ...
Discovery: Competitive Review
Competitive Review

Competitors
Discovery: Competitive Review
Competitive Review

Key Findings
• Search placed prominently on each site
• Clear need for a...
Discovery: Competitive Review
Competitive Review

What else have we learned?
•
•
•
•

Who are the audiences of these sites...
Define
Personas

Personas is a component of the Metropath(ologies) exhibit, recently
on display at the MIT Museum by the Sociable...
Definition: Personas
Personas

―Personas summarize user research findings
and bring that research to life in such a way
th...
Definition: Personas
Personas

Methodology

Big Budget

• Cluster Analysis

Goals

Planner

Promoter

• Create a narrative...
Definition: Personas
Personas

Characteristics of Effective Personas

•
•
•
•
•

Varied and distinct
Detailed
Not weighed ...
Definition: Personas

Jerry

Jenny

Donny

Sabrina
Definition: Personas
Personas

Sabrina, 27
The party planner

Big Budget

Planner

Promoter

Small Budget

Location:
Grame...
Definition: Personas

Jerry, 44
The out-of-towner

Big Budget

Planner

Promoter

Small Budget

Location:
Cincinnati, OH
A...
Definition: Personas
Personas

Donny, 38
The local comedian
Location:
East Village
Attitude:
Laidback, loosely organized
F...
Definition: Personas
Personas

Jenny, 33
The professional promoter
Location:
Williamsburg
Attitude:
Busy, disciplined, pro...
Definition: Personas

Class Exercise: Personas

Jerry

Jenny

Donny

• What tasks might each persona attempt to complete o...
Lunch Break
Agenda
Agenda

Afternoon
• Card Sorting
• Site Maps
• Page Types
• Navigation
• Sketching
• Wireframes
• Q&A
Card Sorting
Definition: Card Sorting
Card Sorting

―There are often better ways to organize
data than the traditional ones that first
...
Definition: Card Sorting

Methodology
• Grouping and labeling with index cards, post it notes
• Two types:
– Open – Partic...
Definition: Card Sorting

Case Studies:

•Wachovia Wealth Management Group
•American Red Cross
•Automotive Manufacturer
Definition: Card Sorting

Class Exercise: Card Sorting

As individuals:
• Take 5 minutes to think of all the events a
pers...
Definition: Card Sorting

Class Exercise: Card Sorting

Now, as a group:
• Take a few minutes to organize your events
into...
Definition: Card Sorting

Card Sorting: Next Steps

With the results of a card sort we then can:
• Build consensus
• Refin...
Design
Site Maps
Design: Site Maps
Conceptual Design

―A site map is a high level
diagram showing the hierarchy
of a system. Site maps refl...
Design: Site Maps
Conceptual Design
Design: Site Maps
Conceptual Design
Page Types

The Mercator Atlas of Europe
From The British Library
Design: Page Types
Conceptual Design

Home Page

Category Page

Details Page
Navigation

Navigation Bridge, USS Enterprise

by Serendigity, Flickr
Design: Navigation
Grids

Types of Navigation

Areas of Navigation

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

• Global – universal header/footer
• ...
Design: Navigation
Grids

Mega Dropdowns
Design: Navigation
Grids

Power Footers
Sketching

Ornithopter
by Leonardo da Vinci, 1485-1487
Design: Sketching
Design: Sketching
Sketching
Design: Sketching
Sketching

Any guesses what
this is a sketch of?
Design: Sketching
Sketching

Twitter
[This sketch] has very special significance – it's hanging in the office somewhere wi...
Design: Sketching
Sketching

―There are techniques
and processes whereby
we can put experience
front and center in design....
Design: Sketching
Sketching

Attributes of a Sketch
• Quick

• Timely
• Inexpensive
• Disposable
• Plentiful

Bill Buxton
...
Design: Sketching
Sketching

Methodology
• Draw
• Limit your time
• Don‘t worry about mistakes or style

Goals
• Benefit f...
Design: Sketching
Sketching

Process

1.Discuss
2.Sketch
3.Share
4.Revise
Design: Sketching

Discuss
• Discuss the purpose of the experience you‘re
sketching
• What features are necessary?
• How w...
Design: Sketching

Sketch
• Sketch silently
• Limit your time
• Sketch as much has possible, as many
different ideas as po...
Design: Sketching

Share
• Review your work with your team
• You offer your feedback to others
• What you like
• Questions...
Design: Sketching

Revise
• Now sketch again/begin your wireframe with a
more informed view, more and better ideas
• Itera...
Design: Sketching
Design: Sketching

Class Exercise: Collaborative Sketching
In teams, sketch your ideas.
Create & Promote...
Design: Sketching

Don‘t forget to keep your personas in mind

Jenny

Donny
Design: Sketching Tools
Info

Sketching Tools:
The following apps are all for the iPad
• Adobe Ideas ($9.99)
• Bamboo Pape...
Wireframes

photo & sculpture by
polly verity
Design: Wireframes

Wireframes

―Web site wireframes are blue prints
that define a Web page‘s content and
functionality. T...
Design: Wireframes - Examples
Design: Sketching

wireframe by
matthieu mingasson
Design: Wireframes - Examples
Design: Sketching

screencap from
The Right way to Wireframe
by Semantic Will
Design: Wireframes - Examples
Design: Sketching

iPad news app wire
by F. Yamada
Design: Wireframing Tools
Info

Wireframing/Prototyping Tools:
• Adobe InDesign
• Axure

• Omnigraffle (Mac)
• Microsoft V...
Design: Wireframes
Design: Sketching

Class Exercise: Final Wireframe
In your teams, create your final deliverable, a home...
Design: Wireframes
Design: Sketching

Class Exercise: Final Wireframe

Then Wireframe
1) Now, each of you will create a fi...
Design: Sketching

Don‘t forget to keep your personas in mind

Jerry

Jenny

Donny

Sabrina
Design: Wireframes
Design: Sketching

Wireframe & Prototyping Tools

Axure
Dreamweaver
InDesign
Visio

Develop
Additional Resources
Info
Books:

Organizations:

• Information Architecture for the World Wide
Web – Louis Rosenfeld, Pet...
Q&A
Additional Info
Info

Slideshare address:
http://www.slideshare.net/stribs
My article on how to find an IA job:
http://blo...
Design: Wireframes
Design: Sketching

Wireframe & Prototyping Tools

Axure
Addendum:
Dreamweaver
• Grids
InDesign
• Dieter...
Grids
Design: Grids
Grids

―The true benefit of using a grid is that
as you learn how to use a grid, you
start to think systemic...
Design: Grids
Grids
Design: Grids
Grids
Design: Grids
Grids
Design: Grids
Grids
Self Study: Want to know more?

Learn more about design by grids:
960 Grid System
960.gs
Design by Gri...
Dieter Rams: 10 principles of good design

Good design is…
Good design is innovative.
Good design makes a product useful.
...
Defining Sketches Versus Wireframes, Templates Versus Pages
Design: Sketching

Sketches

Wireframes

Quick

More time-cons...
Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - SVA Workshop 12/07/13
Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - SVA Workshop 12/07/13
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Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - SVA Workshop 12/07/13

  1. 1. ―Diggin for Dummies‖ Sign, The Thing, Greenpoint, NY Introduction to Information Architecture & Design School of Visual Arts | December 7, 2013 Robert Stribley
  2. 2. Introduction Today‘s presentation will be available on SlideShare following the workshop: www.slideshare.net/stribs
  3. 3. Chocolate display, Xocolatti, SoHo, New York
  4. 4. Body Gel, Sabon, SoHo, New York
  5. 5. Pattern Recognition: In cognitive psychology, the ability to identify familiar forms within a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli Butterfly on the New York City Highline
  6. 6. Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History‘s Butterfly Conservatory.
  7. 7. Butterflies at the American Museum of Natural History‘s Butterfly Conservatory.
  8. 8. Introduction Intro Robert Stribley • I‘m an Associate Experience Director at Razorfish • I like literature, cinema, music, photography, cycling • I drink coffee My clients have included: • Bank of America, PNC, Wachovia • JPMorgan, Morgan Stanley, Oppenheimer Funds, Prudential, Smith Barney, T. Rowe Price • Boston Scientific, Nasonex • Choice Hotels • Computer Associates, EMC • Ford, Lincoln • Nextel • Red Cross • Pearson, Travel Channel, Women‘s Wear Daily
  9. 9. Introduction Intro About You • • • • What‘s your name? What do you do for work? What do you do for fun? Coffee, tea or bottled water?
  10. 10. Introduction Intro Goals of this workshop • Understand the basic concepts of information architecture • Experience the general process and techniques used on a design project • Review the basic deliverables an information architect develops within a project
  11. 11. Agenda
  12. 12. Agenda Agenda Morning • Background • Design Process • Our Project • User Research • Competitive Review • Personas • Lunch
  13. 13. Agenda Agenda Afternoon •Card Sorting •Site Maps •Page Types •Navigation •Sketching •Wireframes •Q&A
  14. 14. Background
  15. 15. Background: Defining IA Background in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tec•ture n. Navigation • The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system. Interaction • The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content. Art/Science Discipline/ Community • The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information. • An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (1st Edition), p. 4, Rosenfeld and Morville
  16. 16. Background: Defining IA Background ―It's hard to say who really is an information architect. In some sense, we all are.‖ — Alex Wright, Author Glut
  17. 17. Background: Defining IA context IA content users
  18. 18. Background: Defining IA Interface (skin) information architecture (skeleton)
  19. 19. Background: Defining IA Design Process metaphor: architectural plans Flickr.com: Cornell University Library
  20. 20. Background: History A Brief History of IA 1975 • Richard Saul Wurman coined the term ―information architecture‖ to describe the field now more likely described as ―information design‖ 1994 • Formation of Argus Associates in Ann Arbor, WI, the first firm devoted to IA 1998 • First edition of Peter Morville and Lou Rosenfeld‘s Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, affectionately known as ―The Polar Bear‖ book
  21. 21. Background: History A Brief History of IA 2000 • First IA Summit, Boston, MA – Defining Information Architecture 2002 • Boxes & Arrows, online journal for information architects goes live • 3 new books on IA published, including Jesse James Garrett‘s The Elements of User Experience 2014 • 15th Annual IA Summit held in San Diego, CA, March 25-30 Partially adapted from: ―A brief history of information architecture‖ by Peter Morville and Information Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon
  22. 22. Design Process satire on project phases by Harold Kerzner
  23. 23. Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development
  24. 24. Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition • Stakeholder interviews • Business requirements • Competitive & comparative audits • User research • Site inventory Design Development
  25. 25. Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition • • • • • • • • Personas Content Audit Card sorts Use Cases Sketching Site Map Creative Brief UX Brief Design Development
  26. 26. Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Site Map • Task Flows • Sketching • Wireframes • Stakeholder Reviews • Visual Design • Prototype • Usability Testing • Functional Specifications
  27. 27. Design Process Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Site Development • User Acceptance Testing (UAT) • Quality Assurance (QA) • Usability Testing
  28. 28. Deliverables Background IA Deliverables discover define design requirements document sketches site map comparative/competitive review personas wireframes feature/functionality inventory user flows prototype experience brief use cases
  29. 29. Deliverables Background IA Deliverables discover define design requirements document sketches site map comparative/competitive review personas wireframes feature/functionality inventory user flows prototype experience brief use cases visual design
  30. 30. Our Project
  31. 31. Our Project What to do?
  32. 32. Our Project Our Project Events.com wants to revamp its website to become the go-to online resource for people wanting to attend or promote events across the United States.
  33. 33. Discover
  34. 34. User Research User Research in Copenhagen‘s Elderly Homes
  35. 35. Discovery: User Research User Research ―Through research, we aim to learn enough about the business goals, the users, and the information ecology to develop a solid strategy.‖ – Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville
  36. 36. Discovery: User Research User Research Methodology • Focus Groups • Surveys • Interviews Goals • Identify patterns and trends in user behavior, tasks, preferences, obstacles.
  37. 37. Discovery: User Research User Research Class Exercise: Survey Questions • How do you learn about events in NYC? • What type of events are you interested in? • What‘s more important to you: – Price – Type of Event – Location – Date • How often do you attend the events? • Do you ever need to promote an event? • Do you ever invite people to an event?
  38. 38. Competitive Review image by brandon schauer
  39. 39. Discovery: Competitive Review Discovery: Competitive Audit ―This type of assessment helps set an industry ‗marker‘ by looking at what the competition is up to, what features and functionalities are standard, and how others have solved the same problems you might be tasked with.‖ – Dorelle Rabinowitz
  40. 40. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Heuristic Evaluation … involves evaluators examining the interface and judging its compliance with recognized usability principles (the ‗heuristics‘) - Wikipedia
  41. 41. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Heuristic Evaluation Ten Usability Heuristics by Jakob Nielsen •Visibility of system status •Recognition rather than recall •Match between system and the real world •Flexibility and efficiency of use •Aesthetic and minimalist design •User control and freedom •Consistency and standards •Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors •Error prevention •Help and documentation Self Study For a more detailed explanation of these heuristics, see Nielsen‘s explanation here: http://www.useit.com/papers/heuristic/heuristic_list.html
  42. 42. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Methodology • Review and analyze competitor sites according to particular criteria • Draw key findings, which can influence and guide IA through the design phase • Include a scorecard for a high-level depiction of comparison points across all sites Also: • Comparative Reviews
  43. 43. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Examples of Usability Criteria Note: These examples are not intended to provide a comprehensive listing. Appropriate criteria may depend on the project to be completed. Home Page • Are home page elements appropriately weighted and distributed? • Is information clustered in meaningful ways? Navigation • Is the navigation structure concise and consistent? • Are paths to important information intuitive and unobstructed? Content • Is content current? Are there visible indications of content freshness? • Is content properly adapted for the Web? Is tone of voice consistent throughout content? Is content chunked appropriately? • Are headings and titles scannable? Design • Are colors appropriate to the Web? Is white space used appropriately? Is text readable? Search • Are search results relevant and cleanly presented? Functionality • Are functionality and forms efficiently designed? Messaging • Are errors messages clear on the site? Is help readily available to users? • Are there appropriate means for user feedback?
  44. 44. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Competitors
  45. 45. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review Key Findings • Search placed prominently on each site • Clear need for and emphasis upon filtering events • Calendars provide obvious benefit, but aren‘t always prominent • Profiles and community features are also common, but handled with varying degrees of detail, success • Free events are often highlighted • Event detail pages vary, may have maps, RSVP, sharing, rating, commenting functionality • Displaying other venues and restaurants adds utility • Maps prove helpful, especially to out-of-towners • The ability to add or promote an event is not always present or prominent
  46. 46. Discovery: Competitive Review Competitive Review What else have we learned? • • • • Who are the audiences of these sites? What are the strengths of these sites? What are their weaknesses? How might another event site differentiate itself from these sites?
  47. 47. Define
  48. 48. Personas Personas is a component of the Metropath(ologies) exhibit, recently on display at the MIT Museum by the Sociable Media Group from the MIT Media Lab . It uses sophisticated natural language processing and the Internet to create a data portrait of one's aggregated online identity. In short, Personas shows you how the Internet sees you. Created at Personas: http://personas.media.mit.edu
  49. 49. Definition: Personas Personas ―Personas summarize user research findings and bring that research to life in such a way that everyone can make decisions based on these personas, not based on themselves.‖ – Steve Mulder
  50. 50. Definition: Personas Personas Methodology Big Budget • Cluster Analysis Goals Planner Promoter • Create a narrative based on real data to illustrate user behavior, motivations, goals Small Budget
  51. 51. Definition: Personas Personas Characteristics of Effective Personas • • • • • Varied and distinct Detailed Not weighed down with minutiae Tied into business-specific goals Backed by data
  52. 52. Definition: Personas Jerry Jenny Donny Sabrina
  53. 53. Definition: Personas Personas Sabrina, 27 The party planner Big Budget Planner Promoter Small Budget Location: Gramercy Park Attitude: Organized, outgoing Financial Perspective: Generous, bit of spendthrift Online Habits: Avid user of social networking sites, Twitter, Facebook, etc Events: Wine tastings, gallery openings Quote: ―I love getting bunches of friends together to attend all these NYC events. There‘s so much great stuff to do in this city!‖
  54. 54. Definition: Personas Jerry, 44 The out-of-towner Big Budget Planner Promoter Small Budget Location: Cincinnati, OH Attitude: Casual, yet adventurous Financial Perspective: Moderate spender Online Habits: Utilitarian use of the Web to research trips, read about the arts and pay bills Events: Museums, visiting landmarks, tours Quote: ―I‘m visiting the Big Apple with my wife and we want to check out some art-related events.‖
  55. 55. Definition: Personas Personas Donny, 38 The local comedian Location: East Village Attitude: Laidback, loosely organized Financial Perspective: Frugal, paycheck to paycheck Online Habits: Spends time networking, promoting his act online, haunts comedy sites Events: Comedy slams, variety shows Quote: ―I land a few comedy gigs around the city and I want to promote them better.‖ Big Budget Promoter Planned Small Budget
  56. 56. Definition: Personas Personas Jenny, 33 The professional promoter Location: Williamsburg Attitude: Busy, disciplined, professional Financial Perspective: Healthy budget for promotions and advertising Online Habits: Heavy use of social networking sites both professionally and personally, shops online Events: Small gigs, big concerts, DJ sets Quote: ―I manage a few bands and DJs and I have to ensure they‘re listed in the right, targeted places.‖ Big Budget Planned Promoter Small Budget
  57. 57. Definition: Personas Class Exercise: Personas Jerry Jenny Donny • What tasks might each persona attempt to complete on Events.com? • What features can you imagine each persona might like on such a site? • What obstacles or pain points might they encounter? Self Study ‖Personas and the Role of Design Documentation" by Andrew Hinton, Boxes and Arrows, 2008/02/27 Sabrina
  58. 58. Lunch Break
  59. 59. Agenda Agenda Afternoon • Card Sorting • Site Maps • Page Types • Navigation • Sketching • Wireframes • Q&A
  60. 60. Card Sorting
  61. 61. Definition: Card Sorting Card Sorting ―There are often better ways to organize data than the traditional ones that first occur to us. Each organization of the same set of data expresses different attributes and messages. It is also important to experiment, reflect, and choose which organization best communicates our messages.‖ – Nathan Shedroff, Experience Strategist
  62. 62. Definition: Card Sorting Methodology • Grouping and labeling with index cards, post it notes • Two types: – Open – Participants sort cards with no pre-established categories. Useful for new architectures – Closed – Participants sort cards into predetermined, provided groups. Useful for fitting content into existing architectures • Online card sorts – WebSort, OptimalSort, Socratic Goals • Organize content more efficiently • Find names for groups of content based on users‘ perspectives Self Study "Card sorting: a definitive guide" by Donna Spencer and Todd Warfel, Boxes and Arrows, 2004/04/07
  63. 63. Definition: Card Sorting Case Studies: •Wachovia Wealth Management Group •American Red Cross •Automotive Manufacturer
  64. 64. Definition: Card Sorting Class Exercise: Card Sorting As individuals: • Take 5 minutes to think of all the events a person could attend • Write each event you come up with on a PostIt note
  65. 65. Definition: Card Sorting Class Exercise: Card Sorting Now, as a group: • Take a few minutes to organize your events into categories (group & label them) • Then we‘ll share some categories
  66. 66. Definition: Card Sorting Card Sorting: Next Steps With the results of a card sort we then can: • Build consensus • Refine terminology • Create a site map • Help define navigation
  67. 67. Design
  68. 68. Site Maps
  69. 69. Design: Site Maps Conceptual Design ―A site map is a high level diagram showing the hierarchy of a system. Site maps reflect the information structure, but are not necessarily indicative of the navigation structure.‖ - Step Two Designs
  70. 70. Design: Site Maps Conceptual Design
  71. 71. Design: Site Maps Conceptual Design
  72. 72. Page Types The Mercator Atlas of Europe From The British Library
  73. 73. Design: Page Types Conceptual Design Home Page Category Page Details Page
  74. 74. Navigation Navigation Bridge, USS Enterprise by Serendigity, Flickr
  75. 75. Design: Navigation Grids Types of Navigation Areas of Navigation • • • • • • • • • Global – universal header/footer • Local – left nav/right nav • Local content – text links, buttons Site Structure – major nav Hierarchical – product families Function – sitemap privacy Direct – banner ad/shortcut Reference – related links Dynamic – search results Breadcrumb – location Step Navigation – sequence through forms/results • Faceted Navigation – filters results Styles of Navigation • • • • • Rollover Dropdown Flyout Tabs Accordion Self Study Adapted from Atsushi Hasegagwa‘s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Sites
  76. 76. Design: Navigation Grids Mega Dropdowns
  77. 77. Design: Navigation Grids Power Footers
  78. 78. Sketching Ornithopter by Leonardo da Vinci, 1485-1487
  79. 79. Design: Sketching
  80. 80. Design: Sketching Sketching
  81. 81. Design: Sketching Sketching Any guesses what this is a sketch of?
  82. 82. Design: Sketching Sketching Twitter [This sketch] has very special significance – it's hanging in the office somewhere with one other page. Whenever I'm thinking about something, I really like to take out the yellow notepad and get it down. – Jack Dorsey, Twitter “twttr sketch‖ Twitter.com
  83. 83. Design: Sketching Sketching ―There are techniques and processes whereby we can put experience front and center in design. My belief is that the basis for doing so lies in extending the traditional practice of sketching. ‖ - Bill Buxton Bill Buxton Sketching User Experiences
  84. 84. Design: Sketching Sketching Attributes of a Sketch • Quick • Timely • Inexpensive • Disposable • Plentiful Bill Buxton • Clear vocabulary Sketching User Experiences • Distinct gesture • Minimal detail • Appropriate degree of refinement • Suggest & explore rather than confirm • Ambiguity
  85. 85. Design: Sketching Sketching Methodology • Draw • Limit your time • Don‘t worry about mistakes or style Goals • Benefit from the participation of your colleagues • Quickly generate ideas and refine through iterations
  86. 86. Design: Sketching Sketching Process 1.Discuss 2.Sketch 3.Share 4.Revise
  87. 87. Design: Sketching Discuss • Discuss the purpose of the experience you‘re sketching • What features are necessary? • How would you prioritize them? • What‘s the audience?
  88. 88. Design: Sketching Sketch • Sketch silently • Limit your time • Sketch as much has possible, as many different ideas as possible
  89. 89. Design: Sketching Share • Review your work with your team • You offer your feedback to others • What you like • Questions about didn‘t work for you • You‘re not grilling your colleagues and this is not a competition
  90. 90. Design: Sketching Revise • Now sketch again/begin your wireframe with a more informed view, more and better ideas • Iterate on your design
  91. 91. Design: Sketching Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Collaborative Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. Create & Promote an Event 1. Take 5 or so minutes first to discuss what features belong here • Is it a single page? Multiples steps? 2. Time for silent sketching 3. Time for sharing your sketches
  92. 92. Design: Sketching Don‘t forget to keep your personas in mind Jenny Donny
  93. 93. Design: Sketching Tools Info Sketching Tools: The following apps are all for the iPad • Adobe Ideas ($9.99) • Bamboo Paper (Free) • Muji Notebook ($4.99) • Penultimate ($0.99) • SketchBook Pro ($4.99)
  94. 94. Wireframes photo & sculpture by polly verity
  95. 95. Design: Wireframes Wireframes ―Web site wireframes are blue prints that define a Web page‘s content and functionality. They do not convey design – e.g. colors, graphics, or fonts.‖ - fatpurple
  96. 96. Design: Wireframes - Examples Design: Sketching wireframe by matthieu mingasson
  97. 97. Design: Wireframes - Examples Design: Sketching screencap from The Right way to Wireframe by Semantic Will
  98. 98. Design: Wireframes - Examples Design: Sketching iPad news app wire by F. Yamada
  99. 99. Design: Wireframing Tools Info Wireframing/Prototyping Tools: • Adobe InDesign • Axure • Omnigraffle (Mac) • Microsoft Visio • Mockingbird (online, free) Also: • Adobe Proto (coming for iPad) • Balsamiq • iPlotz • iMockups (iPad) • Omnigraffle (iPad) Self Study Smashing Magazine: 35 Excellent Wireframing Resources
  100. 100. Design: Wireframes Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Final Wireframe In your teams, create your final deliverable, a home page for Events.com Sketch First 1) Discuss features needed for a homepage 2) Sketch your ideas for a homepage individually 3) Review your sketches and provide feedback
  101. 101. Design: Wireframes Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Final Wireframe Then Wireframe 1) Now, each of you will create a final ―wireframe‖ 2) Be sure to incorporate your team mates‘ design ideas and feedback
  102. 102. Design: Sketching Don‘t forget to keep your personas in mind Jerry Jenny Donny Sabrina
  103. 103. Design: Wireframes Design: Sketching Wireframe & Prototyping Tools Axure Dreamweaver InDesign Visio Develop
  104. 104. Additional Resources Info Books: Organizations: • Information Architecture for the World Wide Web – Louis Rosenfeld, Peter Morville • Human Computer Interactions (HCI) • Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web – Christina Wodtke, Austin Govella • Usability Professionals Association (UPA) • The Elements of User Experience – Jesse James Garrett Further Studies: • Designing Web Navigation: Optimizing the User Experience – James Kalbach, Aaron Gustafson • Design of Everyday Things – Donald Norman • Interaction Designers Association (IxDA) • School of Visual Arts • Continuing Ed classes • MFA in Interaction Design • Adaptive Path • The Information Architecture Institute Local Events: • IA Meetup • Content Strategy Meetup Web Sites: • Alertbox • A List Apart • Boxes & Arrows • wireframes.tumblr.com • The IA Summit • Pratt – Course in Information Design • Nielsen Norman Group • Rosenfeld Media • User Interface Engineering Video: The Right Way to Wireframe by Russ Unger (YouTube)
  105. 105. Q&A
  106. 106. Additional Info Info Slideshare address: http://www.slideshare.net/stribs My article on how to find an IA job: http://blog.onwardsearch.com/2012/08/information-architecture-a-guerilla-guide-to-breaking-in/ @stribs
  107. 107. Design: Wireframes Design: Sketching Wireframe & Prototyping Tools Axure Addendum: Dreamweaver • Grids InDesign • Dieter Rams: 10 Principles of Good Design Visio • Defining Wireframes vs. Sketches, Templates, vs. Pages
  108. 108. Grids
  109. 109. Design: Grids Grids ―The true benefit of using a grid is that as you learn how to use a grid, you start to think systemically about the solutions you design. You start to try and see how various details can echo one another, how different regions of the canvas can be reused or used for similar things, how like elements can be grouped together.‖ – Khoi Vinh, former design Director, NYTimes.com
  110. 110. Design: Grids Grids
  111. 111. Design: Grids Grids
  112. 112. Design: Grids Grids
  113. 113. Design: Grids Grids Self Study: Want to know more? Learn more about design by grids: 960 Grid System 960.gs Design by Grid www.designbygrid.com Hashgrid www.hashgrid.com
  114. 114. Dieter Rams: 10 principles of good design Good design is… Good design is innovative. Good design makes a product useful. Good design is aesthetic. Good design makes a product understandable. Good design is unobtrusive. Good design is honest. Good design is long-lasting. Good design is thorough down to the last detail. Good design is environmentally friendly. Good design is as little design as possible. © Dieter Rams, amended March 2003 and October 2009
  115. 115. Defining Sketches Versus Wireframes, Templates Versus Pages Design: Sketching Sketches Wireframes Quick More time-consuming Few details Very detailed Not typically delivered Professional deliverable Templates Pages Apply to many different pages Specific, may apply to a single page or screen Examples: • basic page • category page • product page Examples: • homepage • ecommerce or transactional form

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