1. Considering Individual Differences One way to account for individual differences is to modify the events of instruction. Compare and contrast the instructional events of a model of direct instruction (be sure to identify the source of the model) and the 4MAT system developed by Bernice McCarthy.Developed by W. Huitt, 1999
2. Considering Individual DifferencesIn general, there are three differentapproaches for dealing with individualdifferences among students: • Develop events of instruction that take into account individual differences • Provide some sort of grouping in order to reduce or accommodate the variability with respect to student background, achievement, ability or some other characteristic.
3. Considering Individual DifferencesIn general, there are three differentapproaches for dealing with individualdifferences among students: • Modify the conditions within which instruction is taking place.
4. The 4MAT SystemThe 4MAT system is a strategy for dealingwith individual differences is to develop ormodify the events of instruction so that theyspecifically address individual differences.It is a direct instruction approach to teachingthat utilizes research on brain lateralizationdominance and learning style to identifyspecific instructional events that will beattractive to a specific type of student.
5. The 4MAT System According to Bernice McCarthy, developer of the 4MAT system, there are 4 major learning styles, each of which asks different questions and displays different strengths during the learning process. These styles are based on the work of Gregorc & Butler (1984) and are similar to the temperaments as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kiersy Temperament Sorter.Gregorc, A., & Butler, K. (1984, April). Learning is a matter of style.VocEd, 27-29.
6. The 4MAT SystemConcrete-RandomSP (Sensing/Perceiving) WHY?Sanquine
7. The 4MAT SystemAbstract-SequentialNJ (Intuitive/Judging) WHAT?Choleric
8. The 4MAT SystemConcrete-SequentialSJ (Sensing/Judging) HOW?Melancholy
9. The 4MAT SystemAbstract-RandomNP (Intuitive/Perceiving) IF?Phlegmatic
10. The 4MAT System
11. The 4MAT SystemEach learning style is associated with bothleft- and right-brain learners. Left Right Logical, rational, Intuitive, sequential, serial, emotional, holistic, verbal parallel, and tactile-kinesthetic
12. The 4MAT SystemThe 4MAT system is designed to provide everystudent with a preferred task during everylesson. There are the 8 instructional eventsproposed by this system.
13. The 4MAT SystemSTEP LEFT MODE RIGHT MODE WHY? 1 Create an experience Reflect/Analyze 2 about experience
14. The 4MAT SystemSTEP LEFT MODE RIGHT MODE WHAT? 3 Integrate into concepts Develop concepts 4 and skills
15. The 4MAT SystemSTEP LEFT MODE RIGHT MODE HOW? 5 Practice defined givens Add something 6 of oneself
16. The 4MAT SystemSTEP LEFT MODE RIGHT MODE IF? 7 Analyze application for relevance Add something 8 of oneself
17. The 4MAT SystemThe 4MAT system seems to have considerableface validity, although there is not a widespreadresearch base to support it.However, following the 4MAT system forcesthe teacher to provide her students withopportunities to engage in higher-orderthinking.