Wastewater sampling and treatment كورس تدريبي عن أخذ العينات والتحاليل لمياه الصرف الصحي

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Wastewater sampling and treatment كورس تدريبي عن أخذ العينات والتحاليل لمياه الصرف الصحي

  1. 1. Training course in Waste Water Sampling and Analyses “Domestic and Industrial Wastewater” Subhi Samhan HWE office in Al Bireh - Ramallah Sunday-November 25, 2007
  2. 2. ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻒ‬‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬‫ﻓﻀﻼت‬‫اﻟﺬاﺋﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻸوآﺴﺠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ‬‫اﻟﺤﻴﻮي‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮآﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎط‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺗﺠﺔ‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫و‬‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬:- 1.‫ﻟﻸﻣﺮاض‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬-‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻔﻴﻠﻴﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫آﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫و‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬‫ﻓﻀﻼت‬‫اﻟﺤﻴﻮان‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬ 2.‫ﻣﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺰراﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻤﺪة‬‫ﻟﻠﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎت‬- 3.‫ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮآﺒﺎت‬- 4.‫ﺳﻴﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬- 5.‫اﻟﻤﺸﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬- 6.‫اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻎ‬‫اﻟﺤﺮاري‬- 7.‫اﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﻃﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬- 8.‫اﻟﻨﻔﻂ‬-
  3. 3. ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺮﺿﺎت‬ Bacterial (Fecal coliform, Fecal streptococcus, Salmonellae and Shigella). Parasites (cyst or trophoziote): Balantedium coli, Amoeba histolytica, Amoeba coli, Gairdia lamblia and, Trichomonas. Helminthes (eggs, larvae and worm): Stringyloides sterorlasis, Ascaris lumbrecoudes, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis).
  4. 4. ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻘﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮاض‬ ‫أهﻢ‬: ‫ﺟﺮﺛﻮﻣﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﻣﺮاض‬:‫واﻹﺳﻬ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪي‬ ‫اﻻﻟﺘﻬﺎب‬ ،‫اﻟﻜﻮﻟﻴﺮا‬ ،‫اﻟﺘﻴﻔﻮﺋﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬‫ﺎل‬. ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺮوﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﻣﺮاض‬:‫اﻟﻜﺒﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب‬)‫أ‬(‫اﻟﺤﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪي‬ ‫اﻻﻟﺘﻬﺎب‬ ،‫اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ ‫ﺷﻠﻞ‬ ، ‫واﻹﺳﻬﺎل‬. ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻔﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﻣﺮاض‬:‫اﻟﻤﻌﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪي‬ ‫اﻻﻟﺘﻬﺎب‬ ، ‫اﻷﻣﺒﻴﺎ‬.
  5. 5. ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬:‫دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫آﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ‫وهﻲ‬,‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮدة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺮى‬ ‫ﻻ‬,‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﺘﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫وﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻮم‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺮز‬ ‫اﻻﺧﺘﺰاﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﻘﺴﺎم‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬: ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬‫اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﺔ‬)Fecal coliform(‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫وﻣﺼﺪرهﺎ‬)‫اﻷﻣﻌﺎء‬(‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮات‬ ‫وهﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻋﺎدﻣﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. •‫اﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬(total Coliform)‫اﻟﺒﻄﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وأﻟﻢ‬ ‫إﺳﻬﺎل‬ ‫وﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬. •‫اﻟﺴﺎﻟﻤﻮﻧﻴﻼ‬Salmonellae‫اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻌﺎء‬ ‫ﺟﺪار‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺘﺼﻖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺤﺮآﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺼﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب‬ ‫وﺗﺤﺪث‬ ‫واﻟﻄﺤﺎل‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺮارة‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﺪ‬ ‫وﻧﺴﻴﺞ‬,‫ﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫وآﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻴﺶ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻴﻔﻮﺋﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮض‬)7–21‫ﻳﻮم‬.( •‫اﻟﺸﻴﻐﻴﻼ‬:‫ﻋﺼﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬,‫اﻟﺠﺮام‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﺒﺔ‬,‫ﻣﺮض‬ ‫وﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬‫اﻟﺪوزﻧﻄﺎرﻳﺎ‬‫اﻟﺒﺎﺳﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬. •‫اﻟﻌﻨﻘﻮدﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬staphaurous): (‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬‫ﺑﺒﺮاز‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻮاﻧﻲ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫إﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬,‫اﻟﺒﻄﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪة‬ ‫وﺁﻻم‬ ‫اﻹﺳﻬﺎل‬ ‫وﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬.
  6. 6. ‫اﻷوﻟﻴﺎت‬:‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫وﺣﻴﺪة‬ ‫ﻃﻔﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫أوﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫آﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫وهﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨ‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻮﻳﺼﻼت‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ ‫أﻳﺪي‬ ‫ﻏﺴﻞ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺷﺮاب‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻃﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎول‬ ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬‫اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺎت‬:- 1-‫اﻻﻣﻴﺒﺎ‬)Entameoba histolytica:(‫ﺑﻤﻬﺎﺟﻤﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻠﻴﻈﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻌﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﻟﺘ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻤﺮاء‬ ‫اﻟﺪم‬ ‫وﺧﻼﻳﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻏﺸﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺘﻐﺬى‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻌﺎء‬ ‫ﺟﺪار‬‫اﻟﺘﻘﺮﺣﺎت‬ ‫ﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وهﻮ‬)‫ﺑﺎﻟﺰﺣﺎر‬‫اﻻﻣﻴﺒﻲ‬‫أو‬‫اﻟﺪوﺳﻨﻄﺎرﻳﺎ‬‫اﻻﻣﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬(,‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻴﺎة‬ ‫ﻣﺪة‬90‫وﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻮم‬)5 -15 µm.( ‫ﻣﺼﺤﻮ‬ ‫آﺮﻳﻬﺔ‬ ‫وراﺋﺤﺘﻪ‬ ‫رﺧﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاز‬ ‫وﻳﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻄﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وأﻟﻢ‬ ‫إﺳﻬﺎل‬ ‫وأﻋﺮاﺿﻬﺎ‬‫ﺧﻔﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻰ‬ ‫و‬ ‫وﻗﻲء‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻬﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪان‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺪم‬ ‫ﺑﺔ‬. -‫اﻟﺠﻴﺎردﻳﺎ‬)Giardia lamblia:(‫اﻟﻨﺸﻄ‬ ‫اﻷﻃﻮار‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺨﺮج‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻌﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﺶ‬‫ﻟﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺎط‬ ‫إﻓﺮاز‬ ‫زﻳﺎدة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺆدي‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻌﺎء‬ ‫ﻟﺠﺪار‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﻴﺞ‬.‫ﻳﺘﺮاوح‬ ‫وﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ‬)10.5- 14µm(‫ﻃﻮﻻ‬ ‫و‬)7.5 – 10mµ(,‫ا‬ ‫ﺑﺮاز‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬‫اﻟﺤﻴﻮان‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬. ‫أﻋﺮاﺿﻬﺎ‬:‫اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ ‫ﻟﺪى‬ ‫ﺁﻻم‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺋﺤﺔ‬ ‫آﺮﻳﻪ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﺮاز‬ ‫إﺳﻬﺎل‬.‫اﻟﻜﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﻟﺪى‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻔﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺎب‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺮارة‬ ‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬.
  7. 7. -‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻳﺪان‬‫ﺑﻴﻮﺿﻬﺎ‬:‫وﺗﻌﻴﺶ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮاز‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺮج‬ ‫ﻃﻔﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫دﻳﺪان‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫وﺣﺪهﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻮت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﻴﻒ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫وان‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬,‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬: -‫اﻟﺒﻠﻬﺎرﺳﻴﺎ‬:‫اﻟﺤﻀﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻀﻴﻒ‬ ‫أوردة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﺶ‬ ‫دﻣﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫دﻳﺪان‬ ‫وهﻲ‬)2–3‫أﻳﺎم‬( ‫وﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ‬)1 -2 mm(‫و‬ ‫واﻟﺮﺋﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﻴﺐ‬ ‫وﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻮﻟﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻌﺎء‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬ ‫وﺗﺼﻴﺐ‬‫اﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺤﺎل‬. ‫اﻷﻋﺮاض‬:‫ﺻﺪاع‬,‫اﻟﺸﻬﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬,‫اﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وهﺒﻮط‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻮل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫دم‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫إﺳﻬﺎل‬. -‫اﻹﺳﻜﺎرس‬)Ascarias:(‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﺘﻐﺬى‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻌﺎء‬ ‫ﻳﺼﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ‬ ‫وﻃﻮﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻮﻳﻀﺎت‬ ‫ﺁﻻف‬ ‫وﺗﻀﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻬﻀﻮم‬ ‫اﻷآﻞ‬)15 -40 cm.( ‫اﻷﻋﺮاض‬:‫اﻟﺒﻄﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﻻم‬,‫اﻹﺳﻬﺎل‬,‫اﻟﻘﻲء‬,‫اﻟﻌﺼﺒﻴﺔ‬,‫اﻟﺪم‬ ‫وﻓﻘﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺬاآﺮة‬ ‫وﻓﻘﺪان‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻤﻮل‬.
  8. 8. ‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺷﺮات‬ ‫أهﻢ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻟﻜﺮم‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻘﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻔﻴﺖ‬ ‫وأرﻳﺤﺎ‬‫ﻃﻮﺑﺎس‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﻴﻮم‬ (K) ‫اﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮات‬ (NO3) ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر‬ 0 5 10 15 20 ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬ (K) ‫اﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﻴﻮم‬ (NO3) ‫اﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮات‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬
  9. 9. Pathogens in the Influent 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 03/30 04/06 04/13 04/20 04/27 05/04 05/11 05/18 05/25 06/01 06/08 06/15 06/22 06/29 07/06 07/13 07/20 07/27 08/03 08/10 08/17 08/24 08/31 09/07 09/14 Date (days) PathogensNo/L Trichomonas Balantediumcoli Strongyloides sterorlasis E. histolytica E. coli Enterobius vermicularis G. lamblia Results/ Pathogens in the InfluentResults/ Pathogens in the Influent
  10. 10. Selenite broths as enrichment media before incubation (a), and after incubation (b) (24 h at 35.50C(
  11. 11. Salmonellae before incubation (a), the black colony (b) represent Salmonellae after incubation (24 h at35±0.2 0C)
  12. 12. Different culture for Salmonellae using SS agar, dilution then filtration (a), or direct culture by sterile swap (b)
  13. 13. Fecal coliform after incubation of 24 h at 45±0.2 0C in which the blue colony indicate theFecal coliform
  14. 14. Fecal streptococcus before incubation (a), red colony (b) shows the Fecal streptococcus after incubation (24 h at35±0.2 0C)
  15. 15. Why No Virus Limit? 1.Health significance of low levels questionable. 2.Virus analysis complex and expensive. 3.Complete analyses can take 4 weeks.
  16. 16. ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ •‫ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬200 •‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬90‫م‬2 •‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬0.4‫ﻣﻮاﻃﻦ‬ •‫ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫آﻤﻴﺔ‬60‫م‬.ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻨﻮﻳ‬ ‫م‬. •‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬)‫آﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬(‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻼل‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬0.16.% •95%‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬. •‫ﺑﻜﻤ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻷودﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫آﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﻴﺔ‬50‫م‬.ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻨﻮﻳ‬ ‫م‬
  17. 17. Industrial wastewater coming out of PURQAN
  18. 18. Polluted spring with Ariel sewage (Eutrophication phenomena)
  19. 19. Polluted spring - Wadi Qana
  20. 20. Case Study for Industrial Industry wastes can be used to produce ingredients in the manufacture of fertilizer , animal feed, and glues. The traditional methods of sun-drying, breaking up bones manually, composting in pits (sometimes with the addition of household organics) , and steam digestion carry various health risks For Ramallah The wastewater from most factories in Ramallah governorate has no treatment for the effluent and they dispose it directly to the sewage then to wastewater treatment plant, these industry varied from high organic load such as pharmaceutical, dairy, textile, detergents ,soft drink (beverages) and stone cutting ( Marble, Granite, and Tile).
  21. 21. Industrial Classification According to Type of Industry in Ramallah City Classification Type Example Chemicals Detergents Star Chemical Detergents Factory Plastics Plastics and Articles Al- Dawlieh Plastic Company Soft Drink Spirits, Cola Coca-Cola Textiles Clothing, Dyes Nasim Tex 2000 Health and Beauty Medical, Health Care Products Balsam Birzeit Palestine Pharmaceutical Company Construction Fiberglass, Granite, Marble, Tiles Atlas Fiber Glass, Geneva Animal Products Animal Fodders, Diary Sinnuqrot Agricultural Products Al-Rayyan Diary Products Food Sugar & Sugar Confectionery Sinnuqrot Food Product
  22. 22. Dairy Industrial 1. Dairy effluents contain dissolved sugars and proteins, fats, and possibly residues of additives . 2. BOD 0.8 to 2.5 kilograms per metric ton (kg/t) COD 1.5 times the BOD Total Suspended Solids 100–1,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l) Phosphorus 10–100 mg/l. Nitrogen 0.2 to 0.9 kg/t. 3. The BOD in the effluent is in the range of 150 mg/l to 1400 mg/l and alkaline in nature. 4. This type of wastewater tends to ferment and becomes anaerobic and odorous when stored at even room temperature. Therefore dairy wastewater responds ideally to biologica treatment. Aerobic processes are most commonly used for the treatment of this type of wastewater. 5. Pretreatment of effluents consists of screening, flow equalization, neutralization, and air flotation (to remove fats and solids); it is normally followed by biological treatment.
  23. 23. Textiles Industrial 1. The stages of textile production are fiber production, fiber processing and spinning, yarn preparation, fabric production, bleaching, dyeing and printing, and finishing. 2. VOC 10 milligrams of carbon per cubic meter (mg/m3) for the thermosol process to 350 mg carbon/m3 for the drying and condensation process. 3. pH8-12 BOD 5400-1000 mg/L COD 1500-2800 mg/L T 45 – 75C0 4. Physical-chemical treatment careful control of pH, followed by the addition of a coagulant such as alum before settling. 5. Treatment for VOC include using scrubbers, employing activated carbon absorbers, and routing the Vapors through a combustion system. A common approach to wastewate treatment consists of screening, flow equalization, and settling to remove suspended solids, then followed by biological treatment.
  24. 24. Detergents Industry 1. start of the synthetic detergent industry is not shrouded in the veils of history as were the beginnings of the soap industry. 2. There are one factory in Ramallah Industrial Estate produced and most of its production is used for cleaning. 3. Long chain paraffins (C10 – C18) such as kerosene or linear alkyl benzene, sulfuric acid (commercial or oleum), caustic soda, sodium tri polyphosphate, fatty alcohols, sulfated fat alcohols, sulfated acids and esters, alkyl aryl compounds, aliphatic poly hydric alcohol esters, fatty acids amides, chlorine gas, catalysts such as iodine or aluminum chloride. Sodium silicate, sodium carboxy cellulose, fluorescent, dyes, enzymes are used as Additives. 4. The effluents contains oil and grease (O&G), BOD, COD, synthetic detergents, pH, heavy metals (Ni) and TDS.
  25. 25. Specific effluents for detergents industry are: 1. Blow downs from the cooling tower and boilers as well as back wash of softeners are high in TDS and TSS. 2. The highly polluted water resulting from treatment of mucilage with NaOH in soap stock unit is high in BOD, COD and O&G and treated by dissolved air flotation (DAF) and by biological treatment. 3. Benzene spills in synthetic detergents unit is collected through ground traps, then accumulated in an underground reservoir and recovered by distillation.
  26. 26. Pharmaceuticals Manufacturing General: Pharmaceutical manufacturing is divided into two major stages: the production of the active ingredient or drug (primary processing, or manufacture) and secondary processing, the conversion of the active drugs into products suitable for administration. The principal manufacturing steps are (a) preparation of process intermediates; (b) introduction of functional groups; (c) coupling and esterification; (d) separation processes such as washing and stripping; and (e) purification of the final product.
  27. 27. Wastewater characteristics of Birzeit-Palestine Pharmaceutical Company (Firas, Fayez, 2004).
  28. 28. Treatment Technologies Reverse osmosis or ultra filtration is used to recover and concentrate active ingredients. Effluent treatment normally includes neutralization, flocculation, flotation, coagulation, filtration, settling, ion exchange, carbon adsorption, detoxification of active ingredients by oxidation (using ozone wet air oxidation ultraviolet systems or peroxide solutions), and biological treatment (using trickling filters, anaerobic, activated sludge, and rotating biological contactors). Exhausted carbon from adsorption processes may be sent for regeneration or combustion In some cases, air or steam stripping is performed to remove organics. Toxic metals are precipitated and filtered out
  29. 29. Soft Drink Industry The production process in these plants can be divided into two general production lines: 1. Carbonated beverages production line. 2. Carbon dioxide production line. Chemicals such as sodium chloride, ferrous sulfate, calcium hypochlorite, lime, potassium permanganate and sodium hydroxide are used for water treatment. Mono ethanol-amine and sodium carbonate are used in the carbon dioxide production process for purifying the gas. 3. Detergents and antiseptics are used for cleaning and sterilization purposes (sodium hydroxide, nitric acid sodium hypochlorite). Wastewater Characteristics Final effluent Parameters pH 5-6 BOD 150-200mg/1 COD 400-600 mg/1 T.S.S 450-500 mg/1 T 15-25 C0 TDS 350-400 mg/l
  30. 30. Treatment Technologies Several systems have been used with various degrees of water product purity. Filtration, pH adjustment and chlorination does not address the high TDS and demands a constant bleed: the treated water quality does not meet potable guidelines and consequently this system has only been used in the event of severe water shortages. Filtration, followed by pH correction and reverse osmosis has been used only in very few installations because of the high capital and operating cost, and can only be justified wher both the water and effluent costs are high.
  31. 31. Stone Cutting ( Marble, Granite, and Tile) 1. The manufacture of stone products involves cutting and finishing granite, limestone, marble, slate, sandstone, and other materials obtained from the quarry . 2. The manufacture of cut stone and stone products generates fugitive dusts, wastewater and plant maintenance waste. To create products made of stone, the shape of the ston must be altered through cutting, shaping, and finishing . 3. Plant maintenance wastes include waste oil from stone processing equipment. The cutting stone wastewaters consist of suspensions of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Treatment Technologies The microfiltration of wastewaters from a cutting stone processing industry was investigat A tubular mineral membrane 0.45 um nominal pore size, with moderate transmembrane pressures and high velocities (Maria, 2002). In Ramallah Industrial Estate wastewater discharge to sewer network with no treatment receive.
  32. 32. Olive-mills Olive is a very important cultivated product in the West Bank. According to a survey carried out by some civil engineering students for Birzeit University in 2006, it was found that there are about 26 Olive-mills in Ramallah-Al Bireh District. The Olive mills in the West Bank including Ramallah start working on the rainy seas from October up to December. So, this will increase the risk of groundwater pollutio The disposal of the untreated waste “Zebar” into open wades and/or the water recei bodies is considered as an urgent ecological problem that deteriorates the environ in the Ramallah governorate. It is also obsolescing the construction of wastewater treatment plants if it is available in the area. Where the biological pollution due to th improper disposal of the high organic content olive mill liquid waste into the water bodies destroy the aquatic life and prevents its further development.
  33. 33. The general physical and chemical properties of Zebar (effluent from Olive mills) is notably extremely high in BOD, COD, TSS, fats and phenols as shown General Physical and Chemical Properties of Zebar, (PWA, 2006) Parameter Unit Value COD (mg/l) 40,000 – 220,000 BOD (mg/l) 23,000 – 100,000 pH --- 3 - 5.9 Organic Nitrogen (mg/l) 154 - 1106 Phosphorous (mg/l) 100 - 900 Sodium (mg/l) 100 - 500 Potassium (mg/l) 2,800 - 11,600 Calcium (mg/l) 200 - 900 Magnesium (mg/l) 100 - 700 Hydroxy Tyrosol (mg/l) 71 - 937 Polyphenols (mg/l) 5,000 - 80,000 Carbohydrates (mg/l) 3,000 - 24,000 Oil Content (mg/l) 1,000 - 23,000
  34. 34. Solid Waste Disposal 1. There are many dumping sites in the District, since each community has its own dump site around it. Those dumping sites have been chosen in arbitrary condition and not well-designed. 2. Dumping sites are considered to be more localized “point” sources of potential groundw pollution as the nature of dumping sites in the District unlined, non-engineered, leachate generation during the winter season might contribute to groundwater pollution. 3. The lack of waste separation implies that hazardous and medical waste disposal is also uncontrolled. Batteries, liquid wastes, and potential hazardous wastes are mixed in with solid (household) wastes. 4. For solid waste investigation, each build up area in Ramallah-Al Bireh District was considered to have its own solid waste dumping site, and the quantity of solid waste was estimated of about 0.65kg/c/d and 0.8kg/c/d in rural and urban ( including Israeli settlements) areas respectively.
  35. 35. Ramallah Dumping Site
  36. 36. Mixed Solid Wastes in Ramallah Dumping Site
  37. 37. Classification of Hazards in Ramallah-Al Bireh District (A. Aliewi ,2007 and et al) Number Level I Categories of Hazards Level II Categories of Hazards Level III Categories of Hazards Wastewater Urbanization (leaking sewer pipes and sewer systems) Septic tank, cesspool, latrine Discharge from an inferior treatment plant. Surface impoundment for urban wastewater Runoff from paved surfaces Municipal Waste Garbage dump Sanitary landfill Fuels Gasoline Station Transport and Traffics Road unsecured Diverse Hazards Graveyard Military installation and dereliction Excavation Sites Quarry Industrial Plants Metal processing and finishing industry Chemical industry Food industry Diverting and Treatment of Wastewater Surface impoundment for industrial wastewater Livestock Factory farm (sloughing house) Agriculture Intensive agriculture area (with high demand of fertilizers and pesticides) 3 Livestock and Agriculture 2 Industrial Activities 1 Infrastructural Development
  38. 38. Hazards Index Values in Ramallah-Al Bireh District (A. Aliewi ,2007 and et al) Code Hazard Examples from the study area HI Infrastructure Development 1.1.1 Urbanization (leaking sewer pipes and sewer systems) Ramallah, Al-Bireh, Bitunia cities 35 1.1.4 Septic tank, cesspool latrine Most community in the study area 19-54 1.1.6 Discharge from an inferior treatment plant Al Bireh wastewater treatment plant 35 1.1.7 Surface impoundment for urban wastewater Ramallah wastewater treatment plant 60 1.1.8 Runoff from paved surfaces All communities in the district 25 1.2.1 Garbage dump In each community in the district 20-60 1.2.3 Sanitary landfill In most community in the district 25-50 1.3.6 Gasoline Station There are 26 gasoline station 24 1.4.1 Road unsecured 40 1.6.1 Graveyard Each community has its own graveyard 25-30 1.6.5 Military installed and dereliction All Israeli settlements 35 Industrial Activity 2.2.3 Quarry There are 6 main quarries in the district 25 2.4.3 Metal processing and finishing industry Plastic pipes and tiles factories 40 2.4.6 Chemical industry Detergents factory 65 2.4.10 Food industry Sinnuqrot factory, Coca cola, dairy products 45 2.7.2 Surface impoundment for industrial wastewater Ramallah wastewater treatment plant 65 Livestock and Agriculture 3.1.3 Factory farm (sloughing house) Ramallah and Al Bireh Cities 30 3.2.4 Intensive agriculture area with high demand of fertilizers and pesticides) - 30
  39. 39. ‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬:- ‫وذ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎآﻞ‬ ‫أهﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬‫اﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫وﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫وﺻﺮف‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮت‬ ‫ان‬ ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫وﻟﻀﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬. ‫هﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬30‫وهﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫أﻳﻀ‬560‫هﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫وأن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬ 532‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﻤﻌﺎت‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫اﻷودﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻣﺘﻼﺋﻬﺎ‬. ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫هﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬6%‫أﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺪوﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﻤﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬30%‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺤﻄﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ‬.
  40. 40. ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬:-‫ﺣﻴ‬ ‫آﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻏﺎزﻳﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺻﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻌﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫هﻲ‬‫ﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺸﺌﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎزل‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺠﺖ‬ ‫دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬. ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮق‬:- ‫ا‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫أن‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠ‬ ‫آﺒﻴﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﺻﺮﻓﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﺮف‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدرهﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫أآﺜﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬.‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮق‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻄﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺧﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻈﺮوف‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫وﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬‫اﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺔ‬.
  41. 41. ‫وذ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎآﻞ‬ ‫أهﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪ‬‫اﻟﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫وﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫وﺻﺮف‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬‫اﻟﻮﻃﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺟﻬﻪ‬‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮت‬ ‫ان‬ ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫وﻟﻀﻴﻖ‬. ‫هﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬30‫وهﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫أﻳﻀ‬630‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻊ‬
  42. 42. ‫ﺿﻴﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮق‬ ‫هﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬)‫اﻟﺒﻴﻮت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻴﺖ‬( ً‫ﺎ‬‫وﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺠﻴﻊ‬ ‫وهﻨﺎك‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻳﻔﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮع‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫واﻟﺠﻤﻌﻴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫أهﻢ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎل‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻣﺎدﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮف‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮق‬. ‫اﻟﻤ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﺻﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺮﺟﻊ‬‫ﺳﻮاء‬ ‫ﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺆدي‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬‫ﺴﺒﺐ‬‫اﻟﻤﻜﺎرﻩ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮا‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎرﻩ‬ ‫ﻳﺆدي‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫واﻟﺒﻌﻮض‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺸﺮات‬ ‫وﺗﻮاﺟﺪ‬ ،‫ﺑﺮواﺋﺤﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﻴﺔ‬‫واﻷوﺑﺌﺔ‬ ‫ض‬.
  43. 43. Demography: • The population of West Bank is about 2.35 million (2003.PCBS). • Annual Population growth is 3.5%. • 30 communities with population > 20,000. • 70 communities with population <10,000>5000. • 463 communities with population <5000.
  44. 44. ‫هﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫إﺣﺼﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬70%‫اﻟﺼﺤﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺮف‬ ‫ﺑﺸﺒﻜﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪوم‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﻤﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وإن‬30%‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫هﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺒﻜﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪوﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫هﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬6%‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻄﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬. ‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ؟‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮﻩ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺰراﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫آﻢ‬
  45. 45. ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺤﻄﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮور‬ ‫دون‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬ ‫أي‬‫وﺗﻜﻮن‬ ، ‫ﺗﻘﻨﻴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫وﺗﺨﻀﻊ‬ ،‫ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬)‫اﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬(‫واﻟﺘﻘﻴﻴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺮاﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮآﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬:- .1‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﺮهﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫آﻤﻴﺔ‬. .2‫ﻣﺪى‬‫ﻧﺠﺎﻋﺔ‬‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺮوع‬. 3.‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ودراﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺮوع‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮات‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬.
  46. 46. ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻮاﺋﺪ‬:- .1‫اﻟﺰراﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻬﻼك‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻞ‬. .2‫اﻟﻀﺮور‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻼح‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻞ‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎت‬ ‫ﻳﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻔﺴﻔﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮوﺟﻴﻦ‬. .3‫وﻣﺸﺎآﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬. .4‫رﺧﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬. .5‫اﻟﺒﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫رﻓﻊ‬. .6‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻔﺎظ‬.
  47. 47. Implemented Technologies of onsite wastewater systems in the West Bank (PWA,2003) Treatment Type Village District Anaerobic Pond- Facultative Pond-Polishing Pond Tarqumiea Hebron Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Artas Bethlehem Sequencing Batch Reactors Jericho Casino Jericho Septic Tank-Anaerobic Filter Aqba School Jenin Low Rate Trickling Filter Al Samu’a School Hebron Contact Stabilization Pond Beir Zeit University Ramallah UASB-Septic Tank Beir Zeit University Ramallah Collective Gray Wastewater- Aerobic Filter Beit Diko Jerusalem Duckweed and Algae based ponds Beir Zeit University Ramallah
  48. 48. Effluent Disposal Method Effluent Quantity m3/d Population Served (Capita) Type of Treatment Municipalities WWTP (Year Constructed) (Status) Location Screening Aeration tanks Irrigation Valleys Wadi Bitunia 3,20050,000 Not available disinfection by UV radiation 1,50020,000Stabilization ponds (2A + 1F) Jenin (1972) (Not work) 1,37047,500Stabilization ponds (2A + 2F) Ramallah (1974) (over load) 6,742114,400Stabilization ponds (1A + 2F) Tulkarem (1975) (over load) Al-Bireh (1999) (good) West Bank
  49. 49. Al-Bireh WWTP (Oxidation ditch)
  50. 50. R1 R2 A. UASB-Septic Tanks UASB-Septic Tanks (Anaerobic) oriented Water studies Institute Birzeit University and founded by Dutch government within the framework of the joint WASTEVAL II project
  51. 51. Influent for Bani Zaid Wastewater treatment plant (pilot study)
  52. 52. ‫اﻟﺴﻴﺐ‬‫وادي‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﻘﻠﻂ‬، ‫اﻟﺠﺎري‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﻠﻮﻃﺔ‬2005
  53. 53. Some Important Wastewater Indicators In (case study)Ramallah-Al Bireh District NumberIndicator 760Monthly Estimated Wastewater Quantity (1000 m3) 84Total Number of Communities 73Number of Communities that Use Cesspit 5Number of Communities that are Connected to Sewage Network 6Number of Communities that Use other Methods
  54. 54. ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬:- •97.2%‫اﻟﻤﺤﻴﻄﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫اﻷرض‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬. •2.2%‫اﻟﻘﻄﺒﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻪ‬. •0.6) %‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫أي‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺌﺔ‬(‫اﻟﻌﺬﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫هﻲ‬. •97.7%‫ﺟﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻷرض‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻃﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺬﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬. •‫اﻟﺒﺤﻴﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻞ‬1.5%‫ﻋﺸﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰءا‬ ‫اﻷﻧﻬﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫وﺗﺸﻜﻞ‬‫اﻵف‬‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫وﺗﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺬﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫وﺗﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة‬0.78%‫اﻟﻌﺬﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬. •‫ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫وﻣﺤﻴﻄﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮة‬ ‫آﻞ‬37000‫اﻟﻐﻴﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﺗﺴﺎﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺘﺒﺨﺮ‬ ‫دورهﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬.‫وهﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻜﺚ‬9.6‫اﻟﻤﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻘﻂ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻳﻮﻣ‬.‫ﺗﻨﺘﻈﺮ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫وﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫وﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬37 ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫أﻟﻒ‬.، ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ، ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫وﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬ‬ ،‫اﻟﻴﺎﺑﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻄﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻆ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫وإذا‬‫اﻷرض‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻃﻦ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺘﺴﻠﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﺳﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬.
  55. 55. •‫ﺑﺤﻮاﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺠﺪدة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪر‬600‫م‬.‫ﺟﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻨﻮﻳ‬ ‫م‬. •‫اﻟﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﻷﻏﺮاض‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮي‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻬﻼك‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺪر‬75‫م‬.‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫أي‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻨﻮﻳ‬ ‫م‬10%‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ‬ ً‫ﻼ‬‫أﺻ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺮاﺟﻪ‬. •90%‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺮاﺟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺪود‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫وﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﺮوت‬. •‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮض‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫واﻟﻐﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﺣﻮاض‬ ‫ﺛﻼث‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬‫اﷲ‬ ‫رام‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﺟﺰاء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻘﻴﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻟﻜﺮم‬ ،‫ﻧﺎﺑﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وأﺟﺰاء‬ ،‫ﻃﻮﻟﻜﺮم‬.
  56. 56. ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫وراﺋﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﻌﻢ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ •‫ﻣﺤ‬ ‫أﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺄآﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎص‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻔﻘﺪ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﻃﻌﻢ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺷﻄﻒ‬ ‫وﻳﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻹﻏﻼق‬ ‫ﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺳﺒﺎت‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬. •‫ا‬ ‫آﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫وإذا‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫اﻏﻼق‬ ‫اﺣﻜﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄآﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ‬ ‫راﺋﺤﺔ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻳﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺮاﺋﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺮﻳﻎ‬‫وﺷﻄﻔﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬. •‫ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻎ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮط‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫راﺋﺤﺔ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﺠﻬﻪ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺰودة‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬. •‫ﺧﻄ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫أﻣﺘﺎر‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫هﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫داﺋﻤ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄآﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ‬‫اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺤﻔﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻮط‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ‬.
  57. 57. ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺮض‬:- .1‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪر‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬. ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ‬ ‫وهﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎص‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫وﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫آﻞ‬ ‫وﻣﺮﺗﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫آﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮة‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻴﻞ‬‫اﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫وﻳﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺴ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﻜﺮوﺑﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺎﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺮق‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻟﻠﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪود‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻳﻼﺣﻆ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺎن‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬.‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮوﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮات‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮب‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﻨﻴﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬‫ﻟﻸﻣﺮاض‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮوﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬. ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮوﺑﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﻜﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﺗﺜﺒﻴﻂ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻹزاﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮب‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫إن‬‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘﺔ‬ ‫أﻓﻀﻞ‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮض‬ ‫ﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮب‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮوﺑﺎت‬.
  58. 58. ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻌﺮض‬:- .1‫اﻟﻔﺮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬ ‫آﺴﻮر‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬. .2‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬‫اهﺘﺮاء‬‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫أﺟﺰاء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. .3‫اﻟﻀﺦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻜﺴﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺤﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬. ‫وا‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺰود‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﻗﺒﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺒﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮﻳﺚ‬‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺴﻮر‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫داﺋﻤ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺆدي‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺤﺐ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻜﺴﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺤﺐ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫داﺋﻤ‬‫ﻋﻜﺎرة‬‫اﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫وهﺬﻩ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫ﺗﺘﻀﺦ‬‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮم‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺤﺴﻦ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫وﻟﻠﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺒﻴﻮت‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺗﺘﺠﻤﻊ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‬‫ﺗﻌﺒﺄة‬‫اﻟﻤﺎﺳﻮرة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮب‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﺮك‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ‬‫اﻟﻜﻠﻮرﻳﻦ‬‫أن‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫هﻨ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‬ ‫وﻳﻀﻤﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﻟﻮان‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺷﻮاﺋﺐ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻳﻼﺣﻆ‬‫ﻏﺎز‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﻂ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫وﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺎﻟﻚ‬‫اﻟﻜﻠﻮرﻳﻦ‬.
  59. 59. •‫وﺑﻘ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺸﺄ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮب‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬‫واﻟﻤﺒﻴﺪات‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫ﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮب‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰون‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬. •‫اﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺮﺳﺐ‬ ‫إذ‬ ، ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮات‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮب‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰن‬‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻘﺔ‬.‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺛﺒﺖ‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ً‫ا‬‫آﺜﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬. •،‫اﻟﺴﻮاء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫وﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻄﻮرة‬ ، ‫ﺑﻠﺪان‬ ‫ﻋﺪة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺮت‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺤﻮث‬ ‫أﻇﻬﺮت‬‫ﻟﻠﺠﺮاﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺪر‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎري‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮب‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة‬.‫ﺟﺮاﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺸﺄ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮاض‬ ‫أﺑﺮز‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬: ‫اﻟﺤﻤﻰ‬‫اﻟﺘﻴﻔﻮﺋﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬‫واﻟﺪوﺳﻨﻄﺎرﻳﺎ‬‫واﻟﻜﻮﻟﻴﺮا‬. •‫اﻟﺸﺮب‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷآﺜﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬:‫اﻟﺰرﻧﻴﺦ‬ ‫وﻣﺮآﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺻﺎص‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪن‬‫واﻟﺴﻴﺎﻧﻴﺪ‬‫وﻣﺎدة‬‫اﻟﻜﺎدﻣﻴﻮم‬ ‫وأﻣﺎ‬‫اﻟﻜﻠﻮر‬‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﻜﺮوﺑﺎت‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺮاﺛﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬،‫اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻮس‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺷﺮط‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻦ‬.
  60. 60. ‫ﻟﻼﻧ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﺮق‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬‫ﺴﺎن‬:- .1‫اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺴﻴﻤﺎت‬:‫اﻟﻬﺎﻟﻘﺔ‬‫اﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎن‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫أﻣﺮاﺿ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬. .2‫اﻟﺪﻳﻮآﺴﻴﻦ‬‫اﻻﻧﺠﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ‫وﻳﻀﺮ‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺒﺐ‬. .3‫أول‬‫أوآﺴﻴﺪ‬‫اﻟﻜﺮﺑﻮن‬:-‫واﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻣﺎغ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻀﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺪم‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻷوآﺴﺠﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﺗﺤﺎد‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻨﻊ‬. .4‫اﻟﺮﺻﺎص‬:-‫اﻟﺬآﺎء‬ ‫وﻳﻀﻌﻒ‬ ،‫اﻻﻧﺠﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬ ، ‫اﻟﻜﻠﻰ‬ ، ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻣﺎغ‬ ‫ﻳﻀﺮ‬. .5‫اﻟﺒﻨﺰﻳﻦ‬:‫اﻟﺪم‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻃﺎن‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺪم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫أﻣﺮاﺿ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺒﺐ‬. .6‫اﻟﻔﻮرﻣﺎﻟﺪهﻴﺪ‬:-‫اﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﻌﻴﻮن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﺠﺎت‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺒﺐ‬‫ﺮﻃﺎن‬. .7‫ﺛﺎﻧﻲ‬‫أوآﺴﻴﺪ‬‫اﻟﻜﺒﺮﻳﺖ‬:-‫واﻟﺤﻴﻮان‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻨﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬‫واﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺎز‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺬا‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺮﻃﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬ ، ‫ﺗﺂآﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺤﺪث‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺎز‬‫ﻟﻠﺸﻌﻴﺒﺎت‬‫اﻟﺮﺋﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاﺋﻴﺔ‬. 8.، ‫اﻟﻜﺮوم‬‫اﻟﺰﺋﺒﻖ‬‫ﺣﺎﻣﺾ‬ ،‫اﻟﻜﻠﻮردرﻳﻚ‬،‫وﺳﻴﺎﻧﻴﺪ‬،‫اﻟﻬﻴﺪروﺟﻴﻦ‬‫واﻟﺒﻮﻟﻴﻜﺎورﻳﻨﺎﺗﺪ‬‫ﺑﻴﻔﻴﻨﻴﻞ‬‫واﻟﻔﻴﻮران‬..‫اﻟﺦ‬ ‫وﻣﺰﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺎدة‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮات‬ ‫إﺣﺪاث‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺆدي‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬‫وﻣﺴﺮﻃﻨﺔ‬‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬.
  61. 61. ‫ﺑﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺮى‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺼﺪ‬‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎط‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﺳﻮا‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬‫اﻷﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﻟﻸﻏﺮاض‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺰراﻋﺔ‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮب‬ ‫ء‬. ‫ﻻﺑ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻈﻬﺮ‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫و‬‫ﺣﻴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫و‬ ‫آﻴﻤﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺒﺎرات‬ ‫إﺟﺮاء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺪف‬:‫ﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﻤﻮح‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬. ‫اﻷوﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫أو‬:‫آﺜﺮﺗﻬ‬ ‫ﺗﺆدي‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫آﻤﻴﺔ‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺎء‬‫اﻟﺘﻌﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫إﻋﺎﻗﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻠﻮر‬‫اﻟﻤﺘﻌﻜﺮ‬ ُ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴ‬:‫ﻃ‬ ‫وﺟﻮدهﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫أﺿﺮار‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫،آﺎﺋﻨﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻌﻴﺎ‬. ُ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜ‬:‫زراﻋ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻵﻓﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻴﺪات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫،ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺒﺎت‬‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻴﺔ‬. ً‫ﺎ‬‫راﺑﻌ‬:‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺴﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫آﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮآﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺒﺎت‬‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺗﺠﺔ‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﺠﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬. ُ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴ‬:‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺸﺄ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻹﺷﻌﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺎط‬‫اﻟﺮﺳﻮﺑﺎت‬‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮوﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﺠﻴﺮات‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬري‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺒﺎر‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺟﻬﺰة‬.
  62. 62. ‫اﻟﺒﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﻤﻲ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫أﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬‫اﻹﺣﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬‫واﻻإﺣﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬‫ﻣﺠﺎل‬ ‫ﺧﺎرج‬ ‫هﺬا‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ، ‫اﺧﺘﻼ‬ ‫ﺣﺪوث‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺆدي‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻷي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮات‬‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺆدي‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﺗﺰان‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻴﺌﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬. ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬ .1‫اﻟﻤﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬:-‫واﻟﺤﻴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫أي‬.‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻃﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬ ‫وﻳﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬)‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ‬ ‫وﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫وﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬(‫اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬)‫اﻟﻤﺨﻠﻔﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬.( 2.‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬:-‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎوي‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻳﻌﺮف‬‫اﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﻃﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫أو‬. ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎوي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻﺧﺘﻼل‬ ‫هﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎوي‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬)‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ودرﺟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫وﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫واﻟﺤﻤﻮﺿﺔ‬.(
  63. 63. ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻳﻘﺼﺪ‬،‫ﻟﻠﺸﺮب‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻴﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ،‫واﻟﻠﻮن‬ ‫واﻟﻄﻌﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺮاﺋﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻳﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺬا‬ ، ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻲ‬ ‫وﻟﻼﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬‫ﻓﺎذا‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛ‬ ‫ﺻﺎر‬ ‫ﻟﻮن‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻃﻌﻢ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫راﺋﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ‬ ‫أﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ .1‫اﻷﻣﺮاض‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺒﺒﺎت‬:-‫ﻟﻼﻧ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﻮاﺳﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻣﺮاض‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫وهﻲ‬ً‫ﺎ‬‫وﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ، ‫ﺴﺎن‬. ‫ﺑﺮاز‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺪرهﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬‫اﻷﻧﺴﺎن‬‫اﻟﺤﻴﻮاﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺨﻠﻔﺎت‬ ‫أو‬. 2.‫اﻟﺴﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮآﺒﺎت‬:-‫ﻣﺒﻴ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫وهﻲ‬ ، ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮآﺒﺎت‬ ‫وهﻲ‬‫اﻟﺤﺸﺮات‬ ‫ﺪات‬ ‫واﻷﻋﺸﻠﺐ‬‫واﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬‫اﻟﺴﺎﻣﺔوﻋﺎدة‬‫اﻟﻤﻮت‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺆدي‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ذات‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬. 3.‫اﻟﻔﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ‬:-‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬‫اﻟﻌﻜﺎرة‬‫واﻟﻄﻌﻢ‬ ‫واﻟﺮاﺋﺤﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮن‬ ، ‫اﻟﻜﻬﺮﺑﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮﺻﻴﻞ‬ ‫وﻗﺪرة‬.
  64. 64. ‫اﻟﺸﺮب‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺋﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪى‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻮاﻣﻞ‬ .1‫ﺑﻜﺘﻴﺮﻳﺎ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬)‫اﻟﺒﺮازﻳﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻮﻟﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﻴﺔ‬( .2‫اﻟﺼﻮدﻳﻮم‬ ‫أو‬ ، ‫اﻟﻜﻠﻮرﻳﺪ‬ ‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺷﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫زﻳﺎدة‬)‫أرﻳﺤﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬( ‫اﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮات‬ ‫أو‬)‫ﻏﺰة‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬(‫وﻣﺎ‬‫ﻟﺬﻟﺪ‬‫ﻣﺮض‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻴﺮة‬ ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬)Blue Baby.( 3.‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻘﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﺤﻮﻇﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻳﺎدة‬‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺎت‬.
  65. 65. ‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎدر‬ ‫أهﻢ‬:- .1‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬. .2‫اﻟﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺤﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫زﻳﺎدة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬‫ﻣﻨﻈﻢ‬. .3‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺮﺟﺎت‬. .4‫اﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺼﺎرة‬ ‫وﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺒﺎت‬. .5‫اﻟﺰراﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻤﺎرﺳﺎت‬ ‫واﻷﺳﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺒﻴﺪات‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬. .6‫ﺗﺤﺘﻮهﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎﻧﻊ‬ ‫وﻣﺨﺮﺟﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬.
  66. 66. ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﻒ‬‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬‫ﻓﻀﻼت‬‫اﻟﺬاﺋﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻸوآﺴﺠﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﺔ‬‫اﻟﺤﻴﻮي‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻀﻮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮآﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎرة‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎط‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺗﺠﺔ‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫و‬‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬:- 1.‫ﻟﻸﻣﺮاض‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺒﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬-‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻔﻴﻠﻴﺎت‬ ‫و‬ ‫دﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫آﺎﺋﻨﺎت‬ ‫هﻲ‬ ‫و‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬‫ﻓﻀﻼت‬‫اﻟﺤﻴﻮان‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬ 2.‫ﻣﻐﺬﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﺰراﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻤﺪة‬‫ﻟﻠﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎت‬- 3.‫ﻣﻌﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺮآﺒﺎت‬- 4.‫ﺳﻴﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬- 5.‫اﻟﻤﺸﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬- 6.‫اﻟﺘﻔﺮﻳﻎ‬‫اﻟﺤﺮاري‬- 7.‫اﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﻃﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬- 8.‫اﻟﻨﻔﻂ‬-
  67. 67. ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ ‫أﺧﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫وﻣﺠﺎري‬ ‫وﺑﺮك‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫اﻟﺠﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬. ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺨﻄﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻬﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬‫ﺗﺤﺪﺛﺔ‬‫أهﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺪة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺬآﻮرة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر‬:- .1‫اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ ‫وﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻴﺔ‬. .2‫اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫أﺳﻔﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﺔ‬ .3‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻴﺪروﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺣﻮال‬.
  68. 68. ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺰﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﺮق‬ ‫أن‬‫اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬‫ﻳﻨﺘﺞ‬ ،ً‫ا‬‫ﻣﻮاد‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﺪة‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫أﻣﺮاﺿ‬ ‫وﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺮ‬ ‫وﺧﻄﺮة‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻣﺔ‬:- .1‫اﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎن‬ .2‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﻣﺮاض‬‫اﻷ‬>‫هﺰة‬‫اﻟﺘﻨﻔﺴﻴﻴﺔواﻻﻧﺠﺎﺑﻴﺔ‬‫واﻟﻬﻀﻤﻴﺔ‬ .3‫واﻟﺪم‬ ‫واﻟﻘﻠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺪﻣﺎغ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﻣﺮاض‬ .4‫ﺟﻠﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫أﻣﺮاض‬ .5‫اﻟﻜﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺮاآﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫أﻣﺮاض‬
  69. 69. ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﺮق‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮﺛﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺬهﺐ‬ ‫أﻳﻦ‬:- .1‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬. .2‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺮﺳﺐ‬‫اﻟﺔاﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬‫واﻟﺤﻴﻮان‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﺄآﻠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺰروﻋﺎت‬.‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻨﺎول‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﻟﺪ‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫وﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺮى‬ ‫وﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺗﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻴﻮان‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻢ‬‫ﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬. 3.‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻠﺘﺮة‬‫اﻻﻧﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻳﺸﺮﺑﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬. 4.‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻠﻌﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺎرع‬ ‫أﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺮﺳﺐ‬‫اﻟﻬﻮاء‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﺸﺎق‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬ ‫ﺟﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﻣﺴﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺗﺮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻠﻮث‬.
  70. 70. ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬:- .1‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﺎن‬2004‫واﻟﺒﻴﺮة‬ ‫اﷲ‬ ‫رام‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎن‬ ‫وﻓﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬86‫ﻳﻌﺎدل‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬10.5% ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬ ‫وﻓﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬. 2.‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬2000‫آﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﻔﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬10‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻃﻔﺎل‬‫اﻟﻌﻤﺮﻳﺔ‬6-12،‫واﻟﺒﻴﺮة‬ ‫اﷲ‬ ‫رام‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺮض‬ ‫آﻤﺼﺎﺑﻴﻦ‬ 3.‫اﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﺮق‬ ‫أن‬‫اﻟﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬‫اﻟﺤﺎو‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫أﻳﻀ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ، ‫ﺻﺤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻳﺆدي‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎوﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻳﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫آﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﺰﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ودﻣﺎرهﺎ‬.
  71. 71. ‫اﻟﺤﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫اﻹﻣﺘﺼﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬‫ﻋ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬ ،‫اﻟﺠﻮﻓﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﻴ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺌﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﺑﺄﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻠﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﻤﺎء‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﺣﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻤﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬)‫ﻣﺒﻄﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬(‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ،‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ‬‫اﻟﺠﻮﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺴﺮب‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬. ‫ﺁﺑ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺮب‬ ‫هﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻼﺣﻆ‬‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺌﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺪران‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻘﻮق‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻔﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﺧﻔﺾ‬‫اﻟﺠﻤﻊ‬. ،‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻠﺢ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺆدي‬ ‫واﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺰان‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎﺋﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺦ‬ ‫وﻳﺸﻜﻞ‬‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫اﻷﻏﻮار‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻵﺑﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫هﺬﻩ‬.
  72. 72. ‫ﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎدر‬ .1‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬)‫اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬(‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﻔﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫اﻷودﻳﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬35‫م‬.‫ﻣﻨﻬﺎ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻨﻮﻳ‬ ‫م‬10‫م‬.‫ﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻷودﻳﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺦ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻨﻮﻳ‬ ‫م‬ 19‫م‬.‫م‬.‫اﻷرض‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺘﺼﺎﺻﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺴﺮب‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻨﻮﻳ‬. 2.‫اﻟﻌﻀﻮي‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺴﻤﺎد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﺜﻒ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬)‫اﻟﺒﻠﺪي‬(‫واﻟﻐﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻴﻤﺎوﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻤﺪة‬ ‫أو‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻴﺘﺮات‬‫واﻟﺒﻮﺗﺎﺳﻴﻮم‬‫واﻟﻜﺒﺮﻳﺘﺎت‬‫ﺑﺎﻻﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺰروﻋﺎت‬ ‫ري‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬‫اﻟﺰراﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻮث‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺆدي‬.

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