EQ4: How can the impacts of health risk be manage? Aims: To examine how health risks have led to differing management stra...
Develop an awareness of why some health risks and environments are harder to manage than others;  such as indirect spin-of...
Ageing In almost every country, the proportion of people aged over 60 years is growing faster than any other age group, as...
What are the public health implications of global ageing? From 2000 until 2050, the world's population aged 60 and over wi...
Depression “ Significant and pervasive lowering of mood leading to difficulties in leading a normal life” Pearson, 2009
Depression <ul><li>Likely to be one of world’s biggest burdens in 21 st  century </li></ul><ul><li>More common in women th...
Depression causes 37% of disability in the UK
Depression and other mental disorders account for 38% of benefit claims
And yet….. <ul><li>Depression and anxiety attract only 2% of NHS expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>The total loss of output fr...
Obesity “ A condition in which an excess of body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affec...
Obesity <ul><li>Estimated annual costs to NHS in Coventry of diseases related to overweight and obesity  </li></ul><ul><li...
 
All info from  Healthy Weight; Healthy Lives – A cross Government Strategy for England, 2008 – Section A  is on the VLE Th...
Diabetes Rapidly becoming one of world’s most common diseases. “ Any of the various disorders especially diabetes mellitus...
Diabetes New figures by the Yorkshire and Humber Public Health Observatory reveal that more than one in ten deaths among 2...
Diabetes <ul><li>Estimated to cost the NHS £1million an hour </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts for 1/10 of the NHS budget </li></...
Diabetes - USA <ul><li>Total cost to country = $218billion in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>This cost included all direct medical...
Management <ul><li>Should the state be involved in managing our obesity and diabetes issues? </li></ul><ul><li>The state s...
Malaria  <ul><li>http://apps.who.int/malaria/aboutus.html   </li></ul>About 3.3 billion people - half of the world's popul...
Malaria Malaria causes an average loss of 1.3% of annual economic growth in countries with intense transmission.  It traps...
Managing Malaria At a Local Level The incidence of malaria in Usa, Tanzania has dropped dramatically since a local bednet ...
Malaria <ul><li>What does your reading tell you is the most effective management strategy to  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preven...
HIV/AIDS <ul><li>Management of HIV/ AIDs   powerpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Tanzania as a case study of success </li></ul><ul>...
So far we have looked at LONG TERM management strategies and policies. What about short term? Use the BBC’s Swine Flu pand...
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Eq 4.2

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Eq 4.2

  1. 1. EQ4: How can the impacts of health risk be manage? Aims: To examine how health risks have led to differing management strategies and policies
  2. 2. Develop an awareness of why some health risks and environments are harder to manage than others; such as indirect spin-offs from modern societies and consumerism like ageing populations, depression, obesity and diabetes (hard to tackle as numbers constantly rising – highest levels in MEDCs BUT NICs increasing rapidly) **Refer to section 2 work** or the impacts of corruption and poor governance on malaria and HIV/AIDS
  3. 3. Ageing In almost every country, the proportion of people aged over 60 years is growing faster than any other age group, as a result of both longer life expectancy and declining fertility rates. This population ageing can be seen as a success story for public health policies and for socioeconomic development, but it also challenges society to adapt, in order to maximize the health and functional capacity of older people as well as their social participation and security. http://www.who.int/topics/ageing/en/ Ageing Populations
  4. 4. What are the public health implications of global ageing? From 2000 until 2050, the world's population aged 60 and over will more than triple from 600 million to 2 billion. Most of this increase is occurring in developing countries - where the number of older people will rise from 400 million in 2000 to 1.7 billion by 2050. This demographic change has several implications for public health. Good health is essential for older people to remain independent and to play a part in family and community life. Life-long health promotion and disease prevention activities can prevent or delay the onset of non-communicable and chronic diseases, such as heart disease, stroke and cancer. When these conditions do occur in older people, primary health services must provide accessible, integrated and regular care. Chronic diseases require monitoring in order to minimize the development of associated disabilities and negative effects on the quality of life. The ongoing nature of the care means it is more effectively provided in community-based settings, such as primary health care centres. Public health action can draw on the capacities of older people. For example, the world's growing population of older people plays a critical role through volunteering, transmitting experience and knowledge, helping their families with caring responsibilities and increasing their participation in the paid labour force. http://www.who.int/features/qa/42/en/index.html
  5. 5. Depression “ Significant and pervasive lowering of mood leading to difficulties in leading a normal life” Pearson, 2009
  6. 6. Depression <ul><li>Likely to be one of world’s biggest burdens in 21 st century </li></ul><ul><li>More common in women than men </li></ul><ul><li>More men kill selves than women </li></ul>
  7. 7. Depression causes 37% of disability in the UK
  8. 8. Depression and other mental disorders account for 38% of benefit claims
  9. 9. And yet….. <ul><li>Depression and anxiety attract only 2% of NHS expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>The total loss of output from business due to depression and chronic anxiety is £12billion p.a. = 1% of total national income </li></ul><ul><li>10-20% of cases become CHRONIC </li></ul><ul><li>Management combines social, psychological and pharmacological approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Read PA p372 for global perspective </li></ul><ul><li>From The Depression Report, 2006 – on VLE </li></ul>
  10. 10. Obesity “ A condition in which an excess of body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affected. It is commonly defined as a BMI > 30kg/m 2 ” Pearson, 2009
  11. 11. Obesity <ul><li>Estimated annual costs to NHS in Coventry of diseases related to overweight and obesity </li></ul><ul><li>2007 = £96.1 million </li></ul><ul><li>2010 = £99.7 million </li></ul><ul><li>2015 = £106.6 million </li></ul><ul><li>Patients being overweight or obese cost UK NHS £4.2 billion in 2007 </li></ul>
  12. 13. All info from Healthy Weight; Healthy Lives – A cross Government Strategy for England, 2008 – Section A is on the VLE The rest can be downloaded at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_082378
  13. 14. Diabetes Rapidly becoming one of world’s most common diseases. “ Any of the various disorders especially diabetes mellitus, characterised by excretion of an abnormally large amount of urine. There is a STRONG link between obesity and diabetes.” Pearson, 2009
  14. 15. Diabetes New figures by the Yorkshire and Humber Public Health Observatory reveal that more than one in ten deaths among 20 to 79-year-olds in England can be attributed to diabetes. If current trends continue, one in eight deaths among 20 to 79-year-olds will be attributable to the condition by 2010. Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) with the highest percentage of diabetes-attributable deaths are areas with a higher than average proportion of the population over 40 and where there are large numbers of over 40s of Asian and Black origin, who are at greater risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. These areas also have high levels of deprivation compared to PCTs with the lowest proportion of deaths. Full Article on VLE – source: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/117896.php
  15. 16. Diabetes <ul><li>Estimated to cost the NHS £1million an hour </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts for 1/10 of the NHS budget </li></ul><ul><li>Complications include heart disease, kidney failure, blindness and amputation </li></ul>
  16. 17. Diabetes - USA <ul><li>Total cost to country = $218billion in 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>This cost included all direct medical costs plus indirect costs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lost productivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early retirement due to ill health </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Management <ul><li>Should the state be involved in managing our obesity and diabetes issues? </li></ul><ul><li>The state says YES due to the economic costs both direct and indirect </li></ul><ul><li>Read PA page 372 Challenges to consider how effective these interventions maybe </li></ul>
  18. 19. Malaria <ul><li>http://apps.who.int/malaria/aboutus.html </li></ul>About 3.3 billion people - half of the world's population - are at risk of malaria. Every year, this leads to about 250 million malaria cases and nearly one million deaths. People living in the poorest countries are the most vulnerable. Malaria is especially a serious problem in Africa, where one in every five (20%) childhood deaths is due to the effects of the disease. An African child has on average between 1.6 and 5.4 episodes of malaria fever each year. And every 30 seconds a child dies from malaria.
  19. 20. Malaria Malaria causes an average loss of 1.3% of annual economic growth in countries with intense transmission. It traps families and communities in a downward spiral of poverty, disproportionately affecting marginalized and poor people who cannot afford treatment or who have limited access to health care. Malaria has lifelong effects through increased poverty and impaired learning. It cuts attendance at schools and workplaces. However, it is preventable and curable.
  20. 21. Managing Malaria At a Local Level The incidence of malaria in Usa, Tanzania has dropped dramatically since a local bednet factory began distributing insecticide-treated nets here as part of a project supported by the World Health Organization . Usa is surrounded by verdant rice paddies, which serve as fertile breeding ground for the malaria-transmitting Anopheles mosquito. Local farmers such as 26-year-old Judy Nico used to suffer repeatedly from malaria attacks. But five years ago she received insecticide-treated nets to cover each bed and window, and the attacks have subsided. Unfortunately, at $5 each, these nets remain too expensive for many poor African families to afford. World Vision See also Zanzibar example, DDT and malaria and home management articles. Investigate www.who.int/en for more
  21. 22. Malaria <ul><li>What does your reading tell you is the most effective management strategy to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent malaria spreading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control its spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cure it once when it has taken hold? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>Management of HIV/ AIDs powerpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Tanzania as a case study of success </li></ul><ul><li>Mismanagement in South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>What makes management effective? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes it ineffective? </li></ul><ul><li>In MEDCs, why is HIV/AIDS STILL increasing? Consider p372 PA and the idea of a perception filter (from previous work) </li></ul>
  23. 24. So far we have looked at LONG TERM management strategies and policies. What about short term? Use the BBC’s Swine Flu pandemic pages to investigate: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/world/2009/swine_flu/default.stm Or issues too big for one government? PA p373 – The Health Risks of the Asian Tsunami

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