Judaism & Christianity


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Judaism & Christianity

  1. 1. Judaism & Christianity<br />Universal Religions<br />
  2. 2. Chapter 10: Judaism and Christianity<br />Introduction<br />Hebrews introduce monotheism into a world of polytheism in the form of a god above nature and free from compulsion and fate<br />Hebrews took name “Judaism” in honor of Judah, a prophet, and their homeland, Judaea<br />Christianity emerged from Judaism <br />
  3. 3. Judaism<br />The Sacred Scriptures<br />Early scriptures known collectively as TaNaKh<br />Torah = Five Books of Moses<br />Nevi’im = Books of the Prophets<br />Ketuvim = historical, poetic, and philosophic writings<br />Christians accept all of the TaNaKh as the “Old Testament”<br />Jews and Christians long regarded these books as the literal “word of God”<br />
  4. 4. Judaism<br />The Sacred Scriptures [cont.]<br />“Biblical Criticism” in last 200 years has placed these works into historical context<br />Close reading suggests stylistic differences tied to different authors<br />Josiah’s centralization of Hebrew belief resulted in the writing of Deuteronomy<br />Other stories were woven together at a later date to create the rest of the Torah<br />
  5. 5. Judaism<br />The Sacred Scriptures [cont.]<br />Oldest existing copy of complete Torah dates to 9th-11th centuries C.E.<br />Greek language Torah dates to 2nd-3rd century B.C.E.<br />Torah is one of best examples of “myth-history” because it captures ideals, concepts, and beliefs of Jewish people even if not literally true <br />
  6. 6. Judaism<br />Essential Beliefs of Judaism in Early Scripture<br />A single, caring God<br />A God of history<br />A community rooted in divinely chosen family<br />A specific “promised” geographical homeland<br />A legal system<br />A sacred calendar <br />
  7. 7. Judaism<br />The Later Books of Jewish Scripture<br />Nevi’im and Ketuvim carry Jewish story from 1200 B.C.E. to 500 C.E.<br />Books begin with Joshua, the return of the Jews from Egypt to Israel<br />History suggests that return was spread out over time and that era involved extensive borrowing from other cultures <br />
  8. 8. Judaism<br />The Later Books of Jewish Scripture [cont.]<br />Rule by Judges and Kings<br />Jews adopted loose confederacy advised by judges upon return to Canaan (Israel)<br />Created kings (1020 B.C.E.) to deal with internal strife<br />Kingdom split in two in reaction to extravagant reign of Solomon (950 B.C.E.) <br />
  9. 9. Judaism<br />The Later Books of Jewish Scripture [cont.]<br />Teachings of the Prophets: Morality and Hope<br />Prophets demanded return of morality and compassion in face of corrupt leadership<br />Placed memory of past injustice and slavery against current events and demanded return to religious roots<br />Presented image of an inspiring future<br />
  10. 10. Judaism<br />The Evolution of the Image of God<br />God’s early concerns about humanity resulted in a flood and in the division of people by language<br />Responded to evil with punishment<br />YHWH accessible via prayer and dialogue<br />Challenged self-willed polytheistic gods but provided no answer for the existence of evil in the world<br />
  11. 11. Judaism<br />Patriarchy and Gender Relations<br />Torah granted women fewer rights than men<br />Regulation of sexuality extensive in scripture<br />Women had few heroic roles<br />
  12. 12. Judaism<br />Defeat, Exile, and Redefinition<br />Jews exiled of northern kingdom by Assyrians (721 B.C.E.); returned sixty years later<br />Outsiders including Alexander controlled Israel<br />Roman Empire destroyed temple in Jerusalem in 70 C.E. and dispersed people, 135 C.E.<br />This Diaspora reshaped Jewish beliefs<br />No significant numbers of Jews in Judaea until 20th century<br />
  13. 13. Judaism<br />Minority/Majority Relations in the Diaspora<br />Jews remained distinct people in new settlements<br />Flourished in many instances but faced discrimination in others<br />Story of Esther shows Esther in preservation of Jewish community but also shows pressures on minorities in empires <br />
  14. 14. Christianity<br />Christianity Emerges from Judaism<br />Developed at height of Roman power<br />Jews were divided into four groups: Pharisees, Sadducees, Zealots, and Essenes<br />Jesus’ teachings challenged Pharisees who accepted Roman rule<br />Called for rapid religious reform and predicted early day of judgement for the world<br />Promised a life in Heaven<br />
  15. 15. Christianity<br />Christianity Emerges from Judaism [cont.]<br />Jesus’ preaching angered Jewish and Roman leaders<br />Followers saw him as messiah and miracle worker<br />Roman crucifixion did not stop growth of followers<br />Message of compassion, salvation, and eternal life attracted many Romans<br />
  16. 16. Christianity<br />Jesus’ Life, Teaching, and Disciples<br />Adapting Rituals to New Purposes<br />Jesus’ prayer and preaching was writing Jewish tradition<br />Baptism was modification of unimportant Jewish ritual<br />“Last supper” an extension of Passover meal<br />
  17. 17. Christianity<br />Jesus’ Life, Teachings, and Disciples [cont.]<br />Overturning the Old Order<br />Assertion that “the end of the world” was at hand was recognition that world would soon change<br />Argued that wealth was a hindrance to salvation<br />Raised commandment to “love your neighbor” above a broad range of Jewish commands<br />Predicted violent end of world<br />
  18. 18. Christianity<br />Jesus’ Life, Teachings, and Disciples [cont.]<br />Jesus and the Jewish Establishment<br />Was condescending and confrontational toward Jewish religious leaders<br />Scoffed at dietary and Sabbath restrictions<br />Restricted divorce<br />Teachings reflect desire to return to earlier beliefs in faith and spirituality, and that the future lay in Heaven, not earth <br />
  19. 19. Christianity<br />Jesus’ Life, Teachings, and Disciples [cont.]<br />Miracles and Resurrection<br />Miracles rather than teachings brought followers<br />Crucifixion and resurrection completed the miracles of Jesus<br />Apostles, especially Paul of Tarsus (d. 67 C.E.), transformed Christian sect into broad religion with preaching, organizational network, and instructional letters <br />
  20. 20. Christianity<br />The Growth of the Early Church<br />Peter, designated as leader of early organization, stressed Christian ethics over Jewish practices such as circumcision<br />Broadened appeal to Gentiles<br />Made little mention of the apocalyptic side of Christianity <br />
  21. 21. Christianity<br />The Growth of the Early Church [cont.]<br />Paul Organizes the Early Church<br />Saul converted from a critic to an apostle of Christianity<br />Was Jewish by ethnicity, Roman by citizenship, and Greek by culture<br />Linked Christian communities of eastern Mediterranean with letters (Epistles)<br />Formulated concept of original sin and redemption from it<br />
  22. 22. Christianity<br />The Growth of the Early Church [cont.]<br />The Christian Calendar<br />Created sacred calendar with special days<br />Christmas = Jesus’ Birth<br />Easter = Jesus’ Resurrection<br />Pentecost = Jesus’ Ascension [had been date of Jewish commemoration of the receipt of the Ten Commandments]<br />Numbered years from the presumed date of Jesus’ birth<br />Sabbath was changed from Saturday to Sunday, from the seventh to the first day of the week<br />
  23. 23. Christianity<br />The Growth of the Early Church [cont.]<br />Gender Relations<br />Women were central to earliest church but became less so over time despite “spiritual equality”<br />Paul recommended celibacy for all but monogamous marriage for those who could not remain celibate<br />Made wife subordinate to husband at home<br />Commanded women to keep silent in church<br />Accepted slavery <br />
  24. 24. Christianity<br />From Persecution to Triumph <br />Adopted imperial capital (Rome) as center of the new religion<br />Christianity started as one of a number of “mystery religions” in Rome<br />Refusal to worship emperor seen as threat<br />Persecution extensive within empire<br />Decided on content of New Testament by 200 C.E.<br />
  25. 25. Christianity<br />From Persecution to Triumph [cont.]<br />The Conversion of Constantine<br />Constantine vision in 313 C.E. regarded as Christian sanction of his military career<br />Immediately made Christianity legal<br />Sponsored council at Nicaea that produced Nicene Creed<br />Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the empire in 392 C.E. <br />
  26. 26. Christianity<br />From Persecution to Triumph [cont.]<br />How Had Christianity Succeeded?<br />Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) scorned Christianity but revealed strengths and secrets of the spread in his critique<br />Zeal<br />Promise of future life<br />Miracles<br />Austere morals<br />Created state within a state<br />Created personal community within universal religion<br />
  27. 27. Christianity<br />Doctrine: Definition and Dispute<br />Augustine (354-430 C.E.) emphasized the spiritual rather than the political possibilities<br />Connected Christian theology to Greek philosophy of Plato<br />Emphasized meditation<br />Believed sexuality to be perilous<br />Believers should subordinate their will to the teachings of the church <br />
  28. 28. Christianity<br />Doctrine: Definition and Dispute [cont.]<br />Battle over Dogma<br />Divisive dispute over the divinity of Jesus<br />Arius (250-336 C.E.) thought humanity of Jesus made God more sacred than Jesus<br />Arian dispute led to open warfare and military defeat of the Arians<br />Growth of Christianity sometimes led missionaries to try to convert Jews by coercion<br />
  29. 29. Christianity in Wake of Empire<br />The Conversion of the Barbarians<br />Christian bishops came from ranks of senatorial governing class--continuity with the empire<br />Extensive conversions culminated in conversion of Clovis in 496 C.E., the first barbarian to accept the religion<br />Action got Clovis support and connections from Roman leadership<br />
  30. 30. Christianity in Wake of Empire<br />Decentralized Power and Monastic Life<br />Early church dominated by missionaries who were unmarried men and women<br />Pope Gregory I (590-604 C.E.) encouraged monastic movement; useful in conversion and discipline<br />Church power fragmented in West until 1000 C.E.<br />Monasteries developed missions, schools, and other institutions of church<br />Decisive papal leadership would come later <br />
  31. 31. Christianity in Wake of Empire<br />The Church Divides into East and West<br />Church superceded empire in West but Byzantium never ceded power to the church<br />Eastern church urban and organized; Western church rural and disconnected into local units<br />Rome seen as an outlier of Orthodox church after Council of Chalcedon<br />
  32. 32. Christianity in Wake of Empire<br />Church Divides into East and West [cont.]<br />Split between Rome and Constantinople<br />Central issue was authority of Roman pope from the perspective of Rome and Constantinople<br />Leo IX (elected pope in 1048 C.E.) promoted papal power in the West--and over Constantinople<br />Result was Great Schism of 1054 C.E. onward<br />Most direct confrontation was in 1204 C.E., when western Crusaders attacked Constantinople rather than pursue state purpose of attacking Muslims<br />
  33. 33. Christianity in Wake of Empire<br />Church Divides into East and West [cont.]<br />New Areas Adopt Orthodox Christianity<br />Orthodox monks became active later than monks in the West<br />Caught between Roman West and Islamic East, these missionaries moved north to Russia, which began to call itself the “Third Rome” after the fall of Constantinople<br />East and West competed for converts in areas adjacent to the two religions<br />
  34. 34. Christianity in Wake of Empire<br />Christianity in Western Europe<br />Europe halted Muslim growth at Tours, 732 C.E.<br />Muslim conquests cut Christianity off from the lands of its birth<br />Christianity became primarily a religion of Europeans, often recently-converted “barbarian” warrior nobles <br />
  35. 35. Christianity in Wake of Empire<br />Christianity in Western Europe [cont.]<br />The Pope Allies with the Franks<br />Pope felt surrounded by Muslims and Byzantines as well as by powerful Goths to the north<br />Turned to powerful Franks such as Charles Martel, who defeated Muslim invasion of France at Tours in 732 C.E.<br />Pope gave official approval of Martel’s son, Pepin III, and the Carolingians as royal ruling house of the Franks<br />
  36. 36. Christianity in Wake of Empire<br />Christianity in Western Europe [cont.]<br />Charlemagne Revives Idea of Empire<br />Although crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800 C.E., Charlemagne’s goal was to expand his own empire<br />Victories made his empire coterminous with Christianity except for Great Britain<br />Promoted education as part of Carolingian “renaissance”<br />Charlemagne’s empire paralleled that of the East <br />
  37. 37. Christianity in Wake of Empire<br />Christianity in Western Europe [cont.]<br />The Attempt at Empire Fails<br />Carolingians maintain power until end of 9th century<br />Invaders (Magyars, Norsemen, Arabs) are too powerful to keep out; local administrators act on their own<br />Church institutions and leaders give Europe its fundamental character and order (600-1100 C.E.)<br />
  38. 38. Early Christianity: What Difference Does It Make?<br />First millennium of Christianity ended in “high” Middle Ages<br />By 1000 C.E., church was most important cultural and organizational force in Western Europe<br />Church took on developmental and administrative roles in addition to its spiritual mission<br />
  39. 39. Title<br />