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Christianity Slide Show


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Christianity Slide Show

  2. 2. "At the Beginning of the 20th century, 80 percent of all Christians were white and lived in the northern hemisphere. By the year 2020, 80 percent of all Christians will be people of colour, who live in the Southern Hemisphere." - Keith F. Pecklers
  3. 3. CHRISTIANITY ●Understand how the church has grown, developed, changed throughout history ●Understand the issues and importance of the reformation (including Martin Luther and Catholic response) ●Understand the basic similarities and differences between the various Christian denominations
  4. 4. Definition: ●Everyone who is baptized in Christ is a Christian. However, each baptized person also belongs to a particular family of Christians (i.e. Anglican, Catholic, Baptist etc.). ●Catholics are Christians who belong to the Latin or the Eastern Catholic Churches. ●All Christians however are catholic (with a small c) because Christ is present in all Christian Churches. ●The word catholic means “universal” or “to the whole world.”
  5. 5. The History of Christianity ● Jesus of Nazareth, founder (c. 4 B.C.E – 30 C.E.) ● Apostolic Age ●St. Paul (35 – 64 C.E.) – Apostle to the Gentiles ●Simon Peter (death 64 C.E.) ●Council of Jerusalem (approx 50 C.E.) ●Final Break with Judaism ●Persecution ●Nero (37-68 C.E.) ●Diocletian (284-305 C.E.)
  6. 6. The History of Christianity ● Freedom ●Constantine (280-337 C.E.) ●Battle of Milvian Bridge ●Edict of Milan (313 C.E.) ●Council of Nicea (325 C.E.) - Jesus, the Son, was equal to the Father, one with the Father, and of the same substance (homoousios in Greek). ●Constantinople (capital of Empire 330 C.E.)
  8. 8. The History of Christianity ●The Church Splits ●Council of Chalcedon (Nature of Jesus- divine or human?) (Oct 8-Nov 1, 451) ●Coptic (Egypt) and Jacobite (Syria) split b/c say he is ONLY divine ●Bishop of Rome and Patriarch of Constantinople say he is BOTH divine and human
  9. 9. The History of Christianity ●The Empires Fall ●West (Latin) falls in 476 ●East (Greek) falls in 1453 ●Christianity offers: ●Organizational Structure ●Unity in thought ●Preservation of Culture and Wealth ●The Medieval Church
  10. 10. The History of Christianity ●The Crusades (1096 – 1270) ●1st Crusade – Starts 1095, Antioch captured in 1099 followed by Jerusalem. ●3rd Crusade - Jerusalem lost in 1187 ●4th Crusade – final crusade sponsored by the papacy.
  11. 11. CRUSADES
  12. 12. The History of Christianity ●Eastern Orthodoxy Separates (1054) ● Filioque – "and the son" ●Constantinople vs. Rome ●Capture and sacking of Constantinople by the 4th crusade in 1204. ●Attempts at reconciliation in 1274 and 1439 achieve union between the West and what are know the “Eastern Rite Catholic Churches"
  13. 13. The History of Christianity Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) Rome
  14. 14. What are some of the differences between the Eastern and the Western churches?
  15. 15. The History of Christianity ●The Reformation (16th Century) ●Martin Luther ●95 Thesis ●Indulgences – tickets to heaven ●Simony – sale of Church offices ●Sola Scriptura (Scripture Alone) ●Sola Fide (Faith Alone) ●John Calvin ●The Anabaptists ●The English Church ●King Henry VIII ●
  16. 16. The Protestant Reformation Movement Time/Events People Beliefs Legacy Lutheran Calvin Anabaptists Anglicans Use the internet to research & complete the chart
  17. 17. The English Reformation
  18. 18. DIVISIONS
  19. 19. The History of Christianity ●The Counter Reformation ●Council of Trent ( 3 sessions from 1545 – 1563) ● Doctrine Reaffirmed ● Structural Changes ● Religious Orders ● St. Ignatius Loyola ● Jesuits – scholars and missionaries ●
  20. 20. The History of Christianity ●Scientific Revolution ● Contextual vs. Literal reading of scripture ●Evangelization of the New World ●Secularization (Church State Separation) ● Removing the religious aspects from ceremonies and festivals ●The Ecumenical Movement ● Vatican II (1962 – 1965)
  21. 21. Christianity Today ●Taking into account what you have learned about the different denominations of Christianity… ●Make a VENN diagram illustrating some similarities and differences amongst the 3 Churches. ●What are the connections between the central beliefs of each of the faiths and their architecture?
  22. 22. Tolerance Begins ●During the enlightenment (18th century) the idea of religious tolerance became popular. ●Tolerance = recognizing the right of others to think, live worship according to their own beliefs. ●By 1950 the world had dramatically changed (the Holocaust, world wars, a world-wide depression, and an emerging non-colonial economy). ●The Church no longer wanted to be associated with colonial practices based on the assumption of primitive and false faiths. ●Church began to understand that there are good and worthy parts to other religions that should be understood and appreciated through dialogue and shared goals. ●Official dialogue and openness between Catholics and Protestants begins following Vatican II.
  23. 23. The Move to Ecumenism ●Contradictions among Christians can lead to confusion and go against Jesus’ desire for unity among his followers. Most Christians see the need for greater unity. ●Goal is to do away with conflict and contradictions not difference. ●Ecumenical movement started in 1910 with the purpose of working for Christian unity. ●In 1948 the World Council of Churches was formed to work towards this goal. ●Communion is the goal of ecumenism and dialogue is the means of achieving it.
  24. 24. The Move to Ecumenism Communion: ●Christian churches are already in partial communion due to the fact that they confess Jesus Christ and practice Baptism. ●Remaining roadblocks include: how each church confesses Christ, how they view the Eucharist, Baptism and leadership in the Church. Dialogue is based on two understandings: ●It is more than talking, it means living, praying, studying and working together. ●A universal church will NOT be identical to any existing church.
  25. 25. Required Reading The Catholic Church and the Modern World NOSTRA AETATE, (See appendix)
  26. 26. Questions: Nostra Aetate 1.What specifically does Nostra Aetate refer to? 2.What makes a world religion a world religion? 3.What are the two main places of origins that most world religions fall into? Which religions fall into each? 4.Which religions are focused on seeking eternal life within a single lifespan? Which religions view the time as being cyclical and allow for many lifespan before achieving liberation? 5.How do 4 of the world religions prioritize proselytizing? 6.Why has the study of world religions been advocated by Pope John XXIII?
  27. 27. Answers: Nostra Aetate 1. What specifically does Nostra Aetate refer to? The Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religion 2. What makes a world religion a world religion? The definitive aspect is the influence a particular religion now wields, has exerted in the past, or both. Religion is one of the most pervasive factors in a culture and, as a result, has a lasting effect which sometimes outlasts the religion itself. 3. What are the two main places of origins that most world religions fall into? Which religions fall into each? The Near (Middle-Eastern or sometimes called Western) Beliefs and the far Eastern Beliefs. The three Near Eastern faiths are Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The far Eastern Beliefs include Shintoism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. 4. Which religions are focused on seeking eternal life within a single lifespan? Which religions view the time as being cyclical and allow for many lifespan before achieving liberation? The Near-Eastern religions of Christianity, Judaism and Islam view time as being linear and allow for only one lifetime. The far Eastern Beliefs view time as cyclical in nature and believe in the process of Samsara, or transmigration of the soul from one death into life.
  28. 28. Answers: Nostra Aetate 5. How do 4 of the world religions prioritize proselytizing? ●Both Christianity and Islam have traditionally stressed proselytizing and welcome converts into the faith community as whole members. ●Hinduism does not stress a change in the beliefs in others but is rather flexible in integrating a variety of beliefs systems. ●Lastly, Judaism has often discouraged conversion based upon their dual identity as a faith community and as an ethnically distinct group. 6. Why has the study of world religions been advocated by Pope John XXIII? ●For Catholic Christians, having a better understanding of the multitude of faith beliefs and world views serves many purposes. Knowledge will perpetuate a deeper understanding and tolerance between different peoples and bring the world closer to global peace. ●As Catholics, studying other religions requires that we become better acquainted with our own faith and strengthens our commitment as disciples of God.
  29. 29. The Catholic Church and the Modern World ●Since Vatican II there has been an emphasis in Catholicism on inter-faith dialogue. ●Why might this be? ●Key statements issued by Vatican II: 1.God’s Salvation is Offered to ALL People 2.Jesus Christ is Present in Other Religions ●All authentic religions contain rays of the truth taught by Jesus. The fullness of Christ however can found only where Christ is fully worshiped. 3.The Holy Spirit is at Work in Other Religions ●The same Holy Spirit lives in other religions. Catholics may come to a fuller truth about Jesus by listening to the workings of God in all religions. 4.Dialogue is Part of the Church’s Mission ●Gifts of the Holy Spirit in other faiths must be found by the Church (here dialogue is essential). If the church fails to be receptive of other religions , it may be failing in its own mission to proclaim Christ.
  30. 30. The Catholic Church and the Modern World ●Religious Pluralism (the co-existence of many religions in a society) is practiced in Canada due to our policy of multiculturalism and our Charter of Rights and Freedoms which guarantees “freedom of conscience and religion.” ●At the same time the Catholic church believes in evangelization (bringing the Gospel to others). ●Pope John Paul II called Catholics to a “new evangelization” done with respect for the paths of different people and aimed at purifying their values / bringing them to fullness. ●Part of this “new evangelization” is interfaith dialogue aimed at understanding NOT conversion. ●How is this different from previous forms of evangelization? ●What are some ways of achieving this type of dialogue?
  31. 31. The Catholic Church and the Modern World ●Since Vatican II the Eastern and Western Churches have begun to call one another “sister Churches”; they base themselves on Eucharistic communion and have accepted each other’s Eucharist. ●Dialogue within Western Churches is different; because there is such difference among these churches, dialogue is usually conducted within each church individually or between a small group of denominations. ●The Catholic Church generally works most closely with Anglicans and Lutherans. ●Catholics and Anglicans have reached a high level of agreement on doctrine but disagree about various ethical issues and the ordination of women. The two groups have not yet achieved a shared Eucharist but there is a great deal of cooperation between the churches.
  32. 32. Foundation Stones of Christianity While spreading quickly and throughout the Mediterranean, Christianity remained true to FOUR principles: 1.Keeping alive the memory of Jesus – through the Disciples, the Gospels and Letters 2.Professing ONE faith and system of beliefs – Creeds 3.The Ministers of the Church – Bishops (and later - Priests, Cardinals and Popes) 4.Ecumenical Councils – Meaning worldwide or universal
  33. 33. The APOSTLE’S CREED
  34. 34. I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all worlds; God of God, Light of Light, very God of very God; begotten, not made, being of one substance with the Father, by whom all things were made. Who, for us men and for our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the virgin Mary, and was made man; and was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate; He suffered and was buried; and the third day He rose again, according to the Scriptures; and ascended into heaven, and sits on the right hand of the Father; and He shall come again, with glory, to judge the quick and the dead; whose kingdom shall have no end. And I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Giver of Life; who proceeds from the Father and the Son; who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; who spoke by the prophets. And I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins; and I look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen. The NICENE CREED
  35. 35. CHRISTIAN BELIEFS (Creed)
  36. 36. Christian Beliefs (Creed) Similarities Differences ●Divinity of Jesus ●Holy Scripture ●Trinity ●Sacraments ●Educated religious leaders ●Contextual vs. Literal interpretation of scripture. ●Predestination ●Importance of Mary and the Saints ●Position of Priests ●Leader of the church ●Importance, Timing and Number of Sacraments ●The “LOOK” ●The calendar ●Faith Alone vs. Faith and Works ●Scripture Alone vs. Scripture, Tradition and the Magisterium
  37. 37. JESUS’ MESSAGE (Code) ●Work to establish the Kingdom of God (on EARTH) ●Golden Rule – “Do Unto Others as you would have them do unto you” ●Gratitude and Humility ●Love and Respect for ALL life ●Forgiveness/Mercy and Peaceful cohabitation ●Empathy ●Justice (giving others what is due to them/whatever is needed to live with dignity) and Charity ●Honesty ●Patience ●Courage in the face of hostility ●Individual worship (no need for rituals and temple) ●Common sense interpretation of law ●Preparation for end times (SOON TO COME)
  38. 38. Scripture Re-Cap (Cult) ●Books of the New Testament ●Stages in the creation of the Gospels ● Oral ● Written ● Edited ●Authorship and focus of the Gospels
  39. 39. 65CE: Writes for a group having difficulty accepting that God’s Messiah had to suffer and die a shameful death. 90CE: Wrote like a theologian, dealing with the mystery of Jesus as the Word of God. 85CE: Wrote of Jesus as a Jew and as the new Moses (a continuation of Jewish tradition). 85CE: Wrote for a gentile audience. Portrays Jesus as compassionate messiah. TheGospels
  40. 40. Stone 3: Ministers (Cult) ●Within 30 years of Jesus’ death, churches had been established throughout the Empire ●All had the same structure and organization = episcopos (overseer) or Bishop (Bishops are seen as successors to the Apostles). ●The Pope is the Bishop of Rome ●Today Bishops preside over a Diocese while priests generally preside over a parish or a family of parishes.
  41. 41. Stone 4: Ecumenical Councils ●Since 325 (the Council of Nicaea) bishops have come together in church councils to deal with disagreements and/or threats to the church. ●In church history there have been 21 ecumenical councils, all named after the place in which they were held. ●Labeled “ecumenical” because they bring together the bishops of all churches. Kind of a Big Deal! Vatican II (1962-1965) is the most important church council in modern history. After the Council of Trent the Church did not see any real reform until Vatican II. 2,500 Bishops met in Rome 4 times (for three to four months at a time) to deal with the massive cultural changes that had taken place prior to the 1960’s.
  42. 42. Sacraments (Cult) ●Christians believe that God encounters them at key moments in their lives through the rituals of the sacraments. ●For Catholics the sacraments transmit God’s grace, for Protestants they are symbols of God’s grace. ●Catholics believe that there are seven sacraments. While all other Christians accept Baptism, they do not all accept the other six. ●These sacraments are believed to have their source in Jesus Christ and Church tradition. ●What Jesus did is at work for Christians in the sacraments by the action of the Holy Spirit.
  43. 43. BAPTISM: Water and Oil are used to confer membership in the Church. CONFIRMATION: Oil and the Laying on of Hands signify the gift of the Holy Spirit. One becomes an adult in the church, completing their Baptism. EUCHARIST: Initiation is completed and continued in Sunday Mass. During the Eucharist, everyone who is present participates, affirming their commitment to God’s act of saving and reshaping the world. The highlight of participation is the rite of communion where the people eat and drink the body and blood of Christ. Sacraments of Initiation (Cult)
  44. 44. Sacraments of Healing (Cult) RECONCILIATION Forgiveness for wrongs granted by God through the Priest. ANOINTING OF THE SICK Reconciliation and Eucharist before death or when seriously ill.
  45. 45. Sacraments of Service (Cult) HOLY ORDERS “Marriage to the Church” MATRIMONY Vows, bound by God
  46. 46. The Liturgical Year (Cult) ●Each religion has a certain time set aside for the sacred (Sunday for Christians). ●Religions generally have “high” times or seasons, with special feasts and celebrations. Rituals highlight these times and allow participants to celebrate them. These rituals return in cycles. ●The Catholic calendar starts on the 1st Sunday of Advent (Sunday nearest November 30th ). ●The end of the calendar leads Catholics out of time, as the last Sundays before Advent look forward to the second coming of Christ.
  47. 47. Worship (Cult) ●Sunday mass is seen as a ritual that creates community or Church and as a result participation in mass is essential. ●The Catholic mass consists of two parts; the liturgy of the Word and the liturgy of the Eucharist. ●Sunday was selected by early Christians as a day of worship because it is the day of Christ’s resurrection. ●Mass (or services in the case of Protestantism) and most other Christian rituals take place at the local Parish.
  48. 48. Protestant
  49. 49. Catholic
  50. 50. Orthodox
  51. 51. Worship (Cult) ●The home and family also play key roles in the Christian faith. ●Jesus taught to “pray always.” for this reason Christians set aside times throughout the day to pray. Generally, they are encouraged to pray in the morning, evening and before meals. ●In the Catholic tradition marriage is a sacrament and Catholic couples are called to be “domestic church.” In other words, couples are called to teach their children and those around them faith in Christ and the sort of love Jesus had for people through their words and actions.
  52. 52. Easter (Cult)
  53. 53. Easter (Cult) ●Celebrated on the first Sunday after the full moon following the spring equinox. ●For Catholics the celebration of the Paschal Mystery begins with Mass on Holy Thursday and ends with evening prayer on Easter Sunday (the entire celebration is known as the Triduum). ●The most solemn liturgy occurs on Holy Saturday night (the Easter Vigil). During the Vigil, new members are baptized, confirmed and admitted to the Eucharist. ●The Easter season lasts 50 days and ends with the feast of Pentecost (Greek for “fiftieth day”)
  54. 54. Christmas (Cult)
  55. 55. Christmas (Cult) ●Celebrates the birth of Jesus and the arrival of the Magi to pay homage to him (on Epiphany). ●In the Western Church Christmas is celebrated on December 25th . The Eastern Church, using the Julian calendar, celebrates it on January 7th .
  56. 56. Feast Days (Cult) ●Because saints resemble in different ways, the person of Christ, Catholics often turn to saints in prayer to intercede with God and as examples of how we should live our lives. ●In Mary, the Church sees the best example of what the work of Christ can do in a human being. ●Saints remain part of the Church. Together with all the baptized, they form the communion of saints. ●The extent to which feast days are celebrated varies between churches; in general, Protestant churches observe far fewer than Catholic and Orthodox.
  57. 57. The New Age of Protestantism Fundamentalism: A return to the basics of the Christian faith. Read the bible literally and reject theories of evolution. Evangelicalism: Since the 18th century efforts have been made to revive the enthusiasm of early protestant spirituality (ex. Methodism breaks off from the Anglican church). This period is known as the great awakening in US history and has given rise to periodic revivals. This movement became known as evangelicalism. Evangelicalism involves a call to personal conversion as a conscious experience (being born again) as well as a renewed emphasis on the authority of the bible, behaving honourably and spreading the Gospel through missionary activity. Evangelicals often de-emphasize official church membership and formal creeds.
  58. 58. The New Age of Protestantism them and helps them share their faith. Pentecostalism preaches God’s judgment of the world and states that the message of Christ and the world are on a collision course. Holds that believers can seek to be baptized in the HS and believes in what are seen as signs of the HS’s presence (speaking in tongues). Liberalism: An attempt to adapt to contemporary culture, finding common ground with modernity and its search for reason, with scientific and tech advances and with modern political structures. Pentecostalism: Emerged as a response to the liberal views above. Accepts the bible as the word of God without error. Believes that the Holy Spirit (HS) guides them in how they should live, strengthens
  59. 59. IMPORTANT TERMS ●Jesus ●Early church (family and persecution) ●“cult” of Christianity ●Church and the middle east (crusades) ●Protestant Reformation/Catholic Reformation ●Martin Luther ●Scientific revolution ●Secularization of Christianity (modern issues) ●Protestant, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglican, Orthodox, Catholic etc.