Social Studies for 10th EBG
Teacher: Mauricio Torres
Schism of 1054, also called East–West Schism, is the event that
precipitated the final separation between the Eastern Christian
churches (led by the patriarch of Constantinople, Michael
Cerularius) and the Western Church (led by Pope Leo IX).
The mutual excommunications by the Pope and the Patriarch
that year became an obstacle that divided the church.
The relation of the Byzantine Church to the Roman may be
described as one of growing divisions from the 5th to the 11th
In the early church bishops stood forth prominently, principally
from the political eminence of the cities in which they ruled.
The transfer of the seat of empire from Rome to Constantinople
promoted the importance of Constantinople.
The Latins viewed the Byzantine preference for diplomacy and
trade over war, as duplicitous and degenerate, and their policy
of tolerance and assimilation towards Muslims as a corrupt
betrayal of the faith.
For their part, the educated and wealthy Byzantines saw the
Latins as lawless, impious, covetous, blood-thirsty, undisciplined,
and (quite literally) unwashed.
The Eastern theology had its roots in Greek
philosophy, whereas a great deal of Western
theology was based on Roman law.
This gave rise to misunderstandings and at last led
to two widely separate ways of regarding and
defining doctrine issues.
This issues could be counted in the many, but here
are some examples:
“The Eastern churches also resented the Roman
enforcement of clerical celibacy, the limitation of the right
of confirmation to the bishop, and the use of unleavened
bread in the Eucharist.”
At the same time, the calmness of the
West, in contrast to the often violent
disputes that troubled the Eastern
patriarchates, strengthened the position
of the Roman popes, who made
increasing claims to preeminence.
But this preeminence, or rather the
Roman idea of what was involved in it,
was never acknowledged in the East!
In short: the eastern Greeks, wanted
to go their own way.
He was the Greek Orthodox patriarch of
Constantinople who figured prominently in the
events leading to the Schism of 1054
Cerularius’ ambitious desires for political
power, coupled with his inflexible belief in
the autonomy of the Eastern Church, led
him to thwart Constantinople’s attempts to
ally the Byzantine and “Roman” empires.
For example: he decided to force the Latin
churches in his diocese to use the Greek
language and liturgical practices; when
they refused to do so, he ordered them
He was head of the medieval Latin church
during the great East-West Schism of 1054.
He sought out to appease the
relationship between both churches
along with the Byzantine emperor, but
Cerularius thwarted those attempts.
His envoy to Constantinople, Cardinal
Humbert excommunicated, Cerularius
as retaliation for this interventions.
In return, the Patriarch excommunicated
the envoys. In this manner the schism
between Rome and Constantinople was
Main events that caused or worsened the rift between both
Who was Michael Cerularius?
What was the Schism of 1054?
List the reasons or events that caused the Schism.
How did the opposite views that each side have affect their
Why were the Byzantines criticzed by the Latins, because of
their trading with the Muslims?