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Introduction to Information Architecture & Design
School of Visual Arts | June 20, 2015 Robert Stribley
Today’s presentation will be available on
SlideShare following the workshop:
www.slideshare.net/stribs
Butterfly on the New York City Highline
Pattern
Recognition:
In cognitive
psychology, the
ability to identify
familiar for...
Butterflies Labeled by Species
Intro
Robert Stribley
@stribs
• I’m an Associate Experience
Director at Razorfish
• I like literature, cinema, music,
phot...
Intro
About You
•What’s your name?
•What do you do for work?
•What do you do for fun?
•Coffee, tea or bottled water?
Intro...
Intro
Goals of this workshop
•Understand the basic concepts of
information architecture
•Experience the general process an...
Agenda
Agenda
Morning
• Background
• Design Process
• Our Project
• User Research
• Competitive Review
• Personas
• Lunch
Agenda
Agenda
Afternoon
• Card Sorting
• Site Maps
• Page Types
• Navigation
• Sketching
• Wireframes
• Q&A
Agenda
Background
Background: History
A Brief History of IA
1975
• Richard Saul Wurman coined the term
“information architecture” to describ...
Partially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter Morville and Information Architecture:
Desi...
Background
in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tec•ture n.
Background: Defining IA
• The combination of organization,
labeling, and navi...
Background
“It's hard to say who really is an information architect. In some
sense, we all are.”
— Alex Wright, Glut
Backg...
userscontent
context
IA
Background: Defining IA
Interface
(skin)
information architecture
(skeleton)
Background: Defining IA
Design Process
metaphor: architectural plans
Flickr.com: Cornell University Library
Background: Defining IA
information
architecture
Background: User Experience
interaction
design
content
strategy
usability
testing
user research
u...
Design Process
Project phases
by Harold Kerzner
Design Process
Discovery Definition Design Development
Design Process
Design Process
Discovery Definition Design Development
• Stakeholder Interviews
• Business Requirements
• Competitive/Comp...
Design Process
Discovery Definition Design Development
• Personas
• Content Audit
• Card Sorts
• Use Cases
• Sketching
• S...
Design Process
Discovery Definition Design Development
• Site Map
• Content Matrix
• Task Flows
• Sketching
• Wireframes
•...
Design Process
Discovery Definition Design Development
• Site Development
• User Acceptance
Testing (UAT)
• Quality Assura...
Background
IA Deliverables
site map
features/functionality
inventory
comparative/competitive
review
requirements document
...
Our Project
Our Project
Events.com wants to revamp its website to
become the go-to online resource for people
wanting to attend or pro...
Discovery
User Research
User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes
User Research
“Through research, we aim to learn
enough about the business goals,
the users, and the information
ecology t...
User Research
Goals
• Identify patterns and trends in user behavior,
tasks, preferences, obstacles.
Methodology
• Focus Gr...
User Research
Class Exercise: Survey Questions
• How do you learn about events in NYC?
• What type of events are you inter...
Competitive Review
image by
brandon schauer
Discovery: Competitive Audit
“This type of assessment helps set an
industry ‘marker’ by looking at what the
competition is...
Competitive Review
Heuristic Evaluation
… involves evaluators examining the
interface and judging its compliance
with reco...
Competitive Review
Sample Usability Criteria
These examples aren’t comprehensive. Appropriate criteria will depend on the ...
Competitive Review
Methodology
•Review and analyze competitor sites
according to particular criteria
•Draw key findings, w...
Competitive Review
Competitors
Discovery: Competitive Review
Competitive Review
Key Findings
• Search is fairly prominent on each site
• Filtering on events is valuable, but not alway...
Competitive Review
What else have we learned?
• Who are the audiences of these sites?
• What are the strengths of these si...
Definition
Personas
Created at personas.media.mit.edu
Personas is a component of the Metropath(ologies) exhibit, recently on
display ...
Personas
“Personas summarize user research findings
and bring that research to life in such a way
that everyone can make d...
Personas
Methodology
• Cluster Analysis
Goals
• Create a narrative
based on real data to
illustrate user
behavior, motivat...
Personas
Characteristics of Effective Personas
• Varied and distinct
• Detailed
• Not weighed down with minutiae
• Tied in...
Definition: Personas
SabrinaJenny DonnyJerry
Sabrina, 27
The party planner
Location:
Gramercy Park
Attitude:
Organized, outgoing
Financial Perspective:
Generous, bit o...
Jerry, 44
The out-of-towner
Location:
Cincinnati, OH
Attitude:
Casual, yet adventurous
Financial Perspective:
Moderate spe...
Personas
Donny, 38
The local comedian
Location:
East Village
Attitude:
Laidback, loosely organized
Financial Perspective:
...
Jenny, 33
The professional promoter
Location:
Williamsburg
Attitude:
Busy, disciplined, professional
Financial Perspective...
Class Exercise: Personas
Definition: Personas
• What tasks might each persona attempt to complete on Events.com?
• What fe...
Lunch Break
Agenda
Afternoon
• Card Sorting
• Site Maps
• Page Types
• Navigation
• Sketching
• Wireframes
• Q&A
Agenda
Card Sorting
Card Sorting
“There are often better ways to organize
data than the traditional ones that first
occur to us. Each organiza...
Methodology
• Grouping and labeling with index cards, post it notes
• Two types:
Open – Participants sort cards with no pr...
Case Studies:
• Wachovia Wealth Management Group
• American Red Cross
• Mercedes Benz
Definition: Card Sorting
Class Exercise:
As individuals:
• Take 5 minutes to think of all the events a
person could attend
• Write each event you c...
Class Exercise:
Now, as a group:
• Take a few minutes to organize your events
into categories (group & label them)
• Then ...
Characteristics & Findings:
• Looking for redundancies
• Lumping and splitting
• Outliers and miscellaneous items
• Placin...
Next Steps:
With the results of a card sort we then can:
• Build consensus
• Refine terminology
• Create a site map
• Help...
Post-It Plus
This new app from 3M
allows you to scan your
Post-It Notes, organize
and share them.
InfoDefinition: Card Sor...
Design
Site Maps
Conceptual DesignDesign: Site Maps
“A site map is a high level
diagram showing the hierarchy
of a system. Site maps reflec...
Conceptual DesignDesign: Site Maps
Conceptual DesignDesign: Site Maps
Conceptual DesignDesign: Site Maps
Site Map Tools:
• Omnigraffle (Mac)
• Microsoft Visio
• InDesign
Page Types & Templates
The Mercator Atlas of Europe
From The British Library
Conceptual Design
Home Page Category Page Details Page
Design: Page Types & Templates
Examples:
Navigation
Navigation Bridge, USS Enterprise
by Serendigity, Flickr
Grids
Types of Navigation
• Site Structure – major nav
• Hierarchical – product families
• Function – sitemap privacy
• Di...
GridsDesign: Navigation
Areas of Navigation
• Global – universal header/footer
• Local – left nav/right nav
• Local conten...
Grids
Mega Dropdowns
Design: Navigation
Grids
Power Footers
Design: Navigation
Sketching
Aerial Screw by Leonardo da Vinci, 1485-1487
Sketching
Can you guess what
this is a sketch of?
Design: Sketching
“twttr sketch” Twitter.com
Sketching
Twitter
[This sketch] has very special significance – it's hanging in the office some...
Sketching
“There are techniques
and processes whereby
we can put experience
front and center in design.
My belief is that ...
Bill Buxton
Sketching User
Experiences
Sketching
Attributes of a Sketch
•Quick
•Timely
•Inexpensive
•Disposable
•Plentiful...
Sketching
Goals
• To communicate your ideas effectively by
visualizing them
• To benefit from the participation of your
co...
Sketching
Process
1. Discuss
2. Sketch
3. Share
4. Iterate
Design: Sketching
• Discuss the purpose of the experience you’re
sketching
• What’s its purpose?
• What features are necessary?
• How would ...
Design: Sketching
Sketch
• Sketch silently
• Limit your time – 5,10 minutes
• Sketch as much as possible, as many different
ideas as possibl...
SketchingDesign: Sketching
Share
• Review your work with your team
• Keep it short – 60 seconds each
• You offer your feedback to others
• What you l...
Iterate
• Now sketch again if you need to
• Or collaborate on a high-level wireframe (e.g.
via whiteboard)
• Then begin yo...
Design: Sketching
Class Exercise: Collaborative Sketching
In teams, sketch your ideas.
Event Detail Page
1. Take 15 minute...
Design: Sketching
Class Exercise: Collaborative Sketching
In teams, sketch your ideas.
Event Detail Page
1. Take 15 minute...
Design: Sketching
Class Exercise: Collaborative Sketching
In teams, sketch your ideas.
Event Detail Page
1. Take 15 minute...
Sketching Tools:
The following apps are
all for the iPad:
• Adobe Ideas (Free)
• Bamboo Paper (Free)
• Muji Notebook ($3.9...
Wireframes
photo & sculpture by
polly verity
Wireframes
“Web site wireframes are blue prints
that define a Web page’s content and
functionality. They do not convey
des...
Wireframing/Prototyping Tools:
• Adobe InDesign
• Axure
• Omnigraffle (Mac)
• Microsoft Visio
• Sketch/Invision
• Mockingb...
Responsive Design
Design: Sketching
Responsive Web Design
“Rather than tailoring disconnected designs to each of an ever-
increasing number ...
Design: SketchingDesign: Responsive Design
Design: SketchingDesign: Responsive Design
Desktop Tablet Mobile
Design: Sketching
Responsive Design Characteristics
• Think “mobile first”
• The goal: Maintain content and features acros...
Design: Sketching
Design a Responsive Home Page
In your teams, create your final deliverable, a responsive home page for
E...
Design: Final Exercise
Home Page Collaboration
In your teams, create your final deliverable, a responsive home page for
Ev...
Development
Additional Resources
Books:
• Information Architecture for the World Wide Web –
Louis Rosenfeld, Peter Morville
• Informat...
Q&A
Slideshare address:
http://www.slideshare.net/stribs
My article on how to find an IA job:
http://blog.onwardsearch.com/201...
Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - 6/20/15
Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - 6/20/15
Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - 6/20/15
Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - 6/20/15
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Introduction to Information Architecture & Design - 6/20/15

  1. 1. Introduction to Information Architecture & Design School of Visual Arts | June 20, 2015 Robert Stribley
  2. 2. Today’s presentation will be available on SlideShare following the workshop: www.slideshare.net/stribs
  3. 3. Butterfly on the New York City Highline Pattern Recognition: In cognitive psychology, the ability to identify familiar forms within a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli
  4. 4. Butterflies Labeled by Species
  5. 5. Intro Robert Stribley @stribs • I’m an Associate Experience Director at Razorfish • I like literature, cinema, music, photography, cycling • I drink coffee Introduction My clients have included: • Bank of America, PNC, Wachovia • JPMorgan, Morgan Stanley, Oppenheimer Funds, PNC, Prudential, Smith Barney, T. Rowe Price • Boston Scientific, Nasonex • Choice Hotels, RCI, Reaology/Sotheby’s International • Computer Associates, EMC • Ford, Lincoln • FreshDirect • AT&T, Nextel • Day One, Red Cross • Pearson, Travel Channel, Women’s Wear Daily
  6. 6. Intro About You •What’s your name? •What do you do for work? •What do you do for fun? •Coffee, tea or bottled water? Introduction
  7. 7. Intro Goals of this workshop •Understand the basic concepts of information architecture •Experience the general process and techniques used on a design project •Review the basic deliverables an information architect develops within a project Introduction
  8. 8. Agenda
  9. 9. Agenda Morning • Background • Design Process • Our Project • User Research • Competitive Review • Personas • Lunch Agenda
  10. 10. Agenda Afternoon • Card Sorting • Site Maps • Page Types • Navigation • Sketching • Wireframes • Q&A Agenda
  11. 11. Background
  12. 12. Background: History A Brief History of IA 1975 • Richard Saul Wurman coined the term “information architecture” to describe the field now more often described as “information design” 1994 • Argus Associates founded in Ann Arbor, MI, the first firm devoted to IA 1998 • First edition of Peter Morville and Lou Rosenfeld’s Information Architecture for the World Wide Web, affectionately known as “The Polar Bear” book 2000 • First IA Summit, Boston, MA – Defining Information Architecture
  13. 13. Partially adapted from: “A brief history of information architecture” by Peter Morville and Information Architecture: Designing information environments for purpose, edited by Alan Gilchrist and Barry Mahon A Brief History of IA 2002 • Boxes & Arrows, online journal for information architects goes live • 3 new books on IA published, including Jesse James Garrett’s The Elements of User Experience 2014 • Capital One purchases Garrett’s UX-consulting firm Adaptive Path 2015 • 15th Annual IA Summit held in Minneapolis, MN, April 22-26 Background: History
  14. 14. Background in•for•ma•tion ar•chi•tec•ture n. Background: Defining IA • The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system. • The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content. • The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information. • An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. Information Architecture for the World Wide Web (1st Edition), p. 4, Rosenfeld and Morville Navigation Interaction Art/Science Discipline/ Community
  15. 15. Background “It's hard to say who really is an information architect. In some sense, we all are.” — Alex Wright, Glut Background: Defining IA
  16. 16. userscontent context IA Background: Defining IA
  17. 17. Interface (skin) information architecture (skeleton) Background: Defining IA
  18. 18. Design Process metaphor: architectural plans Flickr.com: Cornell University Library Background: Defining IA
  19. 19. information architecture Background: User Experience interaction design content strategy usability testing user research user experience
  20. 20. Design Process Project phases by Harold Kerzner
  21. 21. Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development Design Process
  22. 22. Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Stakeholder Interviews • Business Requirements • Competitive/Comparative Audit • User Research • Site Inventory • Site Map Design Process
  23. 23. Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Personas • Content Audit • Card Sorts • Use Cases • Sketching • Site Map • User Journeys • Conceptual Wires/Design • Creative Brief • UX Brief Design Process
  24. 24. Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Site Map • Content Matrix • Task Flows • Sketching • Wireframes • Stakeholder Reviews • Visual Design • Prototype • Usability Testing • Functional Specifications Design Process
  25. 25. Design Process Discovery Definition Design Development • Site Development • User Acceptance Testing (UAT) • Quality Assurance (QA) • Usability Testing Design Process
  26. 26. Background IA Deliverables site map features/functionality inventory comparative/competitive review requirements document personas sketches use cases user flows prototype wireframes discover design experience brief Deliverables user journeys
  27. 27. Our Project
  28. 28. Our Project Events.com wants to revamp its website to become the go-to online resource for people wanting to attend or promote events across the United States. Our Project
  29. 29. Discovery
  30. 30. User Research User Research in Copenhagen’s Elderly Homes
  31. 31. User Research “Through research, we aim to learn enough about the business goals, the users, and the information ecology to develop a solid strategy.” – Louis Rosenfeld & Peter Morville Discovery: User Research
  32. 32. User Research Goals • Identify patterns and trends in user behavior, tasks, preferences, obstacles. Methodology • Focus Groups • Surveys • Interviews Discovery: User Research
  33. 33. User Research Class Exercise: Survey Questions • How do you learn about events in NYC? • What type of events are you interested in? • What’s more important to you: – Price – Type of Event – Location – Date • Do you ever need to promote an event? • Do you ever invite people to an event? Discovery: User Research
  34. 34. Competitive Review image by brandon schauer
  35. 35. Discovery: Competitive Audit “This type of assessment helps set an industry ‘marker’ by looking at what the competition is up to, what features and functionalities are standard, and how others have solved the same problems you might be tasked with.” – Dorelle Rabinowitz Discovery: Competitive Review
  36. 36. Competitive Review Heuristic Evaluation … involves evaluators examining the interface and judging its compliance with recognized usability principles (the ‘heuristics’) - Wikipedia Discovery: Competitive Review Self Study For a more detailed explanation of heuristic evaluation, see Jakob Nielsen’s Ten Usability Heuristics.
  37. 37. Competitive Review Sample Usability Criteria These examples aren’t comprehensive. Appropriate criteria will depend on the project to be completed. Home Page • Elements are appropriately weighted and distributed • Information is clustered in meaningful ways Navigation • Navigation structure is concise and consistent • Paths to important information are intuitive and unobstructed Content • Content is content chunked appropriately • Headings and titles are scannable • Content is current. There are visible indications of content freshness. • Content is properly adapted for the Web. Tone of voice is consistent throughout. Design • Colors are appropriate for the Web. White space is used appropriately. Text is readable. Search • Search results are relevant and cleanly presented Functionality • Functionality and forms are efficiently designed Messaging • Errors messages are presented in clear language. Help readily available contextually to users • Appropriate channels are provided for user feedback Discovery: Competitive Review
  38. 38. Competitive Review Methodology •Review and analyze competitor sites according to particular criteria •Draw key findings, which can influence and guide IA through the design phase •Include a scorecard for high-level comparison of points across all sites Also: Comparative Reviews Discovery: Competitive Review
  39. 39. Competitive Review Competitors Discovery: Competitive Review
  40. 40. Competitive Review Key Findings • Search is fairly prominent on each site • Filtering on events is valuable, but not always easily available • Calendars are helpful, but not always prominent • Profiles and social features common, but handled with varying degrees of detail • Free events are often highlighted • Event detail pages may have maps, RSVP, sharing, rating, commenting functionality • Displaying other venues and restaurants adds utility • Option to add or promote an event isn’t always prominent Discovery: Competitive Review
  41. 41. Competitive Review What else have we learned? • Who are the audiences of these sites? • What are the strengths of these sites? • What are their weaknesses? • How might another event site differentiate itself from these sites? Discovery: Competitive Review
  42. 42. Definition
  43. 43. Personas Created at personas.media.mit.edu Personas is a component of the Metropath(ologies) exhibit, recently on display at the MIT Museum by the Sociable Media Group from the MIT Media Lab. It uses sophisticated natural language processing and the Internet to create a data portrait of one's aggregated online identity. In short, Personas shows you how the Internet sees you.
  44. 44. Personas “Personas summarize user research findings and bring that research to life in such a way that everyone can make decisions based on these personas, not based on themselves.” – Steve Mulder, The User Is Always Right Definition: Personas
  45. 45. Personas Methodology • Cluster Analysis Goals • Create a narrative based on real data to illustrate user behavior, motivations, goals Definition: Personas Small Budget Big Budget PlannerPromoter
  46. 46. Personas Characteristics of Effective Personas • Varied and distinct • Detailed • Not weighed down with minutiae • Tied into business-specific goals • Backed by data Definition: Personas
  47. 47. Definition: Personas SabrinaJenny DonnyJerry
  48. 48. Sabrina, 27 The party planner Location: Gramercy Park Attitude: Organized, outgoing Financial Perspective: Generous, bit of spendthrift Online Habits: Avid user of social networking sites, Twitter, Facebook, etc Events: Wine tastings, gallery openings Quote: “I love getting bunches of friends together to attend all these NYC events. There’s so much great stuff to do in this city!” Small Budget Big Budget PlannerPromoter PersonasDefinition: Personas
  49. 49. Jerry, 44 The out-of-towner Location: Cincinnati, OH Attitude: Casual, yet adventurous Financial Perspective: Moderate spender Online Habits: Utilitarian use of the Web to research trips, read about the arts and pay bills Events: Museums, visiting landmarks, tours Quote: “I’m visiting the Big Apple with my wife and we want to check out some art-related events.” Small Budget Big Budget PlannerPromoter Definition: Personas
  50. 50. Personas Donny, 38 The local comedian Location: East Village Attitude: Laidback, loosely organized Financial Perspective: Frugal, paycheck to paycheck Online Habits: Spends time networking, promoting his act online, haunts comedy sites Events: Comedy slams, variety shows Quote: “I land a few comedy gigs around the city and I want to promote them better.” Small Budget Big Budget PlannedPromoter Definition: Personas
  51. 51. Jenny, 33 The professional promoter Location: Williamsburg Attitude: Busy, disciplined, professional Financial Perspective: Healthy budget for promotions and advertising Online Habits: Heavy use of social networking sites both professionally and personally, shops online Events: Small gigs, big concerts, DJ sets Quote: “I manage a few bands and DJs and I have to ensure they’re listed in the right, targeted places.” Personas Small Budget Big Budget PlannedPromoter Definition: Personas
  52. 52. Class Exercise: Personas Definition: Personas • What tasks might each persona attempt to complete on Events.com? • What features can you imagine each persona might like on such a site? • What obstacles or pain points might they encounter? SabrinaJenny DonnyJerry Self Study ”Personas and the Role of Design Documentation" by Andrew Hinton, Boxes and Arrows, 2008/02/27
  53. 53. Lunch Break
  54. 54. Agenda Afternoon • Card Sorting • Site Maps • Page Types • Navigation • Sketching • Wireframes • Q&A Agenda
  55. 55. Card Sorting
  56. 56. Card Sorting “There are often better ways to organize data than the traditional ones that first occur to us. Each organization of the same set of data expresses different attributes and messages. It is also important to experiment, reflect, and choose which organization best communicates our messages.” – Nathan Shedroff, Experience Strategist Definition: Card Sorting
  57. 57. Methodology • Grouping and labeling with index cards, post it notes • Two types: Open – Participants sort cards with no pre-established categories. Useful for new architectures Closed – Participants sort cards into predetermined, provided groups. Useful for fitting content into existing architectures • Online card sorts –WebSort, OptimalSort, Socratic Goals • Organize content more efficiently • Find names for categories based on users’ perspectives Definition: Card Sorting Self Study "Card sorting: a definitive guide" by Donna Spencer and Todd Warfel, Boxes and Arrows, 2004/04/07
  58. 58. Case Studies: • Wachovia Wealth Management Group • American Red Cross • Mercedes Benz Definition: Card Sorting
  59. 59. Class Exercise: As individuals: • Take 5 minutes to think of all the events a person could attend • Write each event you come up with on a Post- It note Definition: Card Sorting
  60. 60. Class Exercise: Now, as a group: • Take a few minutes to organize your events into categories (group & label them) • Then we’ll share some categories Definition: Card Sorting
  61. 61. Characteristics & Findings: • Looking for redundancies • Lumping and splitting • Outliers and miscellaneous items • Placing items in multiple categories • Categories versus filters –E.g. Free, Family, Outdoors • Unique but intuitive labels –E.g. Geeks Definition: Card Sorting
  62. 62. Next Steps: With the results of a card sort we then can: • Build consensus • Refine terminology • Create a site map • Help define navigation Definition: Card Sorting
  63. 63. Post-It Plus This new app from 3M allows you to scan your Post-It Notes, organize and share them. InfoDefinition: Card Sort Tools
  64. 64. Design
  65. 65. Site Maps
  66. 66. Conceptual DesignDesign: Site Maps “A site map is a high level diagram showing the hierarchy of a system. Site maps reflect the information structure, but are not necessarily indicative of the navigation structure.” - Step Two Designs
  67. 67. Conceptual DesignDesign: Site Maps
  68. 68. Conceptual DesignDesign: Site Maps
  69. 69. Conceptual DesignDesign: Site Maps Site Map Tools: • Omnigraffle (Mac) • Microsoft Visio • InDesign
  70. 70. Page Types & Templates The Mercator Atlas of Europe From The British Library
  71. 71. Conceptual Design Home Page Category Page Details Page Design: Page Types & Templates Examples:
  72. 72. Navigation Navigation Bridge, USS Enterprise by Serendigity, Flickr
  73. 73. Grids Types of Navigation • Site Structure – major nav • Hierarchical – product families • Function – sitemap privacy • Direct – banner ad/shortcut • Reference – related links • Dynamic – search results • Breadcrumb – location • Step Navigation – sequence through forms/results • Faceted Navigation – filters results Design: Navigation Self Study Adapted from Atsushi Hasegagwa’s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Sites
  74. 74. GridsDesign: Navigation Areas of Navigation • Global – universal header/footer • Local – left nav/right nav • Local content – text links, buttons Styles of Navigation • Rollover • Dropdown • Flyout • Tabs • Accordion Self Study Adapted from Atsushi Hasegagwa’s The 7 Navigation Types of Web Sites
  75. 75. Grids Mega Dropdowns Design: Navigation
  76. 76. Grids Power Footers Design: Navigation
  77. 77. Sketching Aerial Screw by Leonardo da Vinci, 1485-1487
  78. 78. Sketching Can you guess what this is a sketch of? Design: Sketching
  79. 79. “twttr sketch” Twitter.com Sketching Twitter [This sketch] has very special significance – it's hanging in the office somewhere with one other page. Whenever I'm thinking about something, I really like to take out the yellow notepad and get it down. – Jack Dorsey, Twitter Design: Sketching
  80. 80. Sketching “There are techniques and processes whereby we can put experience front and center in design. My belief is that the basis for doing so lies in extending the traditional practice of sketching. ” - Bill Buxton Design: Sketching Bill Buxton Sketching User Experiences
  81. 81. Bill Buxton Sketching User Experiences Sketching Attributes of a Sketch •Quick •Timely •Inexpensive •Disposable •Plentiful •Clear vocabulary •Distinct gesture •Minimal detail •Appropriate degree of refinement •Suggest & explore rather than confirm •Ambiguity Design: Sketching
  82. 82. Sketching Goals • To communicate your ideas effectively by visualizing them • To benefit from the participation of your colleagues • To quickly generate ideas and refine through iterations Design: Sketching
  83. 83. Sketching Process 1. Discuss 2. Sketch 3. Share 4. Iterate Design: Sketching
  84. 84. • Discuss the purpose of the experience you’re sketching • What’s its purpose? • What features are necessary? • How would you prioritize them? • Who’s the audience? • You’re not discussing layout or design • Just the problem you’re trying to solve • You’re not sketching yet Design: Sketching Discuss
  85. 85. Design: Sketching
  86. 86. Sketch • Sketch silently • Limit your time – 5,10 minutes • Sketch as much as possible, as many different ideas as possible • Don’t worry about mistakes or style • Emphasis is on the quantity of ideas, not the quality of the sketches Design: Sketching
  87. 87. SketchingDesign: Sketching
  88. 88. Share • Review your work with your team • Keep it short – 60 seconds each • You offer your feedback to others • What you like • Questions about what didn’t work for you • You’re not grilling your colleagues and this isn’t a competition Design: Sketching
  89. 89. Iterate • Now sketch again if you need to • Or collaborate on a high-level wireframe (e.g. via whiteboard) • Then begin your wireframe with a more informed view, with more and better ideas • Iterate on your design Design: Sketching
  90. 90. Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Collaborative Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. Event Detail Page 1. Take 15 minutes first to discuss what features belong here Design: Sketching
  91. 91. Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Collaborative Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. Event Detail Page 1. Take 15 minutes first to discuss what features belong here 2. Time for silent sketching Design: Sketching
  92. 92. Design: Sketching Class Exercise: Collaborative Sketching In teams, sketch your ideas. Event Detail Page 1. Take 15 minutes first to discuss what features belong here 2. Time for silent sketching 3. Time for sharing your sketches Design: Sketching
  93. 93. Sketching Tools: The following apps are all for the iPad: • Adobe Ideas (Free) • Bamboo Paper (Free) • Muji Notebook ($3.99) • Penultimate (Free) • SketchBook (Free) • Paper (Free) • Adonit Forge (Free) InfoDesign: Sketching Tools
  94. 94. Wireframes photo & sculpture by polly verity
  95. 95. Wireframes “Web site wireframes are blue prints that define a Web page’s content and functionality. They do not convey design – e.g. colors, graphics, or fonts.” - FatPurple Design: Wireframes
  96. 96. Wireframing/Prototyping Tools: • Adobe InDesign • Axure • Omnigraffle (Mac) • Microsoft Visio • Sketch/Invision • Mockingbird (online, free) Also: • Balsamiq • iPlotz • iMockups (iPad) • Omnigraffle (iPad) InfoDesign: Wireframing Tools Self Study Smashing Magazine: 35 Excellent Wireframing Resources
  97. 97. Responsive Design
  98. 98. Design: Sketching Responsive Web Design “Rather than tailoring disconnected designs to each of an ever- increasing number of web devices, we can treat them as facets of the same experience. We can design for an optimal viewing experience, but embed standards-based technologies into our designs to make them not only more flexible, but more adaptive to the media that renders them. In short, we need to practice responsive web design.” – Ethan Marcotte, Responsive Web Design, A List Apart Design: Responsive Design Self Study Ethan Marcotte: Responsive Web Design
  99. 99. Design: SketchingDesign: Responsive Design
  100. 100. Design: SketchingDesign: Responsive Design Desktop Tablet Mobile
  101. 101. Design: Sketching Responsive Design Characteristics • Think “mobile first” • The goal: Maintain content and features across devices • Responsive designs adjust at different “break points” corresponding to the dimensions of various devices, typically desktop, tablet and mobile • Navigation may be repositioned • Modules may be repositioned but hierarchies are maintained • Images scale down in size or may be cropped • Text size is maintained where possible, though headings may be reduced in size • Filters may be moved into a dropdown • Occasionally, content or features are dropped to save screen real estate or if they’re not device appropriate Design: Responsive Design
  102. 102. Design: Sketching Design a Responsive Home Page In your teams, create your final deliverable, a responsive home page for Events.com 1) Discuss features needed for a homepage 2) Sketch your ideas for a homepage individually 3) Discuss your sketches again with your team Design: Final Exercise
  103. 103. Design: Final Exercise Home Page Collaboration In your teams, create your final deliverable, a responsive home page for Events.com 1) Collaborate as a team on a final responsive version of the home page 2) Include a high-level sketch of how the mobile version would display
  104. 104. Development
  105. 105. Additional Resources Books: • Information Architecture for the World Wide Web – Louis Rosenfeld, Peter Morville • Information Architecture: Blueprints for the Web – Christina Wodtke, Austin Govella • The Elements of User Experience – Jesse James Garrett • Designing Web Navigation: Optimizing the User Experience – James Kalbach, Aaron Gustafson • Design of Everyday Things – Donald Norman • Responsive Web Design – Ethan Marcotte Local Events: • IA Meetup • Brooklyn UX • Content Strategy Meetup Web Sites: • Alertbox • A List Apart • Boxes & Arrows • wireframes.tumblr.com Organizations: • Human Computer Interactions (HCI) • Interaction Designers Association (IxDA) • Usability Professionals Association (UPA) Further Studies: • School of Visual Arts • Continuing Ed classes • MFA in Interaction Design • Pratt – Course in Information Design • Rosenfeld Media • General Assembly • Skillshare • Adaptive Path • The Information Architecture Institute • The IA Summit • Nielsen Norman Group • User Interface Engineering Video: The Right Way to Wireframe by Russ Unger (YouTube)
  106. 106. Q&A
  107. 107. Slideshare address: http://www.slideshare.net/stribs My article on how to find an IA job: http://blog.onwardsearch.com/2012/08/information-architecture-a-guerilla-guide-to-breaking-in/ @stribs

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