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Differentiated instruction

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Strategies on Differentiated Instruction

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Differentiated instruction

  1. 1. Differentiated Instruction in the K to 12 Curriculum
  2. 2. Objectives 1. Review basic definition of curriculum. 2. To provide an overview of the content and requirements of the K to 12 program in general. 3. To orient teachers on their roles as designer, assessors and facilitators of learning.
  3. 3. 4. To discuss the essentials of Differentiated Instruction. 5. To discuss the different strategies that supports the implementation of differentiated instruction 6. To make a differentiated instruction learning plan and an assessment matrix.
  4. 4. A Review on Curriculum The K to 12 Curriculum  Differentiated Instruction Small Group and Cooperative Learning
  5. 5. Curriculum is… A subject matter (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013) Science English Filipino Mathematics Social Studies
  6. 6. Curriculum is… Planned learning activities sponsored by the school” (Tanner & Tanner, 2007) 1 • Curricular-Activities 2 • Extra-curricular Activities 3 • Co-curricular Activities
  7. 7. Curriculum is… A plan for achieving educational goals (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2013) Intent (philosophy, aims, goals & objectives) Content (subjects, courses, topics) Learning Experiences (activities, strategies, methods) Evaluation (curriculum evaluation & Instructional evaluation)
  8. 8. Curriculum ….Erickson, 2001 Head (Subjects & Content) Heart (Intended Learning Outcomes & Learning Experiences) Soul (School Experiences & the Hidden Curriculum)
  9. 9.  A Review on Curriculum The K to 12 Curriculum  Differentiated Instruction Small Group and Cooperative Learning
  10. 10. How can we ensure that our graduates are globally competitive?
  11. 11. ASEAN Community 2015
  12. 12. RATIONALE 1. Enhancing the quality of basic education in the Philippines is urgent and critical 2. The poor quality of basic education is reflected in the low achievement scores of Filipino students.
  13. 13. 3. The congested curriculum partly explains the present state of education 4. This quality of education is reflected in the inadequate preparation of high school graduates for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education
  14. 14. 5. Further, most graduates are too young to enter the labor force. 6. The current system also reinforces the misperception that basic education is just a preparation for higher education.
  15. 15. Table 1 Philippine Average TIMSS Scores Scores International Average Rank Participating Countries 2003 Results 7. Grade IV Science 332 489 23 25 Mathematics 358 495 23 25 HS II Science 377 473 43 46 Mathematics 378 466 34 38 2008Results Advanced Mathematics 355 500 10 10 Source: TIMSS, 2003 and 2008
  16. 16. 8. Our graduates are not automatically recognized as professionals abroad. Table 3 Comparative Data on the Pre- University Education in Asia Country Basic Education Cycle Total Brunei 12 Cambodia 12 Indonesia 12 Lao PDR 12 Malaysia 12 Myanmar 11 Philippines 10 Singapore 11 Thailand 12 Timor-Leste 12 Vietnam 12 Mongolia recently added grades to make basic education 12 years.
  17. 17. Implementation and Transition Management
  18. 18. 2 years Senior HS 4 years Junior HS Kindergarten K-12 Basic Education Program 6 years Elementary K+6+4+2
  19. 19. K-12 Basic Education Program Batang K-12, HandasaTrabaho o Kolehiyo, HandasaMundo What will each graduate get? Grade VI Junior HS Senior HS
  20. 20. Design of the Curriculum SPIRAL APPROACH • Concepts are developed in increasing complexity and sophistication starting from grade school.
  21. 21. • Learner-centered • Relevant, responsive and research-based • Gender- and culture – sensitive • Contextualize and global •Use pedagogical approaches that are constructivist, inquiry-based, reflective, collaborative and integrative
  22. 22. What should the teachers need to develop among students for them become globally competitive?
  23. 23. Desired Outcomes
  24. 24. Roles of a Teacher Designer Facilitator Assessor
  25. 25. Standards-Based Curriculum It is a curriculum based on content standards as explicated by experts in the field Glatthorn et.al., 1998
  26. 26. Desired Outcomes Content Standards Performance Standards
  27. 27. Content Standards • what the students are expected to know (knowledge; facts and information), •what they should be able to do (process or skills) with what they know •the meanings or understandings that they construct or make as they process the facts and information (evidence-based)
  28. 28. Performance Standards • The performance standards define the expected proficiency level whish is expressed in two ways: Students should be able to.... - use learning or understanding in real-life situations - do this on their own
  29. 29. Performance Standards  Explicate the level of achievement expected for each content standard  Example:  Identify questions that can be answered through scientific investigations Design & conduct scientific investigation Kendall & Marzano, (1996)
  30. 30. The K-12 Curriculum is an example of a Standards-based Curriculum It includes these sets of learning outcomes Standards Content Standards Performance Standards Competencies Knowledge Process/skills Understanding Product/Performance
  31. 31. Level of Assessment Level of Assessment Percentage Wieght Knowledge 15% Process/Skills 25% Understanding (s) 30% Product/Performances 30% Total 100%
  32. 32. Knowledge • the substantive content of the curriculum, the facts and information that the student acquires •What do we want our students to know? How do we want them to express or provide evidence of what they know? •the level may be assessed using traditional measures
  33. 33. Process/Skills • cognitive operations that the students performs on facts and information for the purpose of constructing meanings or understandings • What do we want students to do with what they know? How do we want them to provide of what they can do with what they know?
  34. 34. Understanding • enduring big ideas, principles and generalizations inherent to the discipline, which may be assessed using the facets of understanding or other indicators of understanding which may be specific to the discipline.
  35. 35. Facets of Understanding • Explain •Interpret •Apply • Give perspective •Show empathy •Self-Knowledge
  36. 36. Products/Performances • real-life application of understanding as evidence by the student’s performance of authentic tasks • A good model for assessment at this level is GRASPS (Mctighe and Wiggins, 2005)
  37. 37. G – real-world Goal R – real-world Role A – real-world Audience S – real-world Situation P – real-world Products or Performances S - Standards
  38. 38. Example of Performance Task in GRASPS form ASEAN 2015 brings life to a country’s tourism. You are an ARGF travel tour agent. You are task to make promo packages for the different Asian tourists. You are to present a written report of your proposal to your manager. The proposal should demonstrate practicality, accuracy, authenticity and application of concepts on quadratic functions
  39. 39. Activity 1 •Examine the Dep.Ed. Curriculum and identify the first quarter learning competencies as knowledge, process/skills, understanding, product/performance. • Develop a performance task in GRASPS form
  40. 40. Insights about Activity 1
  41. 41. Process Questions: 1. How can we ensure that our graduates are globally competitive? 2. Why do we need to ensure that our graduates are globally competitive? 3. What should the teachers need to develop among students for them become globally competitive? 4. What is the importance of unpacking the learning competencies into the different level of assessment?
  42. 42.  A Review on Curriculum The K to 12 Curriculum  Differentiated Instruction Small Group and Cooperative Learning
  43. 43. What is Differentiated Instruction?  To differentiate instruction is to RECOGNIZE students varying background knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning, interests, and to react responsively.  It is a PROCESS to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class.  The intent of differentiating instruction is to MAXIMIZE each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process.
  44. 44. “NOT” “IS” Individualized Instruction Different Reading Assignments Taught Skill Practice Tailoring the Same Suit of Clothes One-Size-Fits-All Instruction Does NOT Reach All Learners Student Centered Multiple Intelligences Learning Styles Blend of Whole-Class, Group and Individual Instruction Flexible and Responsive Learners of Multiple Abilities CAN BE Educated Together PROACTIVE
  45. 45. Universal Design to DI Based on Student Readiness, Interest & Learning Profile 1. Content 2. Process 3. Products 4. Learning Environment
  46. 46. Learning Cycle & Decision Factors Used in Planning and Implementing Differentiated Instruction
  47. 47. Content How can he/she access the information? How do we Plan? How to? • Determine the Ability Level of Your Students – Survey Past Records, Look at Their Cums • Align Tasks and Objectives to Learning Goals • Survey Student Interests – Interest Inventories, Interview/Conference, Respond to Open-Ended Questionnaire with Questions • What are Your Students Multiple Intelligences & Learning Styles? • What are Your Student’s Preferences and Motivators? • Instruction is Concept-Focused and Principle- Driven • Brain-Based Research • Know YOUR Students Examples:  Use Reading Materials at Varying Readability Levels  Put Text Materials on Tape  Use Spelling/Vocab. Tests at Readiness Levels of Students  Use Reading Buddies  Meet with Small Groups to Re-Teach an Idea or Skill for Struggling Learners, or Extend the Learning
  48. 48. How Do We Plan? Determine a Focus Area: • Four T’s – Teaching Objective – Target – Bloom’s Taxonomy – Text/Materials • Instructional Strategies • Learner Engagement – Effective Presentations • Learning Environment Based on Research: • All GOOD Instruction Must Have: – Active Engagement – Reading & Writing Strategies – Address the Auditory, Kinesthetic, Visual & Tactile Learners – Address Multiple Intelligences – Be Developmentally Appropriate
  49. 49. Do YOU Wing It? teaching.mrbelshaw.co.uk (Or) Do YOU Plan it!
  50. 50. Learning Cycle & Decision Factors Used in Planning and Implementing Differentiated Instruction
  51. 51. Process How to process information, organize, store retrieve & apply information? How to?  Flexible Grouping is Consistently Used  Groupings are Not Fixed, and Should Be Dynamic in Process  Teach Whole Class Introductory Discussions ,then Follow with Small Group (or) Pair Work.  Direct Instruction  Inquiry-Based Learning  Cooperative Learning  Classroom Management Benefits Students and Teachers  Organization & Routines Examples:  Use Tiered Activities  Provide Interest Centers  Develop Personal Agendas for Completion of Work  Manipulatives (or) Hands on Supports  Varying the Length of Time  Memorization  KWL  Reciprocal teaching  Graphic organizing  Scaffolding  Webbing  Self Talk  WebQuests  Guided Notes
  52. 52. Learning Cycle & Decision Factors Used in Planning and Implementing Differentiated Instruction
  53. 53. Products Culminating projects that ask the student to rehearse, apply, and extend what he/she has learned in a unit How to?  Initial & On-Going Assessment of Student Readiness & Growth are Essential  Authentic Assessment  Students are Active & Responsible Explorers  Vary Expectations & Requirements for Student Responses  Consider each Student’s Multiple Intelligences & Learning Styles Based on Outcomes Examples:  Give Students Options of How to Express Required Learning  Create a Puppet Show, Write a Letter, Develop Mural with Labels  Use Rubrics that Match Student’s Varied Skill Level  RubiStar.com  Allow Students to Work Alone (or) in Small Groups  Performance -Based Assessment  Student Portfolios  Knowledge Mapping
  54. 54. Learning Cycle & Decision Factors Used in Planning and Implementing Differentiated Instruction
  55. 55. Learning Environments The way the classroom works and feels How to? • How the Classroom is Organized? • Classroom Behavior Management System is in Place – Procedures – Consequences – Positive Interventions Examples:  Places in Room Free of Distractions, and Places that Invite Student Collaboration  Materials that Reflect a Variety of Cultures & Home Settings  Clear Guidelines for Independent Work  Develop Routines  Students Understand Differences of Learners
  56. 56.  A Review on Curriculum The K to 12 Curriculum Differentiated Instruction Small Group and Cooperative Learning
  57. 57. What type/s of teaching strategies do the teacher needs to consider that would cater meaningful learning experiences among his/her students?
  58. 58. Group work vs Cooperative learning
  59. 59. What is Group Work? Students form a group. (usually 4) Each person has a “job”. (reporter, materials collector, captain, recorder, etc.) Students are only concerned with “their job”,and do not participate the entire time. (easy for them to hide) All students are not engaged Learning is not equal (one person may do all or most of the work)
  60. 60. WHAT IS COOPERATIVE LEARNING? What does cooperative learning look like? Students are working in teams that display: • P- Positive Interdependence (on the same side, same goals) • I- Individual Accountability (student’s can’t hide) • E- Equal participation (equal status) • S- Simultaneous Interaction (engagement)
  61. 61. What’s the difference? Cooperative Group Traditional Group Positive interdependence No interdependence Individual accountability No individual accountability Heterogeneous membership Homogeneous membership Shared leadership One leader Responsible to each other Responsibly only for self Task & maintenance emphasized Only task emphasized Social skills directly taught Skills assumed or ignored Teacher observes & intervenes Teacher ignores groups Group processing occurs No group processing Mutual assistance Competitive
  62. 62. From Traditional to Cooperative Learning • “Learning involves healthy noise.” “A good class is a quiet class.” “Keep your eyes • “Help your partner solve it.” on your own paper.” • “Get up and look at what “Sit quietly.” others did.”
  63. 63. 5 Major Phases 1.Teacher clarifies goals, provides a hook and introductory information 2.Organize student teams with clearly defined roles 3.Facilitate team activities, including academic learning, social skills & cooperative behavior 4.Assess student knowledge throughout the process and/or by team presentations 5.Recognize both group & individual efforts such as active participation and taking responsibility for learning
  64. 64. Phase 1: Goals, Hook & Introduction • The 3 instructional goals of cooperative learning are: 1. Academic achievement, 2. Tolerance and acceptance of diversity, and 3. Development of social skills • Consider how you will communicate these goals in your introduction
  65. 65. Phase 2: Teams and Roles • Organize materials, learning experiences and small group activities by paying attention to 4 key features: 1. Form heterogeneous teams 2. How students will work together in small groups (Student Teams, Jigsaw, Group Investigation, Think- Pair-Share) 3. How behavior and results will be recognized or rewarded 4. Realistic time estimate
  66. 66. Jigsaw-Teams
  67. 67. Think-Pair-Share
  68. 68. Four- and Six-Cluster Seating Arrangements
  69. 69. The Swing Seating Arrangement
  70. 70. Cooperative Learning Roles May Include … • Group recorder • Materials collector • Reporter • Final copy scribe • Illustrator • Timekeeper • Cheerleader/ Facilitator • Monitor • Messenger
  71. 71. Phase 3: Facilitate learning, social skills & cooperative learning • Help with Transitions • Teach Cooperation – Task Interdependence – Social Skills • Sharing Skills • Participation Skills – Communication Skills – Group Skills • Team Building – Teaching Social and Group Skills
  72. 72. Phase 4: Assess Throughout and/or with Presentations • Test Academic Learning • Assess Cooperation • Grade Cooperative Learning • Recognize Cooperative Effort
  73. 73. Phase 5: Recognize Group & Individual Efforts • Find ways to highlight group presentations by displaying results prominently in room. • Maybe invite guests to hear final reports. • Consider summarizing results through newsletters or other forums. • Each individual makes some kind of unique contribution – highlight those.
  74. 74. Pre Lesson Activities
  75. 75. Mind Mapping Activity
  76. 76. Find Your Group • Look around the room and find those wearing the same color as you • Find a place to gather and work • Once you are all settled, send someone to get the necessary supplies: 1. 1 large piece of poster paper 2. A marker for each member 3. Stacks of post-its for everyone
  77. 77. Word Association • Write the term given to your group by the teacher, nice and BIG, in the center of your large poster paper • Each group member should have their own marker and package of post-its • You will have 2 minutes to silently brainstorm as many words and phrases that are related to the key term as possible • Write them on the post-its and place on the paper
  78. 78. When Time is Called: • Rotate to the next table and continue the process • Don’t read what others have written! • Just think for yourself and fill the paper with as many post-its as you can
  79. 79. Make a Complete Rotation VISIT EACH TABLE!
  80. 80. Return to Your Original Spot
  81. 81. Organize the Ideas •Clear all post-its from paper •Categorize the thoughts VISION MISSION GOALS OBJECTIVES
  82. 82. Rearrange Post-its • Cluster the post-its back on the paper in a way that makes sense to your group • Draw a shape (circle, square, etc.) around each cluster as a barrier; try to use a different color for each cluster • Devise a category title for each cluster and clearly label each with the new title
  83. 83. Send Someone New for Supplies • 1 new piece of poster paper • A variety of markers • Mind Mapping directions
  84. 84. Mind Mapping Based on the work of Tony Buzan (Australia)
  85. 85. THE RULES: 1. Begin with a central image of 3 or more colors 2. Make the lines connecting to center image thicker and curved, like the branch of a tree 3. For the lines connected to central image, use only one key word per branch (these are your categories) 4. PRINT all words 5. Make line length equal to word length 6. Try to have an image for each branch (category) 7. Keep your paper placed horizontally before you; there should be no turning of the paper to read the completed map
  86. 86. Share Your Maps
  87. 87. A learner’s response to social issues Post different feelings inside the classroom. And ask the students to respond to the given photos by going to the appropriate expression of feeling.
  88. 88. a cognitive rehearsal structure that can be used to help students: • recall events • make a summary • stimulate thinking • share responses, feelings and ideas
  89. 89. How to do it? • The teacher sets a problem or asks for a response to the reading. • The students think alone for a specified time. • The students form pairs to discuss the problem or give responses. • Some responses may be shared with the class.
  90. 90. Lesson Activities
  91. 91. Concept Mapping A concept map is a way of illustrating the connections that exist between terms or concepts covered in course material; students construct concept maps by connecting individual terms by lines which indicate the relationship between each set of connected terms.
  92. 92. Activity: Pinoy Tinapay Create concept map about the following local bread: • Pandesal • Pandecoco • Pandelimon • Nutriban • Putok
  93. 93. Role Playing Here students are asked to "act out" a part. In doing so, they get a better idea of the concepts and theories being discussed. Role-playing exercises can range from the simple to the complex. e.g. "What would you do if a Nazi came to your door, and you were hiding a Jewish family in the attic?"
  94. 94. Debates Formal debates provide an efficient structure for class presentations when the subject matter easily divides into opposing views or ‘Pro’/‘Con’ considerations. Students are assigned to debate teams, given a position to defend, and then asked to present arguments in support of their position on the presentation day.
  95. 95. Debate Topics Superman, Spiderman, Batman - superheroes or misleading idols? Should homework be banned? Do video games really cause bad behavior in children? Are there aliens? Bottled water: more harmful than good.
  96. 96. Mobile phones in school - should we ban them? Are vampires real? Junk food should be banned from public schools. Thanks to social networking, there is no face-to- face interaction. Is there life after death? Are mermaids real? Are dolls affecting the mental image we create for our appearance?
  97. 97. Should “Pork Barrel” be banned? Is animal testing humane? Euthanasia: should the right to die be granted? Paparazzi livelihood vs. privacy of celebrities: what is important? Should marijuana be legalized for medicinal purposes? Are school uniforms a good or a bad idea? Recycling should be compulsory. God: myth or reality? Should the legal age allowing consumption of alcohol be raised? Should abortion be approved? Should we encourage the belief that kids have in Santa Claus?
  98. 98. Jigsaw Method Professor Elloit Aronson
  99. 99. Benefits of Jigsaw Method 1. Empower the students to take charge of their learning. 2. Make students learn without realizing that they are learning; 3. Encourages peer tutoring. - better retention and retrieval of facts 4. Makes learning fun!
  100. 100. When to use Jigsaw Method? - It is best used when the lesson requires a teacher to cover few interrelated concepts (3 to 5 concepts) in one session.
  101. 101. Examples • Five Types of Animals • Three Types of Clouds • Three Types of Graphs • Three Types of Measures of Central Tendency
  102. 102. What to prepare? 1. Handouts 2. Quiz (non graded) 3. Physical Arrangement of the Classroom
  103. 103. Steps to Follow
  104. 104. Other Cooperative Learning Strategies as Teacher Tools to Construct Learning
  105. 105. Cooperative Structures • Agreement Circles – Students stand in a large circle, then step to the center in proportion to their agreement with a statement by a student or teacher.
  106. 106. Cooperative Structures • Blind Sequencing – Students sequence all pieces without peeking at the pieces of teammates.
  107. 107. Cooperative Structures • Circle-the –Sage – Students who know, stand to become sages; teammates each gather around a different sage to learn. – Students return to teams to compare notes.
  108. 108. Cooperative Structures • Corners – Students pick a corner, write its number, go there, interact with others with same corner choice in a Rally Robin or Timed Pair Share.
  109. 109. Cooperative Structures • Find Someone Who – Students circulate, finding others who can contribute to their worksheet. • People Hunt: Students circulate, finding others who match their own characteristics. • Fact Bingo: Find someone who played on bingo worksheet.
  110. 110. Cooperative Structures • Formations – Students stand together as a class to form shapes.
  111. 111. Cooperative Structures • Jigsaw Problem Solving – Each teammate has part of the answer or a clue card; teammates must put their info together to solve the team problem.
  112. 112. Cooperative Structures • Line Ups – Students line up by characteristics, estimates, values, or assigned items. • Value Lines: Students line up as the agree or disagree with a value statement. • Folded & Split Line Ups: Students fold the Line Up or Split and Slide it to interact with someone with a different point of view, characteristic, or estimate.
  113. 113. Cooperative Structures • Lyrical Lessons – Students write and/or sing songs based on curriculum, often to familiar tunes
  114. 114. Cooperative Structures • Match Mine – Receivers arrange objects to match those of Senders whose objects are hidden by a barrier. • Draw-What-I-Say: Receiver draws what sender describes. • Build-What-I-Write: Receiver constructs what Sender has described in writing.
  115. 115. Cooperative Structures • Mix-Freeze-Group – Students rush to form groups of a specific size, hoping not to land in “lost and found.”
  116. 116. Cooperative Structures • Mix-Pair-Discuss – Students pair with classmates to discuss question posed by the teacher.
  117. 117. Cooperative Structures • Mix-N-Match – Students mix, then find partners with the matching card. • Snowball: Students toss crumpled papers over imaginary volleyball net, stop, pick up a snowball, then find the person with the matching “snowball.”
  118. 118. Cooperative Structures • Numbered Heads Together – Students huddle to make sure all can respond, a number is called, the student with that number responds. • Paired Heads Together: Students in pairs huddle to make sure they both can respond, an “A” or “B” is called, the student with that letter responds.
  119. 119. Cooperative Structures • One Stray – The teacher calls a number; students with that number “stray” to join another team, often to share. • Two Stray: Two students stray to another team, often to share and to listen. • Three stray: Three students stray to another team, often to listen to the one who stayed to explain a team project.
  120. 120. Cooperative Structures • Pairs Check – Students work first in pairs each doing a problem and receiving coaching and praise from their partner; then pairs check and celebrate after every two problems.
  121. 121. Cooperative Structures • Pairs Compare – Pairs generate ideas or answers, compare their answers with another pair, and then see if working together they can come up with additional responses neither pair alone had.
  122. 122. Cooperative Structures • Paraphrase Passport – Students can share their own ideas only after they accurately paraphrase the person who spoke before them.
  123. 123. Cooperative Structures • Partners – Pairs work to prepare a presentation, then present to the other pair in their team.
  124. 124. Cooperative Structures • Poems for Two Voices – Partners alternate reading “A” and “B” lines of a poem, and read “AB” lines together in unison. • Songs for Two Voices: Partners alternate singing “A” and “B” lines of a song, and sing “AB” lines together in unison.
  125. 125. Cooperative Structures • Q-Spinner – Students generate questions from one of 36 prompts produced by spinners.
  126. 126. Cooperative Structures • Rally Robin – Students in pairs take turns talking. • Rally Toss: Partners toss a ball (paper wad) while doing Rally Robin.
  127. 127. Cooperative Structures • Rally Table – Students in pairs take turns writing, drawing, pasting. (2 papers, 2 pencils per team) • Pass-N-Praise: Students in pairs take turns writing and hand their paper to the next person only after receiving praise.
  128. 128. Cooperative Structures • Reading Boards – Students manipulate game pieces relating to the song as they sing along.
  129. 129. Cooperative Structures • Rotating Review – Teams discuss topic; chart their thoughts; rotate to the next chart to discuss and chart their thoughts. • Rotating Feedback: Teams discuss, then chart their feedback to another team’s product; then rotate to do the same with the next team.
  130. 130. Cooperative Structures • Same – Different – Students try to discover what’s the same and different in two pictures, but neither student can look at the picture of the other.
  131. 131. Cooperative Structures • Send-A-Problem – Teammates make problems which are sent around the class for other teams to solve. • Trade-A-Problem: Teammates make problems which are traded with another team to solve.
  132. 132. Cooperative Structures • Showdown – Teammates each write an answer, then there is a “showdown” as they show their answers to each other. Teammates verify answers.
  133. 133. Cooperative Structures • Similarity Groups – Students form groups based on a commonality.
  134. 134. Cooperative Structures • Spend-A-Buck – Each student has four quarters to spend on two, three, or four items. The item with the most quarters is the team choice.
  135. 135. Cooperative Structures • Spin-N-Think – Students follow a thinking trail (Read Q, Answer Q, Paraphrase & Praise, & Discuss). At each point on the trail a student is randomly selected to perform after all students have had think time. • Spin-N-Review: Students review questions by following a trail (Read Q, Answer Q, Check Answer, Praise or Help).
  136. 136. Cooperative Structures • Talking Chips – Students place their chip in the center each time they talk; they cannot speak again until all chips are in the center and collected. • Gambit Chips: Like Talking Chips but chips contain gambits (things to say or do): For examples, Affirmation Chips contain praisers; Paraphrase Chips contain gambits for paraphrasing. • Response Mode Chips: Like Talking Chips but chips contain response modes: For examples, Summarizing, Giving an Idea, Praising an Idea.
  137. 137. Cooperative Structures • Team Chants – Teammates come up with words and phrases related to the content, then come up with a rhythmic chant often with snapping, stomping, tapping, and clapping.
  138. 138. Cooperative Structures • Team Interview – Students are interviewed, each in turn, by their teammates.
  139. 139. Cooperative Structures • Teammates Consult – For each of a series of questions, students place pens in cup, share and discuss their answers, and then pick up pens to write answer in own words.
  140. 140. Cooperative Structures • Team-Pair-Solo – Students solve problems first as a team, then as a pair, finally alone.
  141. 141. Cooperative Structures • Telephone – One student leaves the room. The teacher teaches the remaining students. The absent student returns and is taught by teammates, and later takes a quiz.
  142. 142. Cooperative Structures • Three-Pair-Share – Students share on a topic three times, once with each of their teammates.
  143. 143. Activity 2 • Develop an differentiated instruction learning plan, one item on each level of assessment.
  144. 144. How can we tell the students are learning and we were able to meet the standards?
  145. 145. Assessment and Rating of Learning • The assessment process is holistic, with emphasis on the formative or developmental purpose of quality assuring student learning.
  146. 146. Assessment Matrix
  147. 147. Activity 3 • Develop an assessment matrix, one item on each level of assessment.
  148. 148. The mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires. William A. Ward
  149. 149. Education is what remains after one has forgotten what one has learned in school. Albert Einstein
  150. 150. References: •DepEd Order No. 31, s. 2012 Guidelines on the Implementation of Grades 1 to 10 of the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) Effective SY 2012-2013 • K to 12 Curriculum Guides •http://www.mb.com.ph/philippine-industries-brace-for- asean-2015/ •http://www.slideshare.net/martianne21/k-to12- assessment-and-rating-of-learning-outcomes •http://www.gov.ph/k-12/#implementation
  151. 151. References Hall, T. (2002). Differentiated Instruction. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved October 22, 2008, from http://www.cast.org/publications/ncac/ncac.diffinstruc.html Heibeck, T. (2008). How to use multiple intelligences to reach every child. Retrieved November 1, 2008 from http://www.teachervision.fen.com/intelligence/teaching-methods- and-management/4802.html Kozleski, E. (2003). Guidelines that make differentiation possible for teachers to attain. Retrieved November 1, 2008 from, www.urbanschools.org/events.docs/Penn320062.ppt Lamb, A. (2003). Ten Tips for Differentiation. Eduscapes. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from http://eduscapes.com/sessions/needs/elementary2.html Nunley, K. (2008). Layered Curriculum. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from http://help4teachers.com/ Robinson, S. (2005). Instructional Tools Related to Universal Design for Learning. KS: Special Connections. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from http://www.specialconnections.ku.edu/cgi-bin/ cgiwrap/speccconn/main.php?cat=instrucition...
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