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Pgd0015 group dynamic topic 2

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Pgd0015 group dynamic topic 2

  1. 1. Experiential Learning TOPIC 2 Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills , 10e David W. Johnson & Frank P. Johnson © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Group activity: Your skill level
  3. 3. 1. Reflect on the 10 th different answers to the question “Who am I” <ul><li>Count how many group memberships you belongs to – compare with your friends </li></ul><ul><li>Are those list considered you are a member of a group? </li></ul><ul><li>What is your role? </li></ul><ul><li>Which one is much more important – as individual or in a group? </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2. Answer the following: <ul><ul><li>1. How do you see yourself as a group member? What is your pattern of behaviour in functioning within groups? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. What are your strengths in functioning in groups? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. What situations within groups do you have trouble with and why? How do you feel when faced with them? How do you handle them? How would you like to handle them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. What group skills do you wish to improve? What changes would you like to make in your present group behavior? What new strengths in group behavior would you care to develop? What new group skills would you like to acquire? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. 3 important point must know! <ul><li>Procedural Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Action Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Experiential Learning </li></ul>
  6. 6. Procedural Learning (PL) <ul><li>Learn the theory conceptually (eg: Theory to get straight As in exam) </li></ul><ul><li>Translate this conceptual understanding into a set of skills </li></ul><ul><li>Use the learned skills </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate errors in using the skills by practice so that you would achieve routine use, automated level of mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Only by using group skills will you gain an understanding of what group dynamics is and how useful it can be. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Action Theories (AT) <ul><li>Theories about what steps need to be taken to achieve a desired consequence in a given situation. </li></ul><ul><li>When behavior is automatic, action theories are based on tacit knowledge (common sense) – we are rarely aware of them (hard to explain eg: how to tackle a girl?) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Experiential Learning (EL) <ul><li>Generating an action theory from one’s own experiences and then continually modifying it to improve one’s effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, the learner’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive structures change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes are modified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral repertoire is expanded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The three elements are interconnected – one’s whole cognitive-affective behavioral system has to change. Change in only one component will not do it </li></ul>
  9. 9. Take action on the basis of one’s current action theory ------------------------------------- Implement revised action theory by taking modified action Reflect on how effective actions were and reformulate/refine the action theory Assess consequences and obtain feedback Kurt Lewin’s 4 stage s of EL process
  10. 10. Principles of Experiential Learning <ul><li>People will believe more in knowledge they discovered themselves than in knowledge presented by others </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions of oneself and one’s social environment must change before changes in action theories, attitudes and behaviors will take place. </li></ul><ul><li>The more supportive and caring the social environment, the freer the person is to experiment with new behaviors, attitudes and action theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Group context is better than individual context. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the person and the social environment change </li></ul><ul><li>A person accepts a new system of action theories, attitudes and behavioral patterns when he/she accepts membership in a new group </li></ul>
  11. 11. Learning Group Skills <ul><li>Understand the relevance of the skill </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the skill, its component behaviors, and when it should be used </li></ul><ul><li>Find situations where you can practice the skill over and over again with a coach </li></ul><ul><li>Assess how well the skill is implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Keep practicing until the skill becomes automatic </li></ul><ul><li>Set up manageable practice units </li></ul><ul><li>Get friends to encourage you use the skill </li></ul><ul><li>Help others learn the skill </li></ul>
  12. 12. “ All Men By Nature Desire To Learn ” Aristotle <ul><li>Experiential learning stresses psychological success, the sense of accomplishment in learning </li></ul><ul><li>What leads to success? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are able to define your own goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goals are related to your central needs and values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are able to define the paths that lead to the accomplishment of the goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goals represent a realistic aspiration for you </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Learning How To Be A Participant-Observer Participate actively Observe group members’ actions and the overall group process Give and receive feedback Engage in modified behavior in next group meeting Reflect on feedback personally and jointly with other group members and set goals for improvements
  14. 14. Observing A Group In Action <ul><li>Describing and recording behavior as it occurs (How often are certain events or actions happening?)  inferences about the group process </li></ul><ul><li>Problem: potential lack of objectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: structured coding systems </li></ul><ul><li>Define exactly the behaviors, skills and events being observed </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the time period of data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Enter the actions in question in the 1 st column, and make additional columns for each member of the group. Make a final column to record the total for each row </li></ul>
  15. 15. A Typical Skill Training Session <ul><li>Introduction, warm up discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Participants conceptualize, analyze and summarize their experience, with the help of discussion questions and data feedback </li></ul><ul><li>General session – integration of learnings, theory, and research </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how to apply the learnings and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul>
  16. 16. Summary <ul><li>Action theory  action  reflection  new (refined) action theory  action  reflection, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive refinement of knowledge and skills as the procedures are practiced, practiced and practiced </li></ul><ul><li>Participation and observation </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical concerns </li></ul>


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