Inequalities in health - lifestyle
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  • 1. Inequalities in Health: Lifestyle Factors
  • 2. Lifestyle and Health
    • A person’s lifestyle is believed to have a significant effect on their health.
    Lifestyle factors include: Diet Obesity & Smoking, drinking and drugs Environment and unemployment Exercise
  • 3. The main causes of rising obesity levels are poor diet and lack of exercise
    • High fat content – we eat 50% more fat than in 1960. Fat contains twice the calories of protein and carbohydrate.
    Cause of obesity: diet Cause of obesity: lack of exercise Energy imbalance
    • Energy expenditure amongst children has decreased by 800 calories a day since the 1950s.
    • So, not only is the population getting fatter , but it is getting fatter younger
  • 4. Diet
  • 5. Diet Obesity is calculated by a person’s body mass index – BMI – weight in kg divided by height in m 2 BMI > 25 = overweight BMI > 30 = obese Obesity BMI = weight in kg height in m 2
  • 6. Obesity International Comparison (OECD, 2005)
  • 7. Obesity in the UK During last 25 years, the rate of obesity in adults has quadrupled in the UK. In England, 43% of men and 34% of women were classified as overweight and 22% of men and 23 % of women were classified as clinically obese. This means that over half of all adults weigh more than their recommended weight. (OECD 2005) Obesity
  • 8. Children and Obesity ( (www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/ 2005)
  • 9. Link between diet and ill health
  • 10. Link between diet and ill health
    • Obesity can lead to a variety of health problems.
    • These include:
    • high blood pressure
    • coronary heart disease
    • osteoarthritis
    • diabetes
    • A National Audit Office Study from 2002 estimated that obesity cost the NHS £500 million a year and the cost to the country overall has been put at up to £7.4 billion per annum.
    Obesity
  • 11. Causes
    • 1998 news report in the Herald newspaper described the increase in the number of diabetes cases caused by bad diet as ‘’the diabetes time bomb’.
    • Between now and 2010, the number of Type II diabetes sufferers will increase from 1 to 3 million.
      • Too many cakes and biscuits
      • Fizzy drinks
      • Fatty diet
      • Not enough exercise
    • ‘’ Diabetes could bankrupt the NHS’’.
    • 1998, news report in the Herald newspaper described the increase in the number of diabetes cases caused by bad diet as ‘’the diabetes time bomb’
    • Between now and 2010, the number of Type 11 diabetes sufferers will increase from 1 to 3 million.
      • Too many cakes and biscuits.
      • Fizzy drinks
      • Fatty diet
      • Not enough exercise
    • ‘’ Diabetes could bankrupt the NHS’’
    Fast Food Industry is the fastest growing area of food retailing and is worth £3b a year in sales.
  • 12. Obesity is a gender issue (Report of the Measuring Inequalities in Health Working Group (Scotland), November 2003) More females are obese than males. In females, obesity levels are increasing amongst the less well off but remain the same for the better off. In males, obesity levels are increasing amongst both socio-economic groups.
  • 13. Obesity is also a class issue (Report of the Measuring Inequalities in Health Working Group (Scotland), November 2003) Obesity levels are higher the lower the social class. Social class I – 10% are obese. Obesity levels in the lowest social class are similar to those in the USA. Social class IV – 20% are obese Social class V – 25% are obese.
  • 14. Differences in diet between social classes and genders
    • Graphs show that:
    • The percentage of people in the least affluent group who do not eat fresh fruit on a daily basis is much higher than in the more affluent group.
    Most affluent group: No daily fruit Females: 31% Males: 45% Least affluent group: No daily fruit Females : 55% Males: 69% Cost?
    • Consumption of fruit and vegetables is higher amongst females in both groups.
    • Consumption of fruit and vegetables on a daily basis has increased generally but the increase has been higher in the more affluent group.
    • Males in the least affluent group have made little progress.
  • 15.  
  • 16. Link between diet, social class and ill health (Report of the Measuring Inequalities in Health Working Group (Scotland), November 2003) Incidence of Chronic Illness by Social Class (per 10,000 of population) 1999 Income decreases Most affluent group who do not eat fruit daily Females: 31% Males: 45% Least affluent group who do not eat fruit daily Females : 55% Males: 69% 235 187 163 141 132 98 Musculoskeletal 70 53 42 32 34 30 Digestive 102 80 71 64 58 56 Respiratory 134 117 95 77 90 67 Heart E D C2 C1 B A Condition
  • 17. The James Report
    • In 1993, a Government Working Party produced the ‘James Report’ on Scotland’s diet.
    • The Report confirmed Scotland’s poor eating habits and identified it as one of the main causes of Scotland’s poor health record. Poor diet was the reason why Scotland had:
    Scotland's record the highest rates of mortality in the Western world the highest morbidity rates from coronary heart disease, cancer and stroke poor dental record.
  • 18. Scotland - the facts! 1 in 8 children in Scotland are officially overweight. Scottish boys are the fattest in Europe. Almost 100% ate sweets every day. 75% ate crisps and fizzy drinks as snacks every day. The facts! 24% of 15 year olds in the West of Scotland eat 4 or more snacks a day. 28% of adults eat fresh fruit and 20% eat fresh vegetables once a week or less. 17% of adults in the district of Renfrew eat less than one full meal a day.
  • 19. The James Report The average Scottish diet is: Scotland's Diet deficient in fibre and certain vitamins contains too much sugar contains too much salt contains too much saturated fat. deficient in fruit and vegetables
  • 20. The James Report Recommendations Children's Diets 3-4 portions of fruit and vegetables per day 75% should eat fish twice a week and meat less than twice a week Cereals, granary bread twice a day Most should consume semi- skimmed milk Sweets and cake consumption should be reduced Disadvantaged should be helped to follow a good diet
  • 21. Children's Diets More controversial recommendations The James Report Recommendations Ban food adverts on children’s TV Minimum age at which children can leave school at lunchtime Stop sale of sweets, salty snacks, fizzy drinks in schools No junk food outlets near schools Scandinavia has already banned food adverts on children’s TV. Arguments: limits choice? ‘ Nanny state’ gone mad?
  • 22. Benefits to Health of Regular Exercise
    • 25% of strokes could be avoided and there could be a
    • 20% reduction in mortality after a heart attack, if regular exercise was taken
    • Yet, according to a Scottish Health Survey (‘’Working Towards a Healthier Scotland, 1999’’)
    • 62% of women
    • 53% of men
    • do not get enough regular exercise
    • and
    • 26% of women
    • 23% of men
    • do not get any regular exercise.
    ''Sport for All'' campaigns
  • 23. Percentage of people taking NO exercise ( (‘’Working Towards a Healthier Scotland, 1999’’) by age 55-64 0 25 50 75 16-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 65-74 Percentage Age group
  • 24. Percentage of people taking NO exercise ( ‘’Working Towards a Healthier Scotland, 1999’’) 32% 33% 35% 43% 42% 30% by social class by gender 0 25 50 AB C1 C2 DE Women Men 0 25