Schism 1054


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Schism 1054

  1. 1. Social Studies for 10th EBG Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  2. 2. Schism of 1054, also called East–West Schism, is the event that precipitated the final separation between the Eastern Christian churches (led by the patriarch of Constantinople, Michael Cerularius) and the Western Church (led by Pope Leo IX). The mutual excommunications by the Pope and the Patriarch that year became an obstacle that divided the church.
  3. 3. The relation of the Byzantine Church to the Roman may be described as one of growing divisions from the 5th to the 11th century. In the early church bishops stood forth prominently, principally from the political eminence of the cities in which they ruled. The transfer of the seat of empire from Rome to Constantinople promoted the importance of Constantinople.
  4. 4. Greeksvs.Latins The Latins viewed the Byzantine preference for diplomacy and trade over war, as duplicitous and degenerate, and their policy of tolerance and assimilation towards Muslims as a corrupt betrayal of the faith. For their part, the educated and wealthy Byzantines saw the Latins as lawless, impious, covetous, blood-thirsty, undisciplined, and (quite literally) unwashed.
  5. 5. Greeksvs.Latins The Eastern theology had its roots in Greek philosophy, whereas a great deal of Western theology was based on Roman law. This gave rise to misunderstandings and at last led to two widely separate ways of regarding and defining doctrine issues. This issues could be counted in the many, but here are some examples: “The Eastern churches also resented the Roman enforcement of clerical celibacy, the limitation of the right of confirmation to the bishop, and the use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist.”
  6. 6. At the same time, the calmness of the West, in contrast to the often violent disputes that troubled the Eastern patriarchates, strengthened the position of the Roman popes, who made increasing claims to preeminence. But this preeminence, or rather the Roman idea of what was involved in it, was never acknowledged in the East! In short: the eastern Greeks, wanted to go their own way.
  7. 7. He was the Greek Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople who figured prominently in the events leading to the Schism of 1054 Cerularius’ ambitious desires for political power, coupled with his inflexible belief in the autonomy of the Eastern Church, led him to thwart Constantinople’s attempts to ally the Byzantine and “Roman” empires. For example: he decided to force the Latin churches in his diocese to use the Greek language and liturgical practices; when they refused to do so, he ordered them closed.
  8. 8. He was head of the medieval Latin church during the great East-West Schism of 1054. He sought out to appease the relationship between both churches along with the Byzantine emperor, but Cerularius thwarted those attempts. His envoy to Constantinople, Cardinal Humbert excommunicated, Cerularius as retaliation for this interventions. In return, the Patriarch excommunicated the envoys. In this manner the schism between Rome and Constantinople was final.
  9. 9. Main events that caused or worsened the rift between both churches: Fourth Crusade IconoclasmLatin Massacre Excommunication
  10. 10. Recall: Who was Michael Cerularius? What was the Schism of 1054? List: List the reasons or events that caused the Schism. Relate: How did the opposite views that each side have affect their relationship? Analyze: Why were the Byzantines criticzed by the Latins, because of their trading with the Muslims?