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17 d microbiological study   arabic fc
17 d microbiological study   arabic fc
17 d microbiological study   arabic fc
17 d microbiological study   arabic fc
17 d microbiological study   arabic fc
17 d microbiological study   arabic fc
17 d microbiological study   arabic fc
17 d microbiological study   arabic fc
17 d microbiological study   arabic fc
17 d microbiological study   arabic fc
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17 d microbiological study arabic fc

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  • 1. EMHJ • Vol. 18 No. 6 • 2012 Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal La Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée orientale 653 ‫ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ‬ ،‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺟﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ 2 ‫ﻋﲇ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺿﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ‬ 1 ‫ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﳏﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‬ Microbiological study of spiced chicken burgers in Tripoli City, Libya ABSTRACT We investigated the microbiological quality of uncooked and cooked spiced chicken burger in restaurants and fast food places in Tripoli city and surrounding areas. Thus 120 samples (64 cooked and 56 uncooked) were analysed microbiologically. All the samples were highly contaminated with bacteria: 66.6%, 25.9%, 29.6%, 20.3% and 12.9% of the uncooked samples were contaminated with Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli 0157:H7 and salmonella respectively. Additionally 10.9%, 3.1%, 4.68%, 3.12% and 1.56 of the cooked samples were contaminated with E. coli, Aeromonas spp., E. coli 0157:H7, S. aureus and salmonella respectively. ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﴪﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻣﺎﻛﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻞ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺱ‬ :‫ﺍﳋﻼﺻـﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛ‬‫ﱡ‬‫ﺗﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺛﺔ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻣﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺟﺪﺍ‬ .‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﲢﻠﻴ‬ (‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﺥ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ 56‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﺥ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ 64) ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 120 ‫ﺑﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺎﻣﺎ‬ .‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ‬ %29.6‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﻒ‬ %25.9‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻳﴩﻳﻜﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %66.6 ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺜﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﺔ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻣﻠﻮ‬ %10.9 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﲈ‬ .‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﺎﳌﻮﻧﻴﻼﺕ‬ 12.9‫ﻭ‬ ،H7:0157 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻳﴩﻳﻜﻴﺎ‬ %20.3‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺎﺕ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺛﺔ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻣﻠﻮ‬ 1.56‫ﻭ‬ ،H7:0157 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻳﴩﻳﻜﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﺔ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻣﻠﻮ‬ %4.68‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻟﺰﻭﺍﺋﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ %3.1‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﻳﴩﻳﻜﻴﺎ‬ (shrekym@yahoo.com) :‫ﺍﻹﻟﻜﱰﻭﲏ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﱪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ‬ ،‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ،‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻏﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻢ‬1 ‫ﻟﻴﺒﻴﺎ‬ ،‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﻤﻮﻳﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺨﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﴍﻛﺔ‬2 09/12/23 :‫ﺍﻟﻘﺒﻮﻝ‬ ،09/10/28 :‫ﺍﻻﺳﺘﻼﻡ‬ 1 Y.M. El Shrek, Food Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural, El Fatteh University, Tripoli, Libya. 2 M.R.M. Ali, The First Group Company to Ration Services, Tripoli, Libya. Étude microbiologique de burgers de poulet épicés dans la ville de Tripoli (Libye) RÉSUMÉ Nous avons évalué la qualité microbiologique de burgers de poulet épicés crus et cuits dans des établissements de restauration traditionnelle ou de restauration rapide dans la ville de Tripoli et les environs. Au total, 120 échantillons (64 cuits et 56 crus) ont été analysés microbiologiquement. Tous les échantillons étaient fortement contaminés par des bactéries : 66,6 %, 25,9 %, 29,6 %, 20,3 % et 12,9 % des échantillons crus étaient contaminés par Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli 0157:H7 entérohémorragique et des salmonelles, respectivement. En outre, 10,9 %, 3,1 %, 4,68 %, 3,12 % et 1,56 % des échantillons cuits étaient contaminés par E. coli, Aeromonas spp., E. coli 0157:H7 entérohémorragique, S. aureus et des salmonelles respectivement.
  • 2. ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﴩﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﻋﴩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ 654 ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻬﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﱪﻭﺗﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ،‫ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﺎﻣﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻮﺍﺋﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻔﻀﻞ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﺴﻴﻮﻡ‬ (B) ،‫ﺍﳊﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻟﻮﺭﻱ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻓﻤﺤﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﳊﻤﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﲢﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻏﺒﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻌﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻊ‬ ،‫ﺃﻭﺯﺍﳖﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻟﻮﺭﻱ‬ 130 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 117 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ 320 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 180 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘـﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺑﻘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻛﲈ‬ .‫ﻛﺎﻟﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺻﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺎﻫﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺘـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﴇ‬ ‫ﲠﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻫﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬ ،‫ﺑﺮﻭﺗﲔ‬ %23.4 ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﳛﺘﻮﻱ‬ .[1] pH ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﻣﺎﺀ‬ %73.8 ،‫ﺩﻫﻦ‬ %1.2 ‫ﺍﻷﲪﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻼﺣﻆ‬ .6.2 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 5.7 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻫﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻫﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺸﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻫﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﲪﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ .[2] ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﻟﺴﱰﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺳﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺟﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺼﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺑﻘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒـﺮﻭﺗﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﳌﺎﺀ‬ ،￯‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ،‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺒﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﲢﺪﺩ‬ .‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﲈ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ،‫ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ H7:0157 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ :‫ﻣﺜـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﺮﺿـﺔ‬ .[3] ‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﳌﻮﻧﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ [4] ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬‫ﳊﻢ‬‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻮﻗ‬ 17 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ،‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 232 ‫ﺃﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %74.5 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬%79.1‫ﻭ‬‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﻱ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬‫ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %23.4 ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ %39.5‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﻱ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ‬ [5] ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻏﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﲈﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 23 ‫ﺃﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %20 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ،%86.9 ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﲠﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ %67 ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 59 ‫ﺃﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 40 ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻮﺑﻴــﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬ .Aeromonas hydrophila ، A. sobira ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ [6] ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬‫ﺑﺘﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬،‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬559 ‫ﻓﻮﺟﺪ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﳌﻮﻧﻴﻼ‬‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 239 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ،‫012/ﻏﺮﺍﻡ‬ × 5.0 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ %12 ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺎﳌﻮﻧﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 10 × 5 ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ‬ [7] ￯‫ﺃﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ (‫)ﻭ.ﺕ.ﻡ/ﻏﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ H7:0157 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻘﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ H7:0157 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴـﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬ 4 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 2.25 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻃﻬﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ .‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ 137 ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ tryptic soy agar ‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬ H7:0157 ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ‬ sorbitol MacConkey agar ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ‬ .H7:0157 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﲤﺜﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺪﳑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻬﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺐ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﹸﺴ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ،H7:0157 ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﴘ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬،‫ﱢﲔ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴ‬‫ﺍﻷﻃﻔﺎﻝ‬￯‫ﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺧﺼﻮﺻ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ￯‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﴩ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﴩﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﺎﺭﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻓﻘ‬ .[10-8] ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻴـﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﻨـﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﲥﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺟﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬‫ﻧﻄﺎﻕ‬‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻫﻲ‬‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺘﻬﺎ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﺔ‬‫ﹺ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﹾ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﳌ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ .‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﻧﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺟﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﲨﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﲑﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﺍﻡ‬ 45 ‫ﺍﻟﴪﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻃﻌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﳏﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ‬ ،‫ﻭﺿﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻠﻎ‬ .‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 56) ‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 120 ‫ﻋﺎﺯﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ .(‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 64‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻮﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﻠﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ .‫ﲨﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲡﻬﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﳊـﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗـﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺠﺎﻧﺴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗـﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﻏـﻢ‬ 15 ‫ﻭﻧﻘـﻞ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺟﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﹶﺬ‬‫ﻐ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﳌـﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣـﻞ‬ 135 ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ‫ﺯﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻵﻟﺊ‬ ‫ﻭﲠﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻘﻤﺔ‬ (nutrient broth) ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﳊﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﲑﺓ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻌﴩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﲈﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹶﺖ‬‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﹺ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﹸ‬‫ﻭﺣ‬ ‫ﻱ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﹶﺬ‬‫ﻐ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻤ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺖ‬‫ﹶ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺴﺘﻨ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻣ‬ .[11] ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ 48 ‫73˚ﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺣـﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ most probable number ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻧﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻣـﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﻤـﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹶﺖ‬‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﹺ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﹸ‬‫ﻭﺣ‬ (MacConkey broth) .[3] ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ 48 - 24 ‫ﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 37 ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻔﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﴬﺓ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﺍﻟـﺨ‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﹶ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﲈﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹶﺖ‬‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﹺ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﹸ‬‫ﻭﺣ‬ brilliant green bile broth ‫ﲪﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ 24 ‫ﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 44.5 ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ .[3] ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ O157 :H7 Escherichia coli ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬ (1- 10) ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﳏﻠﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴـﻢ‬ ‫ﻋـﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ 4 ‫ﳌـﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﹶﺖ‬‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﹺ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﹸ‬‫ﻭﺣ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ،‫ﻹﻧﻌﺎﺷﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 37 ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻧﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻧﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻏﺎﺭ‬ MacConkey agar ‫ﰲ‬ sorbitol MacConkey agar ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻮﺭﺑﻴﺘﻮﻝ‬
  • 3. EMHJ • Vol. 18 No. 6 • 2012 Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal La Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée orientale 655 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ‬.‫ﺑﺘـﺮﻱ‬‫ﺃﻃﺒﺎﻕ‬ triple sugar iron agar ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬‫ﺗﻠﻘﻴﺢ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ AP120E ‫ﻭﻃﻘﻢ‬‫ﻣﻴﲇ‬‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﻠﺖ‬‫ﺛﻢ‬،‫ﺍﻷﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ‬‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ bioMérieux ‫ﴍﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺔ‬‫ﺪﱢ‬ ‫ﹺ‬‫ﺍﻟﻀ‬‫ﺍﳌﺼﻮﻝ‬‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ‬‫ﻛﲈ‬.[12]‫ﺍﳌﻌﺰﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﴍﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ E. coli H7:0157 antisera ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻃﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ Eurobio ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ isolates ‫ﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﹾ‬‫ﻔ‬‫ﹶ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﹾ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻤ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﻤﺮﺿﺔ‬ E. coli H7:0157 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ Staphylococcus aureus ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬ (1- 10) ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻔﻴـﻒ‬ ‫ﳏﻠـﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤـﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴـﻢ‬ ‫ﻋـﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳـﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴـﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎﺕ‬ 4 ‫ﳌــﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﹶﺖ‬‫ـ‬‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﹺ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﹸ‬‫ﻭﺣ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻄﺖ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ،‫ﻹﻧﻌﺎﺷﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 37 ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻃﺒﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ mannitol salt agar ‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 37 ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹶﺖ‬‫ﻨ‬ ‫ﹺ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﹸ‬‫ﻭﺣ‬ ،‫ﺑﺘـﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺖ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﻮ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ 48-24 ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ (‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬ ‫)ﺻﻔﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻥ‬‫ﹼ‬‫ﺍﳌﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﳖﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ catalase ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺗﺎﻻﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ coagulase (‫)ﻛﻮﺍﻏـﻮﻻﺯ‬ ‫ـﺮﺓ‬‫ﱢ‬‫ﺜ‬‫ﺍﳌﺨ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻫـﻲ‬ isolates ‫ﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﹶ‬‫ﹾﺮ‬‫ـ‬‫ﹶﻔ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﹾ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻣـﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛـﺪ‬ .[11] ‫ﺿﺔ‬‫ﹺ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﹾ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﳌ‬‫ﺍ‬ S. aureus ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴـﻢ‬ Aeromonas ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﲡﻬﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺠﺎﻧﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻏﻢ‬ 15 ‫ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒـﺒﺘﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﹶﺒﺖ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺴﺘ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻞ‬ 135 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻘﻤﺔ‬ alkaline peptone water ‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺭﻕ‬‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﹺ‬‫ﻀ‬ ‫ﹸ‬‫ﻭﺣ‬،‫ﺯﺟﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬‫ﻵﻟﺊ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﺯﺟﺎﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻘﺐ‬ .‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ 24 ‫ﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 37 ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﹶﺒﺖ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺴﺘ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﻄﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ampicillin blood agar ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻨﺴﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻀﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺘـﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻃﺒﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻀﻨﺖ‬ ،‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﻏﺮﺍﻡ/ﻣﻞ‬ 30 ‫ﺇﻣﺒﻴﺴﻠﲔ‬ 48 – 24 ‫ﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 37 ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ oxidase ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻛﺴﻴﺪﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺟﺮﻱ‬ ،‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﹶﻨﺒﺖ‬‫ﺘ‬ ‫ﹾ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻤ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻜﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﲢﻠـﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺗـﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﲠﺎﻟـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﳏﺎﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺑﻴﺾ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﳖﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤـﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣـﺖ‬ .‫ﺍﻟـﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻦ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ oxidase ‫ﺍﻷﻭﻛﺴﻴـﺪﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻻﺧﺘﺒـﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ‬ i.[13٫12] EMP ‫ﺍﻹﺳﻜﻮﻟﲔ‬ ‫ﹶﺒﺖ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺴﺘ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﳊﻘﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻤﻮﺫﺟﻴﺔ‬ AP120NE ‫ﻃﻘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﲈﻝ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ Esculin ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ bioMérieux ‫ﴍﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ [14] ‫ﺔ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﳉﻨﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ (Salmonella) ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﳌﻮﻧﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ (1- 10) ‫ﳏﻠﻮﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﲢﻀﲔ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ 24 ‫ﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 37 ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻞ‬ 10 ‫ﺣﴬ‬ ،‫ﺍﻹﻧﻌﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻫـﺎ‬ .salanite-F-broth [15] ‫ﺃﻧﺒﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺿﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﳏﻠﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻞ‬ 1 ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻀﻨﺖ‬ ،salanite-F-broth ‫ﺃﺧﺬﺕ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ،‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ 24 ‫ﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 37 ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺑﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺤﺔ‬ (SSA)‫ﻭﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﻄﻄﺖ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻀﻨﺖ‬ salmonella shigella agar [15]5 ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬‫ﰲ‬،‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬24‫ﳌﺪﺓ‬‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬37‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻼﻛﺘﻮﺯ‬‫ﻟﺴﻜﺮ‬‫ﳐﻤﺮﺓ‬‫ﻏﲑ‬‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍﺕ‬‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﱢ‬‫ﹸﺮ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﺖ‬‫ﹺ‬‫ﹸﺰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ،(TSIA) ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻴﻮﺭﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ tests IMViC ‫ﻭﺳﻂ‬‫ﺃﻃﺒﺎﻕ‬‫ﻋﲆ‬‫ﺧﻄﻄﺖ‬‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬SIM ‫ﻭﺳﻂ‬‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻃﺒﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﺎﺑﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻀﻨﺖ‬ citrate agar ‫ﺃﺧﺬﺕ‬‫ﺛﻢ‬‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬24‫ﳌﺪﺓ‬‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬37‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻭﺧﻄﻄﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺰﻭﻟﺔ‬ 24 ‫ﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 37 ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﻀﻨﺖ‬ nutrient agar E Api ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻟﻺﻧﻌﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﳌﻮﻧﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻋﺰﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ 20 .[16] ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻐﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ (1) ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬7 10×1.7‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ × 2.4 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬ ￯‫ﺍﳌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ /‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 8 10 × 1.4 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 5 10 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ .‫ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﻣﻮﺿﺢ‬‫ﻛﲈ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ .(1) ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ [3] (2008 ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 7 10 × 5.5 8 10× 5.4 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 4 10 × 9.4 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬ ￯‫ﺍﳌﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ .‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﲏ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ (1985 ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﺮﻳﺖ‬ [10] ‫ﻋﲆ‬ (‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻷﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ 7 10×5.1‫ﺇﱃ‬3 10×5.2‫ﺑﲔ‬‫ﻣﺎ‬‫ﻳﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ،‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻣﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺟﻌ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺒﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﲈ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺧﺎﺻ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺛﻨﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺑﻴﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺴﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﲈﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﲤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺧﻄﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺃﻳﻀ‬ ‫ﲤﺰﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺎﺋﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻼﻣﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺣﺸﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﴈ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻌﲈﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻣﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺎﻛﲔ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﻮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻏﺴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﺣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻏﺴﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﻬﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﻭﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﲠﺎ‬ .‫ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﱰﺓ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻫﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﲑ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ 1 ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬ (‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫)ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﲨﺎﱄ‬‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻂ‬‫ﻗﺮﻗﺎﺭﺵ‬‫ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﴩﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻀﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ (‫ﻏﻢ‬ /‫ﻡ‬ .‫)ﻭ.ﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬7 10 × 1.77 10 × 2.5acd*7 10 × 2.7acd*6 10 × 4.7c*6 10 × 7.9d* ‫ﺍﻷﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‬8 10 × 1.47 10 × 5.88 10 × 1.46 10 × 8.67 10 × 2.9 ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‬5 10 × 2.45 10 × 3.45 10 × 2.56 10 × 1.95 10 × 2.4 .(P ≥ 0.05) ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﲢﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬*
  • 4. ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﴩﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﻋﴩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ 656 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﴩﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﲈﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﳊﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ،‫)ﻏﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﴫﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻻ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ (1992 ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 5 10 × 1.0 ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻇﻬﺮﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ .‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %90 ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 510 × 1.0 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﴫﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭ‬ ‫.ﻛﲈ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺒﺪﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ [17] ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﳎﺎﻣﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒ‬ ‫ﲢﺘﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺯﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺎﺋﺢ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﲔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ،‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 410 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 210 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻻﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻌﺮ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺨﻔﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﲈ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺬﺑﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻄﻲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺇﻻ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ .‫ﺿﺔ‬‫ﹺ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﹾ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﳌ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﹴ‬‫ﺧﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ [18] ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺍﻭﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺼﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺁﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ،‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺘﲑﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﳑﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﺥ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﳚﻌﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺃﻳﻀ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﺥ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻋﺎﺓ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﻟﻠﺨﻄﺮ‬ .‫ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺮﻭﰊ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ (1) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %29.3 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 810 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 710 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﲑ‬ ‫ﺇﺫ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 6 10 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺪﺃ‬ ،‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﺪﺃ‬ ،‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 7 10 ‫ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﲈ‬ ،‫ﺭﺍﺋﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﰊ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 8 10 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺰﻭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻞ‬ ،‫/ﻏﻢ‬ .[11] ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻭﺗﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ 0.05 ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻓﺮﻭﻗ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﲈ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﲡﻬﻴﺰﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ (2) ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ 4 10 × 3.4 ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬ ￯‫ﺍﳌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 5 10 × 1.5 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 3 10 × 2.7 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ .‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ [8] ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ 2.85 ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ￯‫ﺍﳌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 4 10 × ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 4 10 × 4.5 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 2 10 × 2.6 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﲈ‬ .‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﲏ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺭﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺑﲈ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﱂ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﳌﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1.7 1 8.6 5 17.2 10 43.1 24 29.3 17 4 10- 3 10 5 10- 4 10 6 10- 5 10 7 10- 6 10 8 10- 7 10 .(‫ﻡ/ﻏﻢ‬ .‫)ﻭ.ﺕ‬ (‫)ﺍﻟﱪﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻬﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻻﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ￯‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ 1 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ 2 ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ (‫)ﻣﻄﻬﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﲨﺎﱄ‬‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻂ‬‫ﻗﺮﻗﺎﺭﺵ‬‫ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﴩﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻀﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ (‫)ﻭ.ﺕ.ﻡ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬4 10 × 3.44 10 × 3.2*4 10 × 2.0*4 10 × 4.1*4 10 × 3.7* ‫ﺍﻷﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‬5 10 × 1.54 10 × 8.94 10 × 4.95 10 × 1.54 10 × 8.0 ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‬10>3 10 × 2.710>3 10 × 2.03 10 × 6.0 .(P < 0.05) ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬*
  • 5. EMHJ • Vol. 18 No. 6 • 2012 Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal La Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée orientale 657 ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﰊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ￯‫ﳏﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﻔﺾ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﲈ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻘﺒﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻚ‬‫ﹾ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﹸ‬‫ﺳ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺆﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﳛﺪﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺑﲈ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺦ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﺤﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ (2) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗـﺘـﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %35.2 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﻭ.ﺕ.ﻡ/ﻏﻢ‬ 4 10 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 3 10 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﴩﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ .‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻃﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﲡﻬﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬‫ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺪ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬‫ﻳﺸﲑ‬‫ﳑﺎ‬0.05‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘـﺮﺍﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺘﺒﲔ‬ (MPN) ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ (3) ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬‫ﳊﻢ‬‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘـﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ￯‫ﺍﳌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫/ﻏﻢ‬4 10 × 2.4 ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ،‫/ﻏﻢ‬5 10 × 1.1 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 2 10 × 1.2 ،‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ [3] (‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﻴـﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔـﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤـﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ 1.7 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘـﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ￯‫ﺍﳌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫/ﻏﻢ‬3 10 × 1.0 ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ،‫/ﻏﻢ‬3 10 × 1.8 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ (3) ‫ﳊﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﴩﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﲈﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺭﻧﺖ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﲑ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ×1.0 ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻻ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ /‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫)ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ 2 10 ‫ﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ .(‫ﻏﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %94 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻜﻨﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﳌﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ [10] (1985 ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫)ﻟﻠﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ [19] (‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ × 2.0 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗـﺘـﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ /‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ،7 10 × 2.0 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 3 10 ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ [17] ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻛﲈ‬ .‫ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﳊـﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃﺧـﺬ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﲠﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴـﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟـﻦ‬ ‫ﲠﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ .‫/ﻏﻢ‬5 10 × 1.5 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ [6] ‫ﻣﻮﺭﻳﻨﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %42 ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﴩﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ￯‫ﺃﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ ،‫/ﻏﻢ‬2 10 × 5.0 ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺗﺢ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻫﻲ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﺃﻋـﺪﺍﺩ‬‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳـﻂ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬[13](‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘـﻪ‬‫)ﺍﳌﺮﻏــﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧـﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴـﻢ‬ × 2.4 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫/ﻏﻢ‬4 10 × 6.2 ‫ﺑـﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘـــﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ .‫/ﻏﻢ‬4 10 ‫ﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ (3) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﻛﲈ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %44.6 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘـﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ،‫/ﻏﻢ‬4 10 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 3 10 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﴩﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬‫ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ،0.05 ‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈﻝ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 13.2 8 4.4 5 16.1 10 6 1.4 0 2 10-10 3 10-102 4 10-103 5 10-104 6 10-105 7 10-106 2 23 35.2 20.5 14 8.8 1 .(‫ﻡ/ﻏﻢ‬ .‫)ﻭ.ﺕ‬ (‫)ﺍﻟﱪﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﻬﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻻﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ￯‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ 2 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ 3 ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ (‫)ﻣﻄﻬﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﲨﺎﱄ‬‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻂ‬‫ﻗﺮﻗﺎﺭﺵ‬‫ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﴩﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻀﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ (‫)ﻭ.ﺕ.ﻡ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬4 10 × 2.43 10 × 2.1 *acd3 10 × 3.8 *bcd4 10 × 4.7 *c4 10 × 4.2 *d ‫ﺍﻷﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‬5 10 × 1.13 10 × 4.64 10 × 1.15 10 × 1.15 10 × 1.1 ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‬2 10 × 1.22 10 × 1.52 10 × 1.24 10 × 1.13 10 × 2.4 .(P < 0.05) ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬*
  • 6. ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﴩﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﻋﴩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ 658 117 ‫ﺃﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 74 ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ،E. coli ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈﻝ‬‫ﺇﱃ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬‫ﺃﻋﺰﺕ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬،%63.1‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺀ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬‫ﻋﲆ‬[20](‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ،‫ﻁﺭﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ %74.5 ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ،E. coli ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ E. coli ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ .%66.6 ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ [4] (‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫)ﻓﻮﺭﺳﱰ‬ ‫ﲠﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ،E. coli ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 232 ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﲠﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ %79.1 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ،‫ﺃﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﻓﻘﺎﻡ‬[21]‫ﺍﻟﺮﺅﻭﻑ‬‫ﻋﺒﺪ‬‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬.‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫ﰲ‬E. coli ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ‬‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﴫ‬ ‫ﲨﻬﻮﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﴩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ،‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺮﻭﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﳊﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 125 ‫ﺃﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ (%4) 50 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ 2 ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﲠﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﳜﺺ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﲈ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﱰﺍﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮﺭﺓ‬ E. coli ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ (4) ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،(‫)ﺍﻟﱪﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﲤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻼﺣﻆ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %66.6 ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﺔ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻠﻮ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ %66.6 ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ،E. coli ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ .‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﲈ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺟﺮﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﳘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﲡﻬﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻮﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﳖﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺪ‬ ￯‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻷﺣﺪ‬ [12] (‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ [19] (‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %10.9 ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ E. coli ‫ﲠﺬﻩ‬‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬‫ﳊﻢ‬‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺪ‬ ‫ﹺ‬‫ﺟ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﺩﻟﻴ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ °‫ﺱ‬ 70 ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺋﻤﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﱰﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﴩﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺘﻘﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﺟﻮﺍﺀ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﺯﻡ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ‬ E. coli ‫ﺑﺒﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ (4) ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﳜﺺ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﲈ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ (5) ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺘﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ /‫ﻭ.ﺕ.ﻡ‬ 2.20 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ /23 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ <3 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬ ￯‫ﺍﳌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀﺕ‬ .‫ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ [3] ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫51.2/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟـﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ .‫53/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 0.0 ‫ﺑﻴـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘـﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ￯‫ﺍﳌـﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ [13] ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﺩ‬ E. coli ‫ﺑﺒﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ 4 ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬(%) ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﱡ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬66.6108 ‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬10.921 50 40 30 20 10 0 3.5 2 10.7 44.6 10 11 2 10-10 3 10-102 4 10-103 5 10-104 6 10-105 6 25 21.4 19.6 12 ‫)ﺍﻟﱪﺟﺮ(/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﻬﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ 3 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
  • 7. EMHJ • Vol. 18 No. 6 • 2012 Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal La Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée orientale 659 9.13 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ￯‫ﺃﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ .‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮﺓ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ [22] ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻘﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ 1.9 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 2 10 × 1.0 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻳﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺗﺢ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ .‫/ﻏﻢ‬ × ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻓﺘﻘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 70 ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﻠﻮﺏ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻬﲑ‬ ‫ﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ (4) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %87.5 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﴍ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ،‫3/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ .‫ﻟﻠﺤﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬‫ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ 0.05 ‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﱰﺍﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺪ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ (MPN) ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ (6) ‫ﺍﳉﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ 1.9 ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ × 1.2 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬ ￯‫ﺍﳌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫/ﻏﻢ‬4 10 × ‫ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ .‫/ﻏﻢ‬5 10 × 1.1 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 2 10 ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ [3] ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴـﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ،‫/ﻏﻢ‬2 10 × 8.6 ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬ .‫/ﻏﻢ‬3 10 × 1.8 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 1.0 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ￯‫ﺍﳌﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %96.4 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺛﺔ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻠﻮ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ (2008) ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬‫ﺑﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬‫ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻏﻠﺐ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ .‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ [23] ‫ﺇﻧﻐﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻣﺆﴍ‬‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻌﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﺿﺔ‬ ‫ﱢ‬‫ﻤﺮ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻤ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﻭﻧﺎﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﲈ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ (2001 ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ Kornacki) ‫ﻭﺗﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻼﻛﺘﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺮ‬‫ﱡ‬‫ﲣﻤ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﳍﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺑﲈ‬ .‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﻏﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﺎﻣﻀ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻄﻬﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬ .‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ (5) ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﻛﲈ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %39.2 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ،‫/ﻏﻢ‬4 10 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 3 10 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺴﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ 0.05 ‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈﻝ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﱰﺍﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﳜﺺ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﲈ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ (7) ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ￯‫ﺍﳌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،‫44.1/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ .‫32/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ <3 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ [3] ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ 0.0 ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ￯‫ﺍﳌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﺍﻭﺡ‬ ،‫862.0/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬ ،‫31/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ 5 ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ (‫)ﻣﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﲨﺎﱄ‬‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻂ‬‫ﻗﺮﻗﺎﺭﺵ‬‫ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﴩﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻀﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬2.202.50*2.21*1.64 *1.78 * ‫ﺍﻷﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‬2323231111 ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‬3>3>3>3>3> .(P < 0.05) ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ * 87.5 8 0 2 10-10 56 12.5 100 80 60 40 20 0 .‫/ﻏﻢ‬ (‫)ﺍﻟﱪﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﻬﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻻﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ￯‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ 4 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
  • 8. ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﴩﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﻋﴩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ 660 ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %12.3 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺇﻥ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺦ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎﺀﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺿﺔ‬ ‫ﱠ‬‫ﻌﺮ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻣ‬‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬‫ﺗﺮﻙ‬‫ﺃﻭ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﲠﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺤﻴﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﴈ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﺽ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺪ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻭ‬ [13] ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈ‬‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬‫ﻋﲆ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ .‫38.4/ﺟﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﺣﺼﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻭﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈﻝ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﺸﲑ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ،0.05 ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﱰﺍﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﳑﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬‫ﻭﺍﻥ‬،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﱰﺍﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ . ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻀﺢ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ H7:0157 ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ،%20.3 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ E. coli ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻭﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﴩﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﲈﺩ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻭﻧﻈﺮ‬ ،‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ (1992 ،‫)ﻏﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﴫﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ E. coli ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ H7:0157 ‫ﺧﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﴩﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ .‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ￯‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ (1997‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬Feldsine)‫ﻓﻠﺪﺳﲔ‬‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 473 ‫ﺇﺻﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 1304 ‫ﺃﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ %36 ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ،E. coli ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ H7:0157 ‫ﺗﺄﺛﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ [7] ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻥ‬ E. coli 0157:H7‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻘﻦ‬ 4–2.25 ‫ﺗﱰﺍﻭﺡ‬ ‫ﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﻃﻬﻴﻬﺎ‬ E. coli 0157:H7 ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬.°‫ﻡ‬137‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬‫ﺩﻗﺎﺋﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺫﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ‬ E. coli 0157:H7 ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ [3] ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ .E. coli 0157:H7 ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ %27.1 ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ E. coli 0157:H7 .‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻗﺮﺻ‬ 178 ‫ﻓﻮﺟﺪﺕ‬ [24] ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ E. coli 0157:H7 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 1115 ‫ﺃﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ %15.9 ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﺑﲈ‬ .‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺎﻉ‬‫ﹶ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺨﻔﺎﺽ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ E. coli 0157:H7 ￯‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺪﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﴩﻭﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻄﻬﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻦﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ (‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ 6 ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ (‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫)ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﲨﺎﱄ‬‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻂ‬‫ﻗﺮﻗﺎﺭﺵ‬‫ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﴩﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻀﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴﺔ(/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬4 10 × 1.93 10 × 1.7acd*3 10 × 2.9bcd* 4 10 × 3.3c*4 10 × 3.6d* ‫ﺍﻷﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‬5 10 × 1.13 10 × 4.64 10 × 1.15 10 × 1.15 10 × 1.1 ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‬2 10 × 1.22 10 × 1.52 10 × 1.23 10 × 1.13 10 × 2.4 .(P ≤ 0.05) ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﲢﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫*ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ .‫/ﻏﻢ‬ (‫)ﺍﻟﱪﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﻬﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻻﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﱰﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻷﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ￯‫ﺍﻟﺘﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺯﻳﻊ‬ 5 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 12.5 7 12.5 7 12 14.2 2 10-10 3 10-10 2 4 10-10 3 5 10-10 4 6 10-10 5 22 39.2 21.4 8
  • 9. EMHJ • Vol. 18 No. 6 • 2012 Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal La Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée orientale 661 ‫ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ E. ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ،%4.68 ‫ﻫﻲ‬ coli 0157:H7 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻭﺟﺪﺕ‬‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬[3]‫ﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ .%5.4 ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬ ￯‫ﻟﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﴪﻳﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﳏﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻘﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﱰﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻪ‬ [7] ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ . ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ 68.3 ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ E. coli 0157:H7 ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺿﺔ‬‫ﹺ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﹾ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻤ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺘﻀﺢ‬‫ﻳ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ %29.6 ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ (coagulase) ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻮﺍﻛﻠﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺨﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻣﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﲢﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬‫ﳌﺎ‬‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬،blood agar ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ [3] ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ،%28.8 ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ [20] ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻫﻲ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ .%100 ‫ﺑﻠﻐﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺗﺢ‬ ،‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﲠﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻮﻙ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺀ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﺭﺟﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﴩ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %50-40 ‫ﺣﻮﺍﱄ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻷﻇﺎﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﰲ‬ .‫ﺍﳉﺮﺛﻮﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﳍﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻠﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﲈﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﺃﺧﺬﺕ‬ [25] ‫ﻓﺤﺺ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻢ‬ ،‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻜﺸﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 232 ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ %39.5 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺒﲔ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺬﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ [26] ‫ﺟﲑﻣﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺪ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﲈ‬ ،%29.6 ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﺍﻣﻴﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﺮﺿﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 105 ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻥ‬ ،%3.12 ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ [3] ‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﳌﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ .%3.2 ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺠﻬﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﲑ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺘﱪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ￯‫ﺍﻷﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﻭﺇﻋﺎﻗﺔ‬ .‫ﻟﻨﻤﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ .%25.9 ‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻌﺪ‬ .‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺍﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %18.6 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ [3] ‫ﻛﲈ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻐﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﲠﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺟﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺤﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺩﻭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬‫ﻣﺼﺪﺭ‬‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ .‫ﺑﺎﳌﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﴩ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬[12]‫ﺩﺭﺍﺱﲥﻢ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‬‫ﺟﺪ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %57.2 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ .‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬117‫ﺃﺻﻞ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬57‫ﻧﺤﻮ‬‫ﺃﻱ‬،Aeromonas ‫ﺣﻮﻝ‬‫ﺑﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬[27]1987،‫ﻭﻧﻴﺸﻜﺎﻭﺍ‬‫ﻛﻴﴚ‬‫ﻭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻔﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﺃﺷﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،Aeromonas ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %70 ‫ﺗﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ،Aeromonas ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻥ‬ . A. hydrophila‫ﻭ‬ A. sobira ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ [5] 2003 ،‫ﻳﻮﻛﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺮﻛﺔ‬ Aeromonas ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﲈﺫﺝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ 20 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،(‫)ﺍﻟﱪﺟﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 23 ‫ﺃﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ .%86.9 ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‬ Aeromonas ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ %3.12 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﳎﻤﻮﻋﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﴩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ %9.61 ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ [3] ‫ﻳﻌﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺇﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻌﺘﱪ‬‫ﺍﳌﻌﺪﺓ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ‬‫ﻟﻺﺳﻬﺎﻝ‬‫ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬‫ﺍﻷﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺤﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ .[28] ‫ﻭﺍﳌﺴﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺋﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ‬ 7 ‫ﺇﱃ‬ 5 ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﲣﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﲔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮﻥ‬ ،‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒ‬ ‫ﺃﻳﺎﻡ‬ 10 ‫ﻭﳌﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﺌﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺎﺯﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﳊﺪﻭﺙ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺃﻭﺿﺤﺖ‬ .‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﲏ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﻛﺎﻓﻴ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻜﺘﲑﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻣﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﻭﻹﺣﺪﺍﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻌﻮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻹﻓﺮﺍﺯ‬ .‫ﻭ.ﺕ.ﻡ/ﻏﻢ‬ 8 10 ‫ﻳﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﳚﺐ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺻﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺀﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ .%12.9 ‫ﻫﻲ‬ Salmonella ،‫ﻣﻮﺭﻳﻨﻮ‬ ‫ﲠﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺭﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ [6] 1997 ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ،‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 559 ‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﺨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻟﺜﻼﺙ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﺎﻧﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ 239 ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ .Salmonella %12 ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ [29] ‫ﺃﻭﻛﺎﻣﺎﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﱰﻙ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻭﺟﺪﻭﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ (‫)ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺯﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻠﻴﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﹸ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﹸ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻭﺣﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ 7 ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ (‫ﻣﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫)ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬‫ﻭﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪﻭﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺇﲨﺎﱄ‬‫ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻂ‬‫ﻗﺮﻗﺎﺭﺵ‬‫ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﴩﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳍﻀﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻟﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﱪﺍﺯﻳﺔ(/ﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬1.44* 1.92* 1.84* 0.57* 1.28* ‫ﺍﻷﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‬232323411 ‫ﺍﻷﺩﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﺪ‬3>3>3>3>3> .(P ≤ 0.50) ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻱ‬ ￯‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﲢﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻄﺎﺕ‬*
  • 10. ‫ﺍﳌﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﴩﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺔ‬‫ﻋﴩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺠﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ 662 ‫ﺃﻱ‬ Salmonella ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎﺑﺔ‬ 56 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ 46 ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﺃﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﺬﻩ‬ ،%82.1 ‫ﺑﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ،%12.9 ‫ﻫﻲ‬ Salmonella ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ Salmonella ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺇﱃ‬ Salmonella ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬ .‫ﺮﺿﺔ‬‫ﹾ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﹸ‬‫ﺍﻟـﻤ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺪﻝ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺘﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﲢﻀﲑ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺳﺎﻟﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺃﺗﺒﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﲡﻬﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻲ‬ Salmonella typhimurium ‫ﺍﳌﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﳌﻮﻧﻴﻼ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﺃﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﳌﺮﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺗﻨﺘﴩ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻧﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺭﺍﺗﻴﻔﻮﺋﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﳊﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﲢﺖ‬ ‫ﺇﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﱪﻭﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﺋﻴﴘ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺼﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ .‫ﺻﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻇﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﺃﻣﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﳊﻴﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻮ‬ Salmonella ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ￯‫ﻟﻠﻌﺪﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻐﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ Salmonella %3.12 ‫ﺑﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻠﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﻗﺪ‬ ،Shigella %0 ‫ﳊﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ Salmonella ‫ﺍﻟﻄﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺍﺟﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻵﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻹﻋﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬ .‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﻼﺻﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬‫ﰲ‬‫ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺻﻞ‬‫ﺗﻢ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬‫ﺗﺒﲔ‬ ‫ﻭﻏﲑ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻔﺮﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻢ‬ ‫ﺃﻗﺮﺍﺹ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﲡﻬﻴﺰﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﺧﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺸﻮﺍﺋﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﲑﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﳌﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳉﻮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﺍﺻﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﲑ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻤﻠﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﺫﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻴﻜﺮﻭﺑﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺠﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﲇ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﳏﺘﻮﺍﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬‫ﹰ‬‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﲈ‬‫ﺍﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ‬‫ﻭﺍﺭﺗﻔﺎﻉ‬،‫ﺍﳊﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﳍﻮﺍﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺇﺿﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺋﻄﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻠﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻤﺮﺿـﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﳉﺮﺍﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺪﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻠـﻮﺙ‬ ‫ﺇﻟـﻰ‬ ،E. coli 0157: H7 ‫ﺍﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻹﴍﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﳌﻮﺟﺒﺔ‬ S. aureus ‫ﺍﻟﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮﺩﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺔ‬‫ﱠ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﻮﺍﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﱢﺮﺓ‬‫ـ‬‫ﺍﳌﺨﺜ‬ ‫ﻻﺧﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻣﺆﴍ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ .Aeromonas ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺷﺘـﺮﺍﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﱢﺒﺎﻉ‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﻳﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺧﻄﲑ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﴐﻭﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﻭﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﱄ‬ ،‫ﺍﳌﻨﺸﺂﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺃﻏﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﲆ‬ ‫ﹰ‬‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﻔﺎﻇ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ‬ .‫ﻃﺮﺍﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻧﺤﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﲨﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﰲ‬ 1. 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