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kids differ, and the most effective teachers do whatever it takes to hook the whole range of kids on learning.
Differentiation is responsive teaching rather than one-size-fits-all teaching.
“ It means teachers proactively plan varied approaches to what students need to learn, how they will learn it, and/or how they will show what they have learned in order to increase the likelihood that each student will learn as much as he or she can, as efficiently as possible .”
Differentiation doesn’t suggest that a teacher can be all things to all individuals all the time. It does, however, mandate that a teacher create a reasonable range of approaches to learning much of the time, so that most students find learning a fit much of the time.
“ Differentiation is making sure that the right students get the right learning tasks at the right time. Once you have a sense of what each student knows and what he or she needs in order to learn, differentiation is no longer an option; it is an obvious response.”
At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means “ shaking up ” what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn.
Differentiation Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs Guided by general principles of differentiation Meaningful tasks Flexible grouping Continual assessment Teachers can differentiate through Content Process Product Affect/Environment According to students’ Readiness Interest Learning Profile Through a variety of instructional strategies such as: RAFTS …Graphic Organizers…Scaffolding …Cubing…Tic-Tac-Toe…Learning Contracts….Tiering… Learning/Interest Centers… Independent Studies…Intelligence Preferences..Orbitals..Complex Instruction…ETC. Quality Curriculum Building Community
Assessment information helps students chart and contribute to their own growth.
Assessment is more focused on personal growth than on peer competition.
Assessment information is more useful to the teacher than grades.
CONTENT PROCESS PRODUCT ASSESSMENT Pre - Post - Ongoing for Interest – Readiness – Learning Profile by Self – Peers - Teachers
WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED? Skills Concepts READINESS INTEREST LEARNING PROFILE Content Knowledge
Areas of Strength
When Do You Assess? Most teachers assess students at the end of an instructional unit or sequence. When assessment and instruction are interwoven, both the students and the teacher benefit. The next slide suggests a diagnostic continuum for ongoing assessment.
Flexible Grouping Students are part of many different groups (and also work alone) based on the match of the task to student readiness, interest, or learning style. Teachers may create skills based or interest based groups that are heterogeneous or homogeneous in readiness level. Sometimes students select work groups, and sometimes teachers select them. Sometimes student group assignments are purposeful and sometimes random.
R ole of the student. What is the student’s role: reporter, observer, eyewitness, object?
A udience . Who will be addressed by this raft: the teacher, other students, a parent, people in the community, an editor, another object?
F ormat . What is the best way to present this information: in a letter, an article, a report, a poem, a monologue, a picture, a song?
T opic . Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous mathematician, a prehistoric cave dweller, a reaction to a specific event?
RAFT Activities Language Arts & Literature Science History Math Role Audience Format Topic Semicolon Middle Schoolers Diary entry I Wish You Really Knew Where I Belong Huck Finn Tom Sawyer Note hidden in a tree knot A Few Things You Should Know Rain Drop Future Droplets Advice Column The Beauty of Cycles Lung Cigarettes Public Service Announcement What you do to me! Reporter Public Obituary Hitler is Dead Water The Sun A love letter I think you are hot Thomas Jefferson Current Residents of Virginia Full page Newspaper Ad If I Could Talk to You Now Fractions Whole Numbers Petition To Be Considered A Part of the Family A word problem Students in your class Set of Directions How to Get to Know Me
Draw a picture that shows what happens during photosynthesis.
Write two paragraphs about what happens during photosynthesis.
Create a rap that explains what happens during photosynthesis.
Diner Menu – Photosynthesis
Appetizer (Everyone Shares)
Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.
Side Dishes (Select at Least Two)
Define respiration, in writing.
Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a Venn Diagram.
Write a journal entry from the point of view of a green plant.
With a partner, create and perform a skit that shows the differences between photosynthesis and respiration.
Create a test to assess the teacher’s knowledge of photosynthesis .
TIC-TAC-TOE Choice Board For a Book Report Draw a picture of the main character. Perform a play that shows the conclusion of a story. Write a song about one of the main events. Write a poem about two main events in the story. Make a poster that shows the order of events in the story. Dress up as your favorite character and perform a speech telling who you are. Create a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting the introduction to the closing. Write two paragraphs about the main character. Write two paragraphs about the setting.
I will read: I will look at and listen to: I will write: I will draw: I will need: Here’s how I will share what I know: My question or topic is: I will finish by this date: To find out about my question or topic… Learning Contract #1 Name _______________________
Learning Contract #2 To demonstrate what I have learned about ____________________, I want to _ Write a report _ Put on a demonstration _ Set up an experiment _ Develop a computer presentation _ Build a model _ Design a mural _ Write a song _ Make a movie _ Create a graphic organizer or diagram _ Other This will be a good way to demonstrate understanding of this concept because ______________________________________________________________ To do this project, I will need help with ______________________________________________________________ My Action Plan is________________________________________________ The criteria/rubric which will be used to assess my final product is _________ ______________________________________________________________ My project will be completed by this date _____________________________ Student signature: ________________________________ Date __/__/__ Teacher signature: ________________________________ Date __/__/__
Show the number of fingers on a scale, with 1 being lowest and 5 the highest.
Ask, How well do you feel you know this information?
I know it so well I could explain it to anyone.
I can do it alone.
I need some help.
I could use more practice.
1. I am only beginning.
Gregory, G.H. & Chapman, C. (2001). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All . Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Let's Take Look at Some Examples Teacher prepared pretests KWL charts and other graphic organizers Writing prompts/samples Questioning Guess Box Picture Interpretation Prediction Teacher observation/checklists Student demonstrations and discussions Initiating activities Informational surveys/Questionnaires/Inventories Student interviews Student products and work samples Self-evaluations Portfolio analysis Game activities Show of hands to determine understanding Drawing related to topic or content Standardized test information Anticipation journals
Possible Products Book List Calendar Coloring Book Game Research Project TV Show Song Dictionary Film Collection Trial Machine Book Mural Award Recipe Test Puzzle Model Timeline Toy Article Diary Poster Magazine Computer Program Photographs Terrarium Petition Drive Teaching Lesson Prototype Speech Club Cartoon Biography Review Invention
Begin Slowly – Just Begin! Low-Prep Differentiation Choices of books Homework options Use of reading buddies Varied journal Prompts Orbitals Varied pacing with anchor options Student-teaching goal setting Work alone / together Whole-to-part and part-to-whole explorations Flexible seating Varied computer programs Design-A-Day Varied Supplementary materials Options for varied modes of expression Varying scaffolding on same organizer Let’s Make a Deal projects Computer mentors Think-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profile Use of collaboration, independence, and cooperation Open-ended activities Mini-workshops to reteach or extend skills Jigsaw Negotiated Criteria Explorations by interests Games to practice mastery of information Multiple levels of questions High-Prep Differentiation Tiered activities and labs Tiered products Independent studies Multiple texts Alternative assessments Learning contracts 4-MAT Multiple-intelligence options Compacting Spelling by readiness Entry Points Varying organizers Lectures coupled with graphic organizers Community mentorships Interest groups Tiered centers Interest centers Personal agendas Literature Circles Stations Complex Instruction Group Investigation Tape-recorded materials Teams, Games, and Tournaments Choice Boards Think-Tac-Toe Simulations Problem-Based Learning Graduated Rubrics Flexible reading formats Student-centered writing formats
Reform must come from within, not from without. James Gibbons WE, are the Agents of Change… nothing can change unless we change ourselves and our ways of teaching
We Need To Ask Ourselves… Do all students have access to the tools, knowledge and guidance that they need to succeed? If not, what can we do to give them those tools?
Where do I Go From Here? Some Tips for Implementing Differentiation in your Classroom
Organize classroom space
Find out student interests
Where do I Go From Here? Some Tips for Implementing Differentiation in your Classroom