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Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold
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Interviewing Users: Spinning Data Into Gold

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Interviewing is undeniably one of the most valuable and commonly used user research tools. Yet it's often not used well, because …

Interviewing is undeniably one of the most valuable and commonly used user research tools. Yet it's often not used well, because
* It’s based on skills we think we have (talking or even listening)
* It's not taught or reflected on, and
* People tend to "wing it" rather than develop their skills.

Results may be inaccurate or reveal nothing new, suggesting the wrong design or business responses, or they may miss the crucial nuance that points to innovative breakthrough opportunities.

In this day-long session, we'll focus on the importance of rapport-building and listening and look at techniques for both. We will review different types of questions, and why you need to have a range of question types. This session will explore other contextual research methods that can be built on top of interviewing in a seamless way. We'll also suggest practice exercises for improving your own interviewing skills and how to engage others in your organization successfully in the interviewing experience.

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  • At each point in the development process, the questions you have are different, and so the ways you utilize research are different. But get out there and talk to customers regularly!
  • This came up for us in a project where we looked at infant formula – the bottle technology was all about systems, innovation, solving problems. The formula was just power-in-a-can and needed to get out of that frame on their business.
  • You might pick users that aren’t typical but can speak to the issues you want to address
  • Accumulate a set of recruiting methods that you can deploy based on the constraints of your project
  • Try multiple viewpoints (i.e., customer vs. worker)Give it timeAllow yourself to be confused for a whileIdentify what you want to know more aboutWhy?
  • Avoid: Grouping by solutions to problems.
  • Transcript

    • 1.
    • 2. Brought to you by
    • 3. Introduction
    • 4. Today
      Introduction 9:00 – 9:10
      Best Practices Overview 9:10 – 10:00
      Methods10:00 – 10:30
      Break10:30 – 10:45
      Interviewing 10:45 – 11:30
      Interviewing Exercise11:30 – 12:15
      Lunch!
      Observation Exercise 1:15 – 2:00
      Synthesis 2:00 – 2:45
      Break2:45 – 3:00
      Ideation3:00 – 4:00
      Share4:00 – 4:30
      Q&A + Wrap-up 4:30 – 5:00
    • 5. Take a fresh look at people
      Use existing ideas as hypotheses
      What to make or do
      Refine & prototype
      Launch
      Iterate & improve
      Use fieldwork throughout the development cycle
      Explore new ideas
    • 6. Synthesis & ideation process
      Fieldwork
      Synthesis
      Ideation
      Development
    • 7. Cultural data from fieldwork
      Case study: iPod accessories
    • 8. Case study: iPod accessories
      Portigal
      Interviewing Users: Spinning Data into Gold
      8
    • 9. Research Project – Best Practices Overview
    • 10. What do I mean by “research?”
      Ethnography
      Ethnographic interviews
      Video ethnography
      Depth-interviews
      Contextual research
      Home visits
      Site visits
      Experience modeling
      Design research
      User research
      User-centered design
      One-on-ones
      Camera studies
      User safaris
    • 11. What do I mean by “research?”
      Ethnography
      Ethnographic interviews
      Video ethnography
      Depth-interviews
      Contextual research
      Home visits
      Site visits
      Experience modeling
      Design research
      User research
      User-centered design
      One-on-ones
      Camera studies
      User safaris
      What-ever!
    • 12. Beyond our terminology, what are we doing?
      Examine people in their own context
      • What are they doing?
      • 13. What does it mean?
      Infer (interpret/synthesize/etc.)
      • Find the connections
      • 14. The researcher is the “apparatus”
      Apply to business or design problems
      • Use products, services, packaging, design to tell the right story
      • 15. More possible types of solutions than we started out with
    • Identifying the problem
    • 16. The Business Question
      What new products and services can you offer to help partners increase social network stickiness (and thus revenues)?
      What entertainment activities should you support to tap into a growing middle-class in China?
    • 17. The Research Question
      What are the motivations, successes, and frustrations for current and prospective users of our partners’ social media sites?
      How is family life changing in middle-class China? What are the critical digital and analog technologies that are being embraced?
    • 18. Pain points: default research/business question?!
      While we always uncover so-called pain points, the bigger opportunity may come from understanding why– how did we get here?
    • 19. It may not really be that painful
      Satisficing(coined by Herbert Simon in 1956) refers to our acceptance of good-enough solutions
      These can drive engineers and designers crazy…but the real problem isn’t always what it appears to be
    • 20.
    • 21. Finding the right participants (aka recruiting)
      Often an afterthought in project planning
      • But the right customers are crucial to get the right insights
      • 22. This takes time to plan and to execute
      Pointless interviews waste time and challenge the credibility of the work
      • Person doesn’t really want to talk to you
      • 23. They don’t have the desired relationship with the product/brand
      Epic FAILS will happen anyway
      Identify
      • What type of people you want to find (criteria, screener)
      • 24. How you will find those people
    • Recruiting criteria: Relationship to category
      What is their relationship to the product/service/brand/activity?
      Triangulate through multiple perspectives
      By creating contrast, you reveal key influencing factorsthat you wouldn’t otherwise see
    • 36. Recruiting criteria: Type of user
      There may be more – or different – “users”
      Think about the whole system: the chooser, the influencer, the user, and anyone who is impacted by those roles
      Challenge assumptions about who the organization is implicitly/explicitly designing for
      • Is that everyone?
      • 37. Do they even exist?
      Surface a broader sense – even prior to research – about who is affected by the product and who is being designed for
      Is your “typical customer” real or aspirational?
    • 38. Recruiting criteria: Demographics
      Gender
      Age
      Life stage/lifestyle
      • Married
      • 39. Stage of family
      • 40. Retirement
      • 41. Not in the middle of a major life-change (unless that’s of interest)
      Dwelling
      • Suburban/urban/rural
      • 42. Apartment/living alone/ roommates/single family home
      Race
      • Reflect the population
      • 43. Reflect the user base
      Occupation
      • From outside the industries in question
      Income
      • Can afford the product in question
      Demographic factors are typically secondarywhen defining the sample
    • 44. The screener
      Screeners are very formal, linear documents
      • Typically used by market research recruiting agencies
      Screeners havetwo purposes…
      • Does the person fits your criteria?
      • 45. Convince them to participate
      …and three main sections
      • Introduction
      • 46. Checking off criteria
      • 47. Invitation to participate
    • Recruiting criteria: The softer side
      Whatever their relationship with the product/brand/service, you want the person to be engaged, have a point of view, care about the thing, and be articulate
    • 48. Creative recruiting
      Outside of the traditional method of working with a recruiting agency, there are other approaches
      • Friends and family/Social networks
      • 49. Snowball recruiting (participants find more participants)
      • 50. Craigslist
      • 51. Intercepts
      • 52. Etc.
      Pros and cons
      • Cheap but time-consuming
      • 53. Quick but harder to control and manage
      • 54. Likely to find “pure” participants but they might be too close to you
    • Incentive
      Enthusiastic thank-you rather than compensation
      • Recruiter will advise on best amount, depending on what you are asking for
      • 55. For a fee, they will handle sending a check, but I prefer the immediate gratification of an envelope of cash
      • 56. Include a thank-you note and even swag
      In B2B settings, be creative about who and how to incent
      • You may negotiate this on a per-site basis
    • The interview guide (or field guide)
      A detailed plan of what will happen in the interview
      • Questions, timing, activities, tasks, logistics, etc.
      Transforms questions-we-want-answers-to into questions-we-will-ask
      Share with team to align on issues of concern
      • Especially with multiple teams in the field
      Helps you previsualizethe flow of the session
      • Include questions as well as other methods that you’ll use
      Prepping an interview guide means that you may not need to use the interview guide
      • This is counter-intuitive
      • 57. It does come in handy during freeze-up moments – scan it over to see what else you want to cover
    • Four sections to the field guide
      Introduction and Participant Background
      Logistics, timing, objectives
      The Main Body
      Subsections for each area you plan to explore (e.g., configuration, learning about new features, etc.)
      Projection/Dream Questions
      Be audacious and ask about predictions for the future or ideal experiences
      Wrap Up
      Logistics, ask about anything they want to tell you that you didn’t ask about
    • 58. Minimalist field guide
    • 59. Detailed field guide
    • 60. Include other methods
    • 61. Documentation: photos
      Plan to take lots of photos
      They will reveal things you don’t remember noticing
      Essential for storytelling
      Make sure you have permission before you start snapping
    • 62. Documentation: audio, video, notes
      Essential to capture exactly what is said
      Difficult (impossible) to maintain eye contact, manage interview, and write down everything
      • Potentially a role for a second interviewer
      Taking notes – not as the definitive record – can help you process, notice, think about follow-ups, etc.
      • I strongly recommend privileging being in-the-moment (e.g., eye contact, listening) over trying to capture everything yourself
    • A release is a good idea
      It clarifies the rights of the interviewee and your organization
      • Consent – participation is voluntary
      • 63. Incentive – what the participant gets but they are not an employee
      • 64. Model release – how images and video will be used
      • 65. Non-disclosure – in case you disclose anything in-progress
      These are legal documents
      • Will your legal department help you prepare it?
      • 66. Can you influence them to create consumer-friendly, light-weight versions
      • 67. Give participants their own copy at the outset of the interview
    • Methods
    • 68. Ask people how they would solve a problem
      Participatory design
      Doesn’t mean we implement the requested solution literally
      “I wish it had a handle”
      Many ways to solve the underlying need (“I need to move it around”)
      Designers work with this data to generate alternatives
      Engage people in the non-literal through games and role-playing
      Uncover underlying principles and explore areas of opportunity that don’t yet exist
    • 69. Show people a solution
      Consider the difference betweentestingandexploring
      Avoid “Do you like this?”
      Don’t show your best guess at a solution; instead identify provocative examples to surface hidden desires and expectations
      Make sure you are asking the right questions
      What does this solution enable? What problems does it solve?
      Especially for new products, needed before getting into specifics of your implementation
      Image from Roberto and Worth1000.com
    • 70. Use a range of methods
    • 71. Workbook: Instructions
    • 72. Workbook: Question and answer
    • 73. Workbook: Text stimuli
    • 74. Workbook: Visual stimuli
    • 75. Workbook: Responses
    • 76. Mapping
    • 77. Storyboards
    • 78. Mockups
    • 79. Prototypes
    • 80. Casual Card Sort
    • 81. Methods can be a playground
      We choose, mash-up, or create methods based on the problem, project constraints, and a desire to experiment
      • Build up a library of approaches and artifacts
      Portigal
      Interviewing Users: Spinning Data into Gold
      49
    • 82. Break!
    • 83. Interviewing
    • 84. Principles inform tactics
      I don't skate to where the puck is, I skate to where the puck is going to be – Wayne Gretzky
    • 85. Fieldwork principles
      Check your worldview at the door
      Embrace how other people see the world
      Build rapport
      Listen
    • 86. Check your worldview at the door
      Before you start doing interviews, do a team-wide brain dump of all your assumptions and expectations
      • Get closely-held beliefs out of your heads
      • 87. You needn’t go back to verify your assumptions; goal is to make assumptions explicit
      Make the interview about the interview
      • As a transitional ritual, agree explicitly that you are going to Learn about Paul rather than Identify NextGen Opportunities for Roadmap
    • Embrace how other people see the world
      Go to where your users are rather than asking them to come to you
      Nip distractions in the bud
      • Eat!
      • 88. Leave plenty of time so you aren’t rushed when you arrive
      • 89. Find a bathroom beforehand
      Be ready to ask questions you (think you) know the answers to
      • Think about: “When are your taxes due?”
      • 90. What do you know? What are you afraid they’ll say? What might you learn?
    • Build rapport
      Be selective about social graces
      • Just enough small talk
      • 91. Accept what you’re offered
      Be selective about talking about yourself
      • Reveal personal information to give them permission to share
      • 92. Otherwise, think “OMG! Me too!” without saying it
      Work towards the tipping point
      • From question-answer to question-story
      • 93. You won’t know when it’s coming; be patient
      Acknowledge the interview as something…unusual
      • “What I want to learn today…” over friendly chat
    • Listen
      You can demonstrate that you are listening by asking questions!
      • Follow-up, follow-up, follow-up
      • 94. “Earlier, you told us that…”
      • 95. “I want to go back to something else you said…”
      Signal your transitions: “Great, now I’d like to move onto a totally different topic”
      This level of listening is not how we normally talk to each other
      • Remember that you are interviewing, not having a conversation
      • 96. This is really hard
    • Listening body language
      Yes!
      Not so much.
    • 97. Silence defeats awkwardness
      After you ask your question, be silent
      • Don’t put the answers in the question
      After they’ve answered you, be silent
    • 98. Use natural language
      Talk like your subject talks!
    • 99. Don’t make questions pass/fail (1/2)
      Client: So the concept of transferring, burning, and syncing, can you talk a little about those three concepts? So transfer, burn, and sync. Just do you understand the difference?
      Interviewee: Transfer, burn, sync. Burn is when I’m actually putting it onto some kind of disc.
      Okay…
      Transferring is I guess when I transfer the files from one place to the other.
      Mm-hmm…
      Whether it’s to a device or to a different drive or whatever or into the program I guess. And syncing, well, I know the phone always comes up and says it’s syncing, when it’s syncing up to the files or syncing up to the computer or stuff like that. That’s the only time I think I’ve ever really heard that.
      (cont’d)
    • 100. Don’t make questions pass/fail (2/2)
      Client: So the only other question I have left in this area is: Would you expect to manually decide what music goes on your devices or would you rather that the machine does it for you?
      Interviewee: Decide what I want on my…?
      Let’s say your library is here on this machine, and you have a device, would you want it to put as much as it could put on from the library from the device when it’s connected to your computer?
      If I could hold it… if the device itself could actually hold all the files, I would love that, if it automatically…
      Just knew.
      Just knew that it wasn’t on there, the same thing when…what do you call it - when I have to go into the program and actually have it… downl…uhh, now I’m confused in what I should call it.
      No, no, don’t worry about it!
    • 101. Don’t presume they accept your world view
      Client: So, really interesting the sort of things that you as old Derek used to value, such as efficiency of time, and some of those things have now influenced the new Derek.
      Derek: Right.
      Steve: Maybe that sort of begs a larger question…We’ve offered you this idea of old versus new you, but how do you think about this transition?
      Derek:Yeah, I don’t really see it.
    • 102. If you want to fix something, wait until the end
      Frustrating to watch users struggle with your product
      • Remember, you are there to learn from them
      You will lose the interview if you start taking their questions
      When it’s time to go, show or tell them only what will help them
    • 103. Find your personal style
      The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    • 104. Questions to gather context and collect details
    • 105. Questions to probe on what’s unsaid
    • 106. Questions to probe on what’s unsaid
    • 107. Questions to uncover mental models
    • 108. Why so many types of questions?
      Real interviews aren’t as simple as asking a question, getting an answer, and then moving onto the next question in your list.
      You are unlikely to get to the actual answer without asking a few different questions a few different ways.
      You need a range of tools and techniques. And you need to feel when you haven’t got to the real answer yet so you can keep going
      .
    • 109. Prepare for exploding questions
      Well, my cousin never tells me when she has an updated bank balance so I figured I would handle it myself. That’s why I signed up for the PayPal service, I think it’s them but maybe not.
      Coping techniques
      Wait until these issues come up organically, without you having to ask
      Make notes on your field guide about what you want to loop back to so you don’t forget
      Triage based on what’s most pressing for your topic
      Triage based on what makes the best follow-up, to demonstrate listening
      Why does this matter?
      Let’s find out what service this is?!
      Okay.
      I decided I had to spend the money I had from last month in order to save month’s money and this service was going to help me do that. Even if it’s not the same password that my cousin would be using
      I don’t understand her financial model…
      Why does she expect that it would be the same?
    • 110. Exploding questions can lead to a flow state
    • 111. Managing others in the field
      We lead a thirty-minute training session for everyone who will join us in the field
      Field teams are ideally 2, at most 3
      Ensure one person leads the interview and clarify the role of the “second interviewer”
      • They should ask questions, but stay in the “chapter” that we’re in
      During our debriefs, we offer feedback and coaching about the process, if possible
    • 112. Getting better at interviewing
      Practice with hallway or other serendipitous micro-interviews
      Write surveys and participant screeners to practice crafting questions out of the moment
      How do you get to Carnegie Hall?
      Practice, man, practice!
    • 113. Participant screeners as asking practice
      A good way to practice both framing a question and the empathic exercise of thinking through the respondent’s user experience with that question
    • 114. Write and take surveys
      Develop your own critical eye (and interviewer’s voice) by looking for bad examples and identifying just what’s wrong with them
    • 115. We learn from mistakes and mishaps
      Collect and share war stories with other interviewers
      THANX 4 NOTHING KITTEH
    • 116. Interviewing Exercise
      Get in groups of 3
      You are in a startup looking for opportunities in…
      Music – purpose/role/interests, technology, devices
      Food, groceries, meals, nutrition
      News – media, information, sources, purpose
      Review sample interview guides
      • Imagine the flow
      • 117. Background, depth, reflection
      Three rounds of interviews, 10-12 minutes each
      • One interviewer, one interviewee, one observer
      • 118. Each person plays each role once
      • 119. Stay in the exercise!
      Group debrief
    • 120. Giveaway #1
      Everyone gets a license for TechSmith’s screen capture tool Snagit
      Expect it by email in a couple of weeks
      Everyone gets 3 tests from UserTesting.com
      Use code uxworkshop; expires in 2 weeks
      Draw
      2 licenses for TechSmith’sCamtasia (Mac/PC)
      1 license for Techsmith’sMorae (PC)
    • 121. Lunch
    • 122. (The rest of) today
      Introduction 9:00 – 9:10
      Best Practices Overview 9:10 – 10:00
      Methods10:00 – 10:30
      Break10:30 – 10:45
      Interviewing 10:45 – 11:30
      Interviewing Exercise11:30 – 12:15
      Lunch!
      Observation Exercise 1:15 – 2:00
      Synthesis 2:00 – 2:45
      Break2:45 – 3:00
      Ideation3:00 – 4:00
      Share4:00 – 4:30
      Q&A + Wrap-up 4:30 – 5:00
    • 123. Homework/Observation Exercise
    • 124. Homework Check-in
      Your mission: Dedicate at least half an hour to walking around and observing people in your neighborhood
      Props to Dylan, Caroline, and David!
    • 125. Homework Check-in
      Who was able to do the assignment?
      Was this anyone’s first experience doing observational fieldwork?
      Is there anyone who has not done user or observational research in the field?
    • 126. Observing
      Notice what… people, places
      Notice how… processes, sequences, interactions
      Suspend your point of view
      Avoid conclusions
      Allow confusion
      Do it “out loud”
      Steve, practicing his “noticing.” You can tell because he looks like he may be a little confused.
    • 127. You’re observing people within their culture. Notice how cultural artifacts reflect and define the environment; and reveal what is “normal”
      Normal isn’t “right or wrong” – it’s the set of background rules that define much of what people choose or ignore
      Media
      Products
      Advertisements
      Street Culture
      Trends/Fads
      Cultural context
      What are they selling?
    • 128. Cultural context
    • 129. Cultural context
    • 130. Cultural context
    • 131. Your mission: Imagine you are working on a project for Gentrific8, looking for ideas to redevelop parts Seattle around downtown and the Central Library.
      Form groups of 2 – 3. Mix it up
      Wander and observe people, interactions and environments
      Do it out loud!
      Capture (photos, notes)
      What, who, where, when?
      Why, how?
      This is not a design audit of signage or merchandise displays
      Exercise: Explore!
    • 132. Neighborhood observations: Noe Valley, San Fran
    • 133. Neighborhood observations: Noe Valley, San Fran
    • 134. Neighborhood observations: Montara, California
    • 135. Be back by 2:25!
      Exercise: Explore!
    • 136. Synthesis: From data to insights
    • 137. Analysis
      Synthesis
      Ideation
      Solutions
      Strategies
      Opportunities
      Detailed solutions
      Insights
      Synthesis & ideation process
    • 138. Fieldwork
      Synthesis
      Ideation
      Development
      Why a process?
    • 139. Avoid jumping to conclusions
    • 140. DTDT: Analysis vs. Synthesis
      Analysis
      Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense
      e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories
    • 141. DTDT: Analysis vs. Synthesis
      Combining multiple pieces into something new
      e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities
      Synthesis
      Analysis
      Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense
      e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories
    • 142. DTDT: Analysis vs. Synthesis
      The process gradually moves from one to the other
      Combining multiple pieces into something new
      e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities
      Synthesis
      Analysis
      Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense
      e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories
    • 143. Analthesis????
      Combining multiple pieces into something new
      e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities
      Synthesis
      Analysis
      Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense
      e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories
    • 144. Sense-makingthrough an iterativeprocess of refining gathered data
      Early, Informaldata in your head
      First, process the experience you had collecting data
      Refer to debriefs and conversations
      Articulate and identify themes
      Outcome: Topline Report
      Process-based, Formalheavy lifting
      Then, process the data itself
      Individual and group analysis
      Pattern-identification, clustering, models, frameworks
      Outcome: Opportunities
      More narratively, what is synthesis?
      Review, Refine, Rinse, Repeat
    • 145. Synthesis naturally begins inthe field
      Resist meaning (for now)
      Focus on observations
      Get the detail
      Create time to talk after each fieldwork experience
      Worksheet to facilitate the debrief
      Write up real-timesummaries for the team, ASAP
      In-field debriefing
      Fieldwork highlights captured in the wild.
    • 146. After fieldwork, collate reflections and quickly externalize a starter set of 5 to 10 thematic areas based on
      Pre-identified areas of inquiry
      Refer to debriefs and conversations from the field
      New patterns that we observed
      Identify interesting areas; acknowledge that you don’t understand details yet, identify questions
      Outcome: Topline Report
      All right researchers… what did you see?
      Early, informal synthesis (data in your head)
    • 147. This sheds light on what excites the team and the stakeholders and brings focus to the next stage of synthesis
      The Topline Report
    • 148. Go back through your raw data very closely to move beyond the Topline Report
      Individually (heads-down) and collaboratively (heads-up) develop clusters, identify patterns, collate and refine findings
      Process maps, eco-systems
      Frameworks, models
      Design implications
      i.e.: What did other public announcements in the study look like? What are the layers of information and cultural context? What form factors are favored? Why?
      Process-based, formal synthesis (heavy lifting)
    • 149. Heads down!
      Transcript analysis
      • Make marginal notes on patterns, quotes, or what seems interesting
      • 154. Ask yourself questions; give labels; propose solutions
      • 155. Don’t worry about implications, be descriptive and reactive
      Individual analysis (not today…)
    • 156. If you can’t get transcripts, watch video/listen to audio (even sped-up) and in near real-time jot down the rough narrative of the session
      • When you make an observation in your own voice, do something typographic to call it out (ALL CAPS, highlight, etc.)
      Individual analysis (not today…)
    • 157. Heads up!
      Present each interview (etc.) as a case study. Introduce each, and pick out the provocative highlights.
      Voice and document reactions, a-has, support and questions
      Clustering with stickies
      White-board notes
      Develop a new shared point-of-view, beyond “findings”
      Collaborative analysis
    • 158. Easy to scan for patterns and relationships
      Play with data by rearranging individual elements
      Lo-fi way to makes data tangible, visible, and sharable
      Sticky work
    • 159. As you are telling stories, quickly get the key points (notes, themes, observations, quotes) up
      Code with the source (interview name, etc.)
      Separate what was observed from what you think it means
      Write big and try to code visually (e.g. colored dots, colored post-its, symbols)
      Sticky work
    • 160. Group stuff
      Be opportunistic, using whatever makes sense at first
      You may want to re-use your topline headings or you may want to be fresh
      Initial groupings may be “All things related to shopping” or “what people are doing” or “what people are feeling” or “pain points”
      Sticky work
    • 161. Sticky work
      Re-group stuff
      Now, go back and re-group at a higher level
      What it means
      What people are trying to accomplish (i.e., needs/motivations/goals)
    • 162. Sticky work
      Name your groups
      These themes are the points of view you will carry forward
      • Individual stickies are supporting evidence you can return to
    • Play with possible models and frameworks
      Relationship to other data
      Frequency
      Timeline
      The 2 x 2
    • 163. Spreadsheet analysis enables immersive refinement of data
      Play with data by generating alternate views of the dataset
      Rewrite each sticky in a cell (adding commentary, explanation, context, quote)
      Processing each entry allows further synthesis and thought
      More individual analysis
      Categories of columns will vary by project
      Comment comes from rewritten sticky
      Tag each comment with person, segment, market etc. to allow you to manipulate data
    • 164. Uncover patterns through additional layers of keywords
      Prioritize and better understand themes and relationships
      Search for quotes and evidence as you transition to writing presentation
      Go back to your data in search of more insights or further inspiration
      More individual analysis
      Coding entries with keywords builds a taxonomy for future reference
      Spreadsheet tools let you see data in different ways
      Use themes from sticky work and/or presentation sections to reveal relationships and shore up shaky thinking
    • 165. Opportunities are not
      A reporting of “interesting findings”
      A list of solutions
      Opportunities are
      Change we can envision based on what we heard and observed
      About people
      In the context of, but reframing the business questions
      Generative, inviting many solutions
      Keep the human touch in communication
      Allow people to move seamlessly between places
      Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems
      Developing opportunities
      What should we do?
    • 166. Topline
      Summary of analthesis activities
      Opportunities
      Collaborative Analysis
      Individual Analysis
      Individual Analysis
      Keep the human touch in communication
      Allow people to move seamlessly between places
      Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems
      Externalize the data in your head
      The heavy lifting
      Determine generative directions
      Play with the entire data set
      Play with individual data elements
    • 167. Get in groups of 4
      Quickly review what happened (today and from your homework) and what you saw. Collate reflections. Resist the urge to move too far towards conclusions
      Don’t refer to notes or photos yet
      Keep your own experiences, existing hypotheses, cultural clichés, etc. in the background
      Develop 3 - 5 themes as a “Topline Report” sketching out the big takeaways, leading into further synthesis
      Don’t fuss over exact wording
      Exercise: Develop a topline (7 minutes)
      All right researchers… what did you see?
    • 168. Evolve your “Topline Report;” flesh out and enrich themes
      Write your themes and put them up
      Leave space for new ones
      Now (!) tell stories from the field (from your neighborhood and today), using photos, notes and memory
      Rethink the relationships between the themes, pick your strongest themes and write a sentence with a point of view
      Go from “Graffiti everywhere” and “Teen gangs hanging out” to “Public spaces in the neighborhood are used to communicate identity and belongingness”
      Exercise: Develop findings (7 minutes)
    • 169. Build on your findings
      Start each opportunity with a verb
      Opportunities are not
      A reporting of “interesting findings”
      A list of solutions
      Opportunities are
      Change we can envision based on what we heard and observe
      About people
      In the context of but reframing the business questions
      Generative, inviting many solutions
      Exercise: Identify opportunities (7 minutes)
      Keep the human touch in communication
      Allow people to move seamlessly between places
      Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems
      Keep the human touch in communication
      Allow people to move seamlessly between places
      Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems
      What should we do?
      What should we do?
    • 170. Break!
    • 171. Ideation: From insights to solutions
    • 172. A simple step moves you from Opportunities to Ideation Questions, reframing them into actionable language
      How can we
      keep the human touch in communication
      allow people to move seamlessly between places
      allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems
      How can we
      How can we
      Ideate!
      Ideation questions
    • 173. Scope of solutions
      Solutions exist across many different business areas
      Functionality
      Visual design
      Marketing
      Architecture
      Public Services
      Partnerships
      Events
      Software
      Form factor
      Packaging
      Policy
      Retail design
      Even if you are unlikely to impact certain business areas, it’s crucial that you set that constraint aside for ideation
      How many business and civic areas to impact can you spot in this picture?
    • 174. Developing strategies
      Responses to any ideation question can lead in different strategic directions
      Finding:Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet
      Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke
      Ideation Question:How can we improve the experience of students who smoke?
      Support underlying needs and behavior by embracing the finding
      Question needs and behavior, seek change by challenging the finding
      Create a protected environment for smoking
      Eliminate smoking
    • 175. Strategies can inspire solutions
      Finding:Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet
      Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke
      Ideation Question:How can we improve the experience of students who smoke?
      Strategies
      Create a protected environment for smoking
      Eliminate smoking
      Solutions
      FacilitiesBuild a pavilion
      AdminAllocate interior room
      PartnersAlign with nearby cafe
      OnlineSmoking cessation games
      AdminBan smoking
      PartnersStop smoking coaches
    • 176. Solutions can suggest strategies
      Finding:Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet
      Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke
      Ideation Question:How can we improve the experience of students who smoke?
      Strategies
      Create a protected environment for smoking
      Eliminate smoking
      Solutions
      AdminAllocate interior room
      AdminBan smoking
    • 177. Collaborative generation
      This is a collective, out-loud activity! Talk, listen, build on each other’s ideas
      Don’t worry about a “bad” idea… it may lead to a “good” idea
      Don’t correct; generate alternatives
      “Yes, and…”
      This is a visual activity! Sketch, draw…
      Quantity over quality; go quickly
      Individual ideas matter less than what the collective produces overall
      How can a sour lemon help keep things working smoothly?
    • 178. Stuck?
      Come up with bad ideas
      Immoral
      Dangerous
      Bad for business
    • 179. Don’t forget your second wind
      Pace of idea generation
      Obvious but necessary, problem-solving, need-filling, low-hanging fruit
      Time
    • 180. Don’t forget your second wind
      Pace of idea generation
      Obvious but necessary, problem-solving, need-filling, low-hanging fruit
      Wacky, transgressive, innovative, breakthrough, weird
      Time
    • 181. Summary of ideation exercises
      Questions Business Areas Ideation and Sharing
      2 minutes 3 minutes 40 minutes 30 minutes
      How can we
      keep the human touch in communication
      allow people to move seamlessly between places
      allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems
      How can we
      How can we
      Ideate!
      Shift to “How can we…?”
      Figure out where we can play
      Remember, “Yes, and…”
    • 182. Exercise: Ideation questions (2 minutes)
      Apply How can we…? to each of your Opportunities
      How can we
      keep the human touch in communication
      allow people to move seamlessly between places
      allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems
      How can we
      How can we
      Ideate!
    • 183. Exercise: Business areas (3 minutes)
      Let’s collectively list possible business areas to design for
      Think about whatever Gentrific8 could do or affect
      Use this list as a starting point
      Functionality
      Visual design
      Marketing
      Architecture
      Public Services
      Partnerships
      Events
      Software
      Form factor
      Packaging
      Policy
      Retail design
      Incentives
      How many business and civic areas to impact can you spot in this picture?
    • 184. Exercise: Ideation (40 minutes)
      Use your ideation questions to generate strategies and solutions
      Out loud
      Visual
      Collaborative
      Consider the range of possible business areas
      Bounce back and forth between generating strategies and solutions
      Most ideas will not turn out to be winners; the goal is to practice connecting research data to solutions
      Apply lemon as needed.
      Don’t forget your second wind
    • 185. Exercise: Prepare to share (2 minutes)
      Rapidly align on your team’s best ideas and message
      Choose a messenger
      The wise team will choose a bold, expressive spokesperson
    • 186. Exercise: Pitch it back!
    • 187. Prioritization
    • 188. Big group voting
    • 189. Small group ranking…and reconciliation
      Ranking factors may even include how clear the idea is
      Color indicates voting winner
    • 190. Wrap Up
    • 191. How experts use frameworks
      Fieldwork
      Synthesis
      Ideation
      Development
    • 192. 2-3 weeks
      2-3 weeks
      2-3 weeks
      Who do you want to talk to?
      What do you want to do with them?
      Do something with the data!
      Typical timelines
      Fieldwork
      Screening criteria, recruiting
      Methodology, field guide, stimuli
      Analysis, synthesis, design
      Interviews, self-reporting, debriefs
      When working in tighter timeframes, consider where you want to cut back. Be mindful of the tradeoffs!
    • 193. Going rogue
      1 day?!
      1 day?!
      2 days?!!
      Who do you want to talk to?
      What do you want to do with them?
      Do something with the data!
      Fieldwork
      Who can you get? Co-workers, intercepts on the street or in the mall, etc.
      Wide-eyed observation, winging it
      Debrief
      Small sample, massively parallel data gathering
    • 194. Coming in 2012!
      A book by Steve Portigal
      The Art and Craft of User Research Interviewing
      http://rosenfeldmedia.com/books/user-interviews/
    • 195. I’ve got a tip (that you didn’t cover) that works well for me…
      Yeah, I’ve got a question for ya…
      One new thing I learned today is…
    • 196. Brought to you by
    • 197. Giveaway #2
      Draw
      8 Rosenfeld Media titles
      Steve Krug’s Rocket Surgery Made Easy
      UserTesting t-shirt(s) etc.
    • 198. Thank you!
      Portigal Consulting
      www.portigal.com
      @steveportigal
      steve@portigal.com
      415-894-2001

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