Industrial attachment of abanti colour tex ltd

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Industrial attachment of abanti colour tex ltd

  1. 1. 1 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT ABANTI COLOUR TEX LTD 1 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT ABANTI COLOUR TEX LTD 1 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING Course Code: Tex -4036 INDUSTRIAL ATTACHMENT ABANTI COLOUR TEX LTD
  2. 2. 2 REPORT ON INDUSTRIAL TRAINING IN ABANTI COLOUR TEX LTD TRAINING PROGRAM FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE ENGINEERING. SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY, DHAKA FROM 06.10.2012 TO 06.12.2012 COPY FOR SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY SUBMITTED BY: Mohammad Shariful Islam Mohammad Faruk Hossan Southeast University. Southeast University. Banani, Dhaka Banani,Dhaka. Date Of Submission: 14th January 2013.
  3. 3. 3 Acknowledgement At first i would like to express my heart-felt thanks to almighty ALLAH for his kind blessing for completion of the industrial training successfully. I woulkd like to thank the people, who have made a significant contribution to make this report. Their guide lines,suggestions & inspiration helped us a lot. I would like to express my deepest applicatioin, sincerest gratuity to my respected teacher Professor Syed Fakhrul Hassan, Chairman, Depertment of Textile Engineering, Southeast University. We would also like to express my sincere gratuity to Nizam Uddin Mandol (General Manager), Abanti Colour Tex LTD, Special thanks to all managers of every depertment, my heart full thanks to all of different production officer, In-charges, Executives, Supervisors, Asst.supervisors,operators & all other employees of Abanti colour Tex LTD. At last but not the least, we would like to acknowledge our parents for their blessing, support & love and all my friends for their help & support to complete the report. I wish the progress of Abanti Colour Tex LTD.
  4. 4. 4 Executive Summary Abanti Colour Tex LTD is a young & dynamic composite Knit Garment Industry. Though incorporated in the year 1994 as a private limited company it came into existence in late December 1995. The mill being established at Shashongaon,Enayetnagar,Fatullah,Narayanganj, aspires to create a niche within a short period of time in the highly competitive global market of knit garments.Promoted by a team of young and dynamic visionaries, Abanti Colour Tex LTD is a 100% export oriented composite knit garment industry.It possesses all the latest machineries from the European countries with few from the United States of America, Japan, & Taiwan. The entire plant has been installed & erected by foreign and local engineers jointly under the same roof. The total plant is located in an eighteen storied building in an area of more than 6,50,000 square feet (Approx). The factory is well equipped with high performance machinery and experienced technicians & a group of Smart executives are engaged here to ensure the Compliance management for quality and customer happiness. We can produce international standard fabric and garments of any quality and quantity. Abanti Colour Tex LTD always keeps pace with latest technology of Textiles industry. The products of the unit have been classified in such a manner which shall meet the increased demand of the Europeans, USA etc. market fulfilling all the criteria required by the buyer
  5. 5. 5 Introduction By means of practical knowledge it is possible to apply the theoretical knowedge in the practical field. For any technical education practical experience is almost equally important in association with the theoretical knowledge. The industrial attachment is the process which builds understanding skill and attitude of the poerformer, which improves his/her knowledge in boosting productivity and services. Academic education provides us vast theoretical knowledge as well as more practical attachment, despite all these industrial attachment help us to be familiar with the technical support of modern machinery, skillness about various operation stages. It also provides us sufficiant practical knowledge about production management, produstivity evaluation, work study, efficiency, industrial management, purchasing, utility and maintenance of machinery, production planning and control, production cost analysis and their operation techniques etc. The above mentioned cannot be achieved successfully by means of theoretical knowledge only. This is why it should be accomplished with practical knowledge in which it is based on industrial atmosphere & improve courage & inpiration to take self-responsibility. At Abanti Colour Tex LTD, cutting-edge technologies ,erge seamlessly with human ingenuity and deep seat recommmitment to ensure excellence in every stage and area of their activities. The ACTL has the capability to offer a complete product range for the export textile markets. The goal of ACTL is become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics and clothing from Bangladesh with highly advanced technology and an emphasis on developing local human resources.
  6. 6. 6 TABLE OF CONTENT Serial No Chapter Topic Name Page No 1 Acknowledgement 3 2 Executive Summary 4 3 Introduction 5 4 1 Company Profile 8-15 5 2 Knitting Section 16-27 6 3 Dyeing Section 28-42 7 4 Lab Dip Section 43-46 8 5 Finishing Section 47-55 9 6 Quality Assurance 55-63
  7. 7. 7 section Serial No Chapter Topic Name Page No 10 7 Garments Section  Garments Manufacturing.  Sample Section.  Cutting Section.  Marker Making.  Fabric Spreading.  List Of Garments machineries.  Sewing Sequence of basic T-shirt.  Some Sewing machines.  Stich.and its different Classes.  Seam and its different types  Printing Section.  Embroidery Section.  Finishing. 64-103 11 8 Merchandising Section. 104-113 12 9 Maintenance Section. 114-123 13 10 Utilities And power Development 124-125 14 11 Compliance 126-128 15 12 Conclusion 129-130
  8. 8. 8 Chapter: 1 Company profile (Abanti Colour TEX LTD)
  9. 9. 9 Mission: Abanti Colour Tex LTD committed to venture out into the changing and challenging global mnarket as a leading enterprise in the world apparel industry by satisfying its valued customer. Vision:  To operate as one of the best sources of apparel in the global market.  To satisfy the valued customers, meeting their expectation by providing quality products and services on time and offering them the best value in terms of quality, price, environment and other ethical practices.  To meet compliance standards to assure an ideal work environment and obtain optimum level of productivity.  To maintain the technology command in the factory.  To promote development ensuring unprejudiced and equal opportunities for all.
  10. 10. 101010
  11. 11. 11 Factory Name: ABANTI COLOUR TEX LIMITED. ( A 100% Export oriented composite knit factory) Factory Location: Plot No-S,A-646, Shashongaon,Enayetnagar,Fatullah,Narayanganj, Bangladesh. Head Office Address: House No- 365/4, Road No- 06 (west),Baridhara DOHS,Dhaka-1206,Bangladesh Phone- 88-02-8415126-7. Fax- 88-02-8412560. Factory Telephone & Fax No: Phone- +88027672526 Fax No- 88027671057 Management: Chairman- Hosne Ara Nila Managing Director- A,H. Aslam Sunny General Manager- Nizam Uddin Mandal Company Establishment: In 1994
  12. 12. 12 Yearly Turnover: 65 Million US $ Total no of workers: 7000 workers Lead time: 60-90 Days Fabric Range: 100% Cotton, Polyamide, Viscose etc. Main Product: T-shirt, Polo shirt, Tank Tops, Sweat shirt, Night wears, Jogging Suits, Trousers etc. Working Period: 2 (Tw0) Shift Per Day Production Capacity: Knitting : 20 Tons/Day Dyeing : 25Tons/Day Garments : 1,20,000 Pcs/Day Printing : 65,000 Pcs/ Day Embroidery : 187 Head ( Haina & Tazima) .
  13. 13. 13 Major Customers: Tom Tailor, H&M, Fabiani, Aldi, Kappa, Red Wood, Manguun, Gemu, Kiabi, Galeria Kaufhof, C.Comberti, Primark, ISM Real, Adler, Simpex, Schafer, Freestyle, Mustang, Belgium post, Mark-Adam, Spring Field, Metro CMC,Pepe jeans, etc. Major Certificates: ISO 9001-2008 (QMS). Oeko-Tex Standard maintaining company. Organic Exchange (OE).etc.
  14. 14. 14 Different Dipertment: Different sections of Abanti Colour Tex LTD. A. Knit section  Knitting  Inspection B. Dyeing section  Batch section  Dye house  Dyeing lab  Quality control  Finishing C. Garments section  Merchandising  Sample  Cutting section  Sewing section  Finishing section D. Printing Unit E. EmbroideryUnit F. AccessoriesUnit G. Maintenance section  Electrical  Mechanical H. Utility:  Electricity  Gas  Boiler I. Store section J. Administration section K. Maintenance section L. Marketing section M. Production planning &control N. Human Resource & Development section O. Compliance Different sections
  15. 15. 15 Supporting Department Personnel Administration Procurement Marketing HRD Finance &Accounting MIS (Management Information System) Work Study Complience& Safety
  16. 16. 16 CHAPTER 2 KNITTING 16 CHAPTER 2 KNITTING 16 CHAPTER 2 KNITTING
  17. 17. 17 Knitting: Knitting is a method by which thread or yarn may be turned into cloth. Knitting consists of consecutive loops called stitches. As each row progresses a new loop is pulled through an existing loop. The active stitches are held on a needle until another loop can be passed through them. Knitting is the most common method of inter-looping and is second only to weaving as a method of manufacturing textile products. Objectives of knitting: To produce fabric. Produce fabric for making garments smoothly. To minimize fabric cost. For regular fabric supply. Classification of knitting machinery: Basically there are two types of knitting which are weft knitting, versus warp knitting and another type is flat knitting versus circular knitting. The machines used for the maniufacturing of knit fabric can be divided into machines with individually driven needles and needle bar machines. Basic types of fabric: 1. Warp knitting. 2. Weft knitting. Wales’s lines are fixed by the machine gauge. This can not be changed, coarses lines can be altered by adjusting in the machine. This is called Texture. Basic knitting element: 1. Needle. 2. Sinker. 3. Cam. Needle:
  18. 18. 18 Function of needles:Needle is used to clear the old loop from the hook & to receive the new loop above it on the needle steam. Types of needle: In general there are three types of needles. a. Bearded needle. b. Latch needle. c. Compound needle. Figure : Latch Needle CAM: Cams are the devices which convert the rotary m/c drive into a suitable reciprocating action for the needles or other elements. Types of cam: Two type of cam 1. Engineering cam Knit cam 2. Knitting cam Miss cam Tuck cam Function of CAM The functions of cam are as follows:  Produce motion to needles.  Loop formation.  Holding down.  Knocking over Latch Steam Hook Rivet Butt
  19. 19. 19 Sinker: This is secondary primary knitting element. It is a thin metal plate with an individual and collective action approximate at right angles from the hook side between adjoining needles. Function of sinker: It may one or more of the following functions dependent upon the machines knitting action and consequent sinker shape and movement. Others Equipments Used In Knitting Section:  GSM cutter  Electronic balance  Inspection m/c Terms and definition of knitting: Course – A horizontal row of loops formed by the needles during one knitting cycle. Wales– A vertical column of loops formed by a single needle. Loop- It is a basic unit consisting of a loop of yarn meshed at its base with previously basic unit. Knitted loops are arranged in rows and columns roughly equivalent to the warp and weft of woven structures termed “Wales” and “courses” respectively Stitch- The smallest dimensionally stable unit of all knitted fabric is stitch. It consists of a yarn loop which is held together by being intermeshed with another stitch or other loop. Stitch length - Stitch length is a length of yarn which includes the needles of the needle loop & half of the sinker loop on either side of it. Generally the larger stitch length, the more extensible & lighter the fabric & the poorer the cover, capacity & bursting strength. Steps should be taken to change stitch length. - Check the S.L of the m/c prevailing. - Change the diameter of V. DLQ pulley. - Set of the position of carriage. - Set the speed of take- up roller - Maintain the optimum yarn tension. Yarn count:
  20. 20. 20 Yarn count is the numerical system of expressing length per unit weight or weight per unit length. Count express fineness or coarseness of yarn. Yarn count can be calculated in two systems: Direct system: In direct system, yarn count is directly related to the yarn fineness. So, lower the count finner the yarn and higher the count and coarser the yarn. This system is used for Polyester and Lycra and other synthetic fibers. W l DirectCount w L    Where, W=weight of the sample L=length of the sample w=unit weight of the system l=unit length of the system Indirect system: In indirect system, yarn count is inversely related to the yarn fineness. So, higher the count finner the yarn and lower the count and coarser the yarn. This system is used for cotton, worsted & woolen. w L Indirect Count W l    Where, W=weight of the sample L=length of the sample w=unit weight of the system l=unit length of the system
  21. 21. 21 ORGANOGRAM OF KNITTING DEPARTMENT: SupervisorStore Incharge Asst.General Manager Production Manager OperatorsOperators Fitter man Fitter man Knitting Master
  22. 22. 22 Sequence of operations in knitting section: Sample fabric Design analysis Sample fabric production Setting the machine for the specific design If Yes If NoBuyer approval Bulk Production QC Send to Batching section
  23. 23. 23 Machine profile for knitting section: S/L No M/C Dia M/C Gauge Type Origin Brand No of feeder No of needle M/C QTY Attachment 1 21“ 24 E SINGLE JERSEY TAIWAN JIUNNLONG 63 1584 2 100% LYCRA 2 22“ 66 1656 2 3 23“ 69 1740 2 4 24“ 72 1812 2 5 25“ 75 1860 2 6 26“ 78 1968 1 7 27“ 81 2040 2 8 28“ 84 2112 1 9 29“ 87 2184 1 10 30“ 90 2256 2 11 31“ 93 2328 2 12 32“ 96 2400 2 13 34“ 102 2544 2 14 36“ 108 2712 4 15 38“ 112 2880 4 15 40“ 120 3000 4 17 42“ 126 3168 1 18 36“6FD 24 E MULTI FEEDER SINGLE JERSEY TAIWAN JIUNNLONG 216 2712 1 100% LYCRA19 38“6FD 228 2880 1 20 40“6FD 240 3000 1 21 42“6FD 252 3168 2 22 30‘ 24 E AUTO STRIPE 6 COLOURS JAPAN JIUNNLONG 72/48 2268 2 100% LYCRA23 32“ 72/48 2448 1 24 34“ 84/54 2592 1
  24. 24. 24 S/L No M/C Dia M/C Gauge Type Origin Brand No of feeder No of needle M/C QTY Attachment 1 24“ 18/24 RIB/ INTERLOCK TAIWAN JIUNNLONG 48 1344 2 100% LYCRA 2 26“ 52 1476 2 3 28“ 56 1585 2 4 30“ 60 3408 1 5 32“ 64 3600 1 6 34“ 68 3846 1 7 36“ 72 2040 2 8 38“ 76 4272 2 9 40“ 80 4512 2 10 42“ 84 2484 2 11 44“ 88 2484 2 12 46“ 92 2592 1 S/ L No M/C Dia M/C Gauge Type Origin Brand No of feeder No of needle M/C QT Y Attachmen t 1 52“ 14GG FLAT KNIT TAIWAN JY-LEH 6 1344 15 COMPUTE RISED Inspection Machine Brand : Uzu Country of Origin : Thailand QTY : 2 Sets
  25. 25. 25 Types of yarn used and their count: Type of yarn Count Cotton 20S ,24S , 26S , 28S , 30S , 32S , 34S , 36S ,40S , 45S Polyester 70D,100D,150D Spandex yarn 20D,40D,70D Grey Mélange (C-90% V-10%) 24S , 26S Ecru Mélange (C-85% V-15%) 24S , 26S , 28S Cotton Mélange (100%) 24S , 26S , 28S PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S CVC(60% Polyester & 40% Cotton) 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S Cost of Raw Materials: Yarn Count Combed Yarn Carded Yarn 40/1 3.65 $/Kg 2.65-2.7 $/Kg 36/1 3.00 $/Kg 2.5-2.6 $/Kg 32/1 2.90 $/Kg 2.30 $/Kg 30/1 2.70 $/Kg 2.30 $/Kg 28/1 2.65 $/Kg 2.25 $/Kg 26/1 2.60 $/Kg 2.25 $/Kg 24/1 2.55 $/Kg 2.20 $/Kg 20/1 2.50 $/Kg 2.15- 2.2 $/Kg
  26. 26. 26 Quality Standard: Abanti Colour Tex Ltd. follows the four point grading system to inspect the body & rib fabric, by this four point system, the faults arc found by the inspection and points are given against the faults. Following table shows the four point grading system followed by inspection at Abanti Colour Tex Ltd. Four Point Grading System Size Of Defects Penalty 3 inches or less 1 point Over 3 inch but not over 6 inch 2 point Over 6 inch but not over 9 inch 3 point Over 9 inch 4 point Any Hole 4 Point Typical knitting calculations: The calculations which are frequently used in the knitting section are discussed below: Gauge (G): Number of needles per inch. Total needles: Machine diameter× Gauge×3.1416 Feeders of Single Jersey: Machine diameter×3 Feeders of Double Jersey: Machine diameter×2 Relation between yarn count and fabric Gsm For single jersey fabric: 4320 Yarn Count Fabric Gsm 
  27. 27. 27 For Double jersey fabric: 6000 Yarn Count Fabric Gsm  Relation between fabrics finished Gsm, stitch length, fabric gsm, yarn count: For Single Jersey fabric: 590 Ks Stitch Length Yarn Count Finished Gsm    Where, For s/j, Ks=19.6 For 1x1 rib, Ks=26 For Interlock, Ks=38 Fabric Thickness: Fabric thickness=4D Here, D= yarn dia (in relaxed state) Tightness Factor: Tex Tightness Factor Stitch Length  , here stitch length is in mm Production per shift: . 60 8 Pr 1000 840 ( ) 36 2.2028 D G S L F RPM efficiency oduction per shift Kg yarn count Ne               Where,  D= Machine dia  G= Machine gauge  S.L.=Stitch length  F= No. of feeder
  28. 28. 28 CHAPTER- 3 DYEING SECTION 28 CHAPTER- 3 DYEING SECTION 28 CHAPTER- 3 DYEING SECTION
  29. 29. 29 ORGANOGRAM OF DYEING AND FINISHING: DGM ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Senior Manager (Dyeing) Manager (Finishing) Manager (Dyeing) Asst. manager Manager (Dyeing) In Charge Production Officer Supervisor Dyeing Master Operator Floor in charge Helper Supervisor Operator Helper
  30. 30. 30 Dyeing: Dyeing operations are used at various stages of production to add colour and intricacy to textiles and increase product valkue. It chemically changes a substance so that the reflecting light appears. Most dyeing is performed either by the finishing division of vertically integrated textile companies or by specially dye houses. Specially dye houses operate either on commission basis or purchase greige goods and finish them before selling them to apparel and other product manufacturers. Textiles are dyed using a wide range of dyestuffs, techniques and equipment. Dyes used by the textile industry are largely synthetic, typically derived from coal tar and petrolium-based intermediates. Dyes are sold as powders, granules, pastes and liquid dispersions with concentrations of active ingredients ranging typically from 20 to 80 percent. Preparation Techniques: Various finishing techniques are used after fabrics are made using weaving or knitting techniques such as Singeing, Desizing, Scouring, Bleaching, Mercerizing etc. Following are major fabric preparationn tecniques:  Singeing  Desizing  Scouring  Bleaching  Mercerizing
  31. 31. 31 Table : Classes of dyes on the basis of suitability of dyeing different fibers: Sl. No Name of dyes Suitable for Fibers 01 Acid dyes Wool, silk and Nylon 02 Basic dyes Nylon, Acrylic, Acetate Rayon, Silk, Wool and Jute 03 Direct dyes Cotton, Viscose Rayon, Linen, Nylon, Wool and Silk 04 Azoic dyes Cotton, Viscose and Linen. 05 Vat dyes Cotton, Viscose and Linen. 06 Sulpher dyers Cotton, Viscose and Linen. 07 Reactive dyes Cotton, Viscose, Linen, Wool, Silk and Nylon. 08 Disperse dyes Polyester, Nylon, Acrylic, Acetate Rayon and Triacetate Rayon. Dyeing machine: The machine which is used to dyeing or coloring of materials like yarn, fabric, garments or any other materials is called dyeing machine. Main Component’s of a dyeing m/c: 1. Mixing tank: There is a tank in this machine. Every chemical are used to put here. There are some components here are as follows: a. Metallic mixing part: It is used to mix any solution b. Air flow mixing part: It is also to mix any solution. c. Steamer: It is used to delivery steam in mixing tank. d. Steam controller: It can control the amount of steam e. Filter: It is used to filter the solution which is transferred in to the main tank. 2. Main tank: The chemical from the tank is transferred here. The pretreatment and dyeing are completed here. 3. Monitor: It is situated at the right side of the machine. The commands are shown in the monitor & the operators can work from these commands. There are also some options for working properly & to obey these commands.
  32. 32. 32 4. Unloading reel: There is an unloading reel for unloading the dyed fabric. 5. Three detectors: There are 3 detectors on the above of the nozzle are as follows: a. Temperature detector: It is at the left side between these 3 detectors which can detect the temperature of the main tank. b. Fabric turning pressure detector: It is at the middle of these 3 detectors. It can detect the pressure at which the fabric turning. c. Atmospheric pressure detector: It can detect the atmospheric pressure of the main tank. d. Panel board: There is a panel board at the right side of the machine by which programmed can be set up. Checklist before operation: Checking the programmers Machine set-up. Fabric weight. Fabric quality. Collar design (Tipping/ solid). Rib designs (Normal/Lycra). Chemical availability. Power availability. Steam availability. Water availability. Compressed air. Manpower availability. Fabric stitch is done properly.
  33. 33. 33 Typical Process Flow Chart for Knit Dyeing : Fill Water ↓ Fabric loading & m/c run ↓ Caustic soda dozing for 5min at 40ºC (PH 10.5-11) ↓ H2O2 dozing for 5 min at 60ºC ↓ Sequestering agent, anti-creasing agent, detergent dosing at 80ºC ↓ Temp. Rise at 98ºC for 60 min ↓ Bath Drop ↓ Wash ↓ Fill water
  34. 34. 34 MACHINE PROFILE FOR DYEING SECTION. SAMPLE Sl No Brand Brand Capacity/Day Total No’s 1 Winch FONGS PMM 25 Kg 01 2 Winch FONGS 50 Kg 01 3 Winch DILMINLER 50 Kg 01 4 Winch AK 20 Kg 02 5 Winch AK 100 Kg 01 PRODUCTION Sl No Brand Brand Capacity/Day Total No’s 1 Winch AK 100 Kg 01 2 Winch AK 150 Kg 01 3 Winch AK 200 Kg 01 4 Winch AK 400 Kg 02 5 Winch DELIMINLER 450 Kg 01 6 Winch AK 600 Kg 01 7 Winch DELIMINLER 600 Kg 01 8 Winch AK 800 Kg 02 9 Winch DELIMINLER 900 Kg 01 10 Winch AK 1200 Kg 03 11 Winch SCAVOS (Greece) 1500 Kg 02 12 Winch FONGS 1000 Kg 02 13 Winch GONGS 750 Kg 01
  35. 35. 35 Chemical used Basic chemicals: 1. Hydrogen peroxide 2. Acetic acid 3. Soda ash 4. Caustic soda 5. Common salt 6. Glubar salt 7. Bleaching acid 8. Hydrose Detergent: 1. PCLF 2. MA Scour AP 3. FEROLZUM Anticreasing agent: 1. MARLAKT CONC 2. ALBAFLUIDE C 3. MA Lube C 4. Best anticreasing Leveling agent: 1. MARLADF CONC 2. Seragal PLP (LPF) 3. PRIMALEV R CONC 4. Best leveller 723 Sequestering: 1. Hanko QUST 2. MARLA DM CONC 3. MA Stab XL 4. Best SCQ 710 Peroxide killer: 1. P.Killer (PK) Stabilizer: 1. MARLA PS CONC 2. Ultrafresh NMV-2 3. Argaprep MSS 4. Primastab FF Conc Anti foam: 1. Antifoam 39A
  36. 36. 36 Fixing Agent: 1. Albafix SR 2. Jontex Fix 500 3. Serafast CNC 4. Asufix EPF Enzyme agent: 1. Boizep MC new 2. UNIZYME 600L Softener agent: 1. E-31 (white) 2. Softener A-1000 (COLOR) 3. Matsoft NISB 4. Softener S-300 5. Chemesoft CWS Production Parameters Process Temp(▫C) pH Time min M : L ratio Scouring - Bleaching 98 10-11 30 1:8 Enzyme Wash 55 4.5-5 30 1:8 Reactive Dyeing (Light Shade) 60 10-11 60 1:8 Reactive Dyeing (Dark Shade) 60 11-12 60 1:8 White Shade 98 10.5-11.5 30 1:8 Turquish color dyeing 80-90 11-12 60 1:8 Polyester dyeing 130 4-4.5 45 1:8
  37. 37. 37 Dyeing Parameter: 1. pH:  Bleaching bath pH : 10.5 – 11  Neutralization or after bleaching pH : 5.5 – 6.5  Bio polishing bath pH : 4.5  Initial dye bath pH: 5.5-6.5  After alkali addition pH : 10.5 – 11  After dyeing pH : 5.0 – 6.0  Fixation bath pH : 4.5 – 5.5  Softener bath pH : 4.0 – 5.0 ( For color ) 2. Temperature:  For cotton Pretreatment : 98 0 C  For Cotton Biopolishing : 550 C  Cotton Dyeing:  During Turquise :800 C  During Isothermal :600 C  Red special : 60 0 C  White dyeing : 80 0 C  For Polyester Dyeing :1300 C  For Cotton soaping : 980 C  Temperature during softening & fixing : 400 C  For cotton hot wash : (70-90)0 C For cotton acid wash : (50-60)0 C
  38. 38. 38 Amount Of Salt , Alkali & Fixation time On The Basis Of Shade%: Shade % Salt(g/l) Alkali(g/l) Fixing time(min) 0-0.1 30 10 20 0.1-0.5 30 15 30 0.5-01 40 20 40 1-1.5 50 20 50 1.51-2 60 20 60 2-2.5 70 20 60 2.5-5 80 20 60 Above 6 100 25 70 Black shade 100 10+0.5g/l NaOH 70 Dyeing Process with Recipe Light Color Process 100% Cotton A. Machine Wash: Hydrose (2g/L) +Caustic (2g/L) +Foaming Agent (0.5g/L) 30 min at 90o c Machine Washed A. Acid (0.7g/L) 20min at 70o c M/C Neutralized
  39. 39. 39 B. Scouring & Bleaching: Detergent (1 g/L) Sequestering Agent (.5 g/L) Stabilizer (.8 g/L) Caustic (3 g/L) H2O2 (3 g/L) 60min at 98’c C. Neutralizations (Scouring & Bleaching): H2O2 Killer (.8 g/L) A.Acid (1 g/L) 20min at 80’c D. Enzyme Wash: A.Acid (1 g/L) Enzyme (1%) 55min at 50’c, PH =4.5 E. Dyeing: Ant creasing Agent (.5 g/L) Leveling Agent (1 g/L) A.Acid (.2 g/L) Dyes (According to shade %) G.Salt (According to shade %) Soda Ash (According to shade %) 60min at 60’c F. Neutralization: (Dyeing) A.Acid (1 g/L) 10min at 40-50’c G. Soaping: Soaping Agent (.5 g/L) 20min at 70-80’c
  40. 40. 40 H. Fixing & Softening: Fixing Agent (.5 g/l) 15min at 40’c A.Acid (.5 g/L) Softener (1.5 g/L) Dyeing faults Causes and Remedies:  Uneven dyeing: Causes:  Uneven Pretreatment  Improper addition of color  Improper addition of chemical  Using dyes of high fixation properties  Less control of dyeing machine  Less circulation time Remedies:  By ensuring even pretreatment  By proper addition of color and chemicals  Correct circulation time  By controlling the dyeing machine properly  Batch to batch Shade variation Causes:  Using improper dyes and chemicals  Incorrect pretreatment procedure  Batch to batch weight variation of fabric  Batch to batch chemicals and dyes variation (lot variation)  Improper dosing of dyes and chemicals
  41. 41. 41 Remedies:  By using standard dyes and chemicals  By correcting the pretreatment procedure  By maintaining batch to batch weight variation  By avoiding lot mixing of dyes and chemicals  By correcting the dosing time of dyes and chemicals  By following different dyeing parameter.  Dark colored spots: Causes:  Dyestuff precipitation during dyeing  Incompatibility of dyestuff used for producing combined shade  Too high dyestuff concentration in the dye bath  Precipitation of unabsorbed dyestuff during after treatment Remedies:  By ensuring proper dyeing condition  By selecting proper dyestuff  By checking the solubility limit of the dyestuff before dyeing  By ensuring proper after treatment  Patchy dyeing: Causes:  Due to hardness of water  Due to faulty color addition  Due to faulty injection of alkali  Due to improper salt addition  Due to improper PH of solution Remedies:  By using proper sequestering agent  By correcting the color addition  By correcting the salt addition  By proper injection of alkali  By maintaining the PH level of the solution
  42. 42. 42  Crease mark: Causes:  Poor opening of the fabric rope  Due to high speed of machine running  Unequal pump pressure and reel speed Remedies:  By maintaining proper pump pressure and reel speed.  By controlling the speed of the machine.  Correct opening of the fabric rope.  Roll to roll variation: Causes:  Poor migration property of dye.  Hardness of water.  Improper dyes solubility.  Faulty machine speed. Remedies:  Use standard dyes and chemicals  Proper machine speed.  Using soft waste. Calculation realted to dyeing floor: 39.37 1000 . Machine Capacity Winch speed GSM fabric width no of Nozzle Cycle Timt       39.37 10000 . Machine Capacity Cycle Time Fabric GSM Fabric width No of Nozzle Winch speed       Re ( ) %quired Dye kg Shade Fabric weight in Kg  / Re 1000 g l required Total liquor quired Chemicals  
  43. 43. 43 Chapter- 4 Lab Dip Section
  44. 44. 44 Process flow chart of lab dip dyeing: Recipe correction Two or more option of lab dips send to the buyer for approval Approved Not approved Go for production Making re lap dip Approved Spectrophotometer Visually calculating Exact match with swatch Recipe formulation Checking the quality parameter Swatch from buyer Previous lap dipRecordSpectrophotometer Matching visually
  45. 45. 45 Definition: Lab Dip development means the sample which is dyed according to the buyer’s requirements. Depending on lab dip development sample dyeing and bulk production dyes planning done. The main objectives in lab dip are as follows:  To calculate the recipe for sample dyeing  To compare dyed sample with swatch by light Box or spectroflash.  To calculate revise recipe for sample dyeing.  Finally approved Lab Dip. (Grade: A B C) Lab Unit Model Brand Country of Origin Oven Dryer and Incubator S.D.L Atlas England Balance S.D.L Atlas England Sun test Cpst Atlas England Rubbing / Crocking Atlas England Yarn Twist Tester S.D.L Atlas England Yarn Evenness Tester S.D.L Atlas England Wrap Reel S.D.L Atlas England Ph Meter Deep Vision Pilling Meter Mag Solving Rota Wash S.D.L Atlas England Wascotos Elutrolux England Lab Sample Dyeing Machine Rapid Taiwan Electronic Balance SHINKO KOREA Spectro Photometer Data Color USA U.Box Verivide UK
  46. 46. 46 Wash Machine Milling Stone Turkey Siemens Washing Machine Turkey Dry Siemens Turkey Dry Electrolux S.D.L Atlas England PANTONE BOOK (TCX, TPX): This book is used for shade matching. Sometime buyer gave the pantone no. in their order. Pantone no. indicates the shade of the garments. It’s a universal shade matching book. Full name : Pantone Textile Color Selector Color numbering system : 6 digit + suffix First two digits : 11 to 19 (range of lightness) Middle two digits : 01 to 64 (range of hue) Last two digits : 01 to 65 (range of chroma)
  47. 47. 47 Chapter- 5 Finishing Section
  48. 48. 48 Finishing: Textile finishing is a term commonly applied to different process that the textile material under go after pretreatment, dyeing or printing for final embellishment to enhance there attractiveness and sale appeal as well as for comfort and usefulness. Objects of finishing: The aim of finishing is to render textile goods fit for their purpose or end use. Besides that, finishing can be done for achieving the following purposes- a) To improve fabric attractiveness. -By modification of fabric appearance (Calendaring, Optical brightening) -By altering fabric handle (Softening, Stiffening) -Control of fabric dimension (Sanforising, Compacting) b) To improve service ability. -Protection of fabric (Flame proofing, Water proofing) -Improved performance (Water repellency, Raising) -Easy care properties (Resin finish, Crease recovery) After dyeing, knit fabric is required to finish. During dyeing all knit fabric are dyed in tubular form. According to buyer's requirement knit fabric are finished in Open form or tubular form. The tubular and open finishing sequences of Abanti Colour Tex Ltd are given bellow: Types of finishing: 1) Chemical finishing: 2) Mechanical finishing: Finishing effects:  Easy - care  Crease recovery.  Dimensional stability.  Good abrasion resistance.  Improved tear strength.  Good sew ability  Soft or stiff handle.  Shine or luster
  49. 49. 49 Specification of Finishing Machines used in ACTL: BALLOONING SQUEEZING M/C Manufacturer name DONG NAM INDUSTRIAL CO. LTD Country of origin KOREA Serial/Model no. DNBS-1400 M/C type BALLOON SQUZ Max. Pressure 6 kg Applied Pressure 3 kg Used utilities Water, Electricity, Compressed air DRYER Brand name ALKAN Country of origin TURKEY No. of motors 6 Temperature 320 0 C Applied for Tube Used utilities Steam, Electricity TUBE COMPACTOR Brand name FAB-CON Country of origin USA Serial no. 91195 Washing machine Company LG Model WD 80264NP Max spin 800 rpm Max temp 930 C Observation Of Different Finishing M/C: Ballooning Squeezing m/c/De-Watering M/C: This is the process to remove the water from the fabric partially by squeezing.
  50. 50. 50 The basic function of the squeezing m/c:  To remove the water from the fabric.  To control the width of the fabric.  To control the length of the fabric.  To control the Spirality of the fabric.  To control the over feeding system  Apply chemicals specially to make the fabric soft.  To remove the crease mark of the fabric. Controlling points:  Dia setting must be accurate.  Padder pressure depends on fabric construction. Excess padder pressure may cause fabric damage. Speed must be optimum.  Higher the fabric speed leads less removal of water. Main parts:  De-twisting device (to deliver the fabric roll in untwisted form)  Expender (to control width)  Paddler (to remove water)  Folding device  Conveyer Belt  Compressed air(to form the tube fabric into balloon to ensure the delivered fabric to be crease free)
  51. 51. 51 Tensionless Dryer m/c: Drying is defined as a process where the liquid portion of the solution is evaporated from the fabric. The basic function of the dryer:  To dry the fabric in tube form.  To control the over feed system (Shrinkage control)  To control the GSM of the fabric. Main parts of the machine:  Overfeed roller  Conveyor belt  Steam chamber(6)  Exhaust fan  Motor(6)  plaiter Checking parameters:  Overfeed ( %) : It depends on fabric structure & GSM  Temperature: It depends on color & GSM.( normally for single jersey -1600 C, for high GSM, like-fleece, it may be 2500 C )  Speed: It depends on fabric GSM. For higher GSM, lower the speed. GSM Over feed Up to 120 14-15% 120-140 12% 140-200 7-8% 200-250 5-6% Utility: Electricity, steam Heating system: Steam dryer. 51 Tensionless Dryer m/c: Drying is defined as a process where the liquid portion of the solution is evaporated from the fabric. The basic function of the dryer:  To dry the fabric in tube form.  To control the over feed system (Shrinkage control)  To control the GSM of the fabric. Main parts of the machine:  Overfeed roller  Conveyor belt  Steam chamber(6)  Exhaust fan  Motor(6)  plaiter Checking parameters:  Overfeed ( %) : It depends on fabric structure & GSM  Temperature: It depends on color & GSM.( normally for single jersey -1600 C, for high GSM, like-fleece, it may be 2500 C )  Speed: It depends on fabric GSM. For higher GSM, lower the speed. GSM Over feed Up to 120 14-15% 120-140 12% 140-200 7-8% 200-250 5-6% Utility: Electricity, steam Heating system: Steam dryer. 51 Tensionless Dryer m/c: Drying is defined as a process where the liquid portion of the solution is evaporated from the fabric. The basic function of the dryer:  To dry the fabric in tube form.  To control the over feed system (Shrinkage control)  To control the GSM of the fabric. Main parts of the machine:  Overfeed roller  Conveyor belt  Steam chamber(6)  Exhaust fan  Motor(6)  plaiter Checking parameters:  Overfeed ( %) : It depends on fabric structure & GSM  Temperature: It depends on color & GSM.( normally for single jersey -1600 C, for high GSM, like-fleece, it may be 2500 C )  Speed: It depends on fabric GSM. For higher GSM, lower the speed. GSM Over feed Up to 120 14-15% 120-140 12% 140-200 7-8% 200-250 5-6% Utility: Electricity, steam Heating system: Steam dryer.
  52. 52. 52 Tube compactor: Important parts:  Shaft & pulley(To control Dia)  Shoe  Blade Blade No Req. GSM 110 Up to 125 125 Up to 140 140 Up to 180 170 Up to 240 200 Over 240  Overfeed Roller  Steam bar  Conveyor belt  Take off roller A pair of pulley: It controls the fabric width according to the buyer’s requirements. Steam zone: It is given steam on the fabric surface for softness which helps in compacting zone to compact the fabric. Fig: Steam spray on fabric surface Compacting zone: It consists of edge roller, retard roller, steel plates and compacting shoe. Fabric’s shrinkage, finished GSM and Dia permanent by compacting shoe & edge roller at 950 c. Steel plate remove the crease mark on the fabric surface and retard roller smooth the upper portion of the fabric surface at 950 c. Shaper: It looks like a ladder which straightens the fabric and passing through the pulley. The basic function of the tube compactor:  To control the GSM (Increase & decrease)  To control the Dia of the fabric  To control shrinkage (Increase & decrease) Fabric
  53. 53. 53 Controlling points of the tube compactor:  Temperature- it depends on construction & composition and color of the fabric.  Speed- it depends on temperature and fabric construction.  Blanket pressure- fabric smoothness depends on blanket pressure.  Over feed- over should be optimum. It increase GSM but higher over feed leads to the formation of crease mark. Utility:  Electricity  steam Front view of m/c compacting zone Steaming zone
  54. 54. 54 Fabric Inspection: The finished fabric may have different kinds of faults. This may occur during Knitting, dyeing or finishing. If the fabric delivered then the quality of the fabric may not be good and the buyer will reject the finished garments. For this reason careful inspection of this finished fabric is so important. In finished fabric the following faults are generally found: Faults Indicating syble Hole H Dye stain DS Oil stain OS Chemical stain CS Slubs S Lycra Out LO Fly Yarn FY Insect Spots IS Crease Mark CR Uneven shade US Needle Line NL Thick – Thin TT Bowing B Neps N In Abanti Colour Tex Ltd. 4 points system is used for calculating fabric acceptance.
  55. 55. 55 4-points system In four points system the points are defined on the basis of defect size as shown below: Size of the defect Penalty 7.5 cm or less 1 points Over 7.5 cm but less than 15 cm 2 points Over 15 cm but less than 22.5 cm 3 points Over 22.5 cm 4 points Any hole 4 points Acceptance Calculation Roll length in meter = A Total points found = B Acceptance Value = B/A x 100 points per 100 meter Acceptance range Range Grade <40 points A 41 – 60 points B 61 – 80 points C Above 80 points Reject If the fabric is found within acceptance limit then it is delivered to Garments section. But if the fabric fault is so high that cross the acceptance limit then it is rejected.
  56. 56. 56 Chapter-6 Quality Assurance Section
  57. 57. 57 Quality Control: Quality control is concerned with the evaluation of test data and its application to control of the textile process, raw materials, intermediate products and final products. It is concerned not only with quality level and cost of maintaining this quality level but also concerned with the presentation of tangible values to measure quality and changes in quality. In order to control quality one must know about the consumers’ expectations. List of Equipments: 1. Computer 2. Light box 3. Electric Heater 4. Sample Dyeing M/C 5. Electrical Balance 6. PH meter 7. G S M Cutter 8. Washing M/ C 9. Shrinkage & spirality measurement instrument Objectives of quality Control:  Selection of raw materials  Specification test  Product testing.  To ensure the product desired quality.  To fulfill requirements for quality.  Process control and development  To control and different techniques will be required by different conditions.  Quality assurance and so on.  To evaluate accurately of the end product.  To research and development  Quality assurance and so on.
  58. 58. 58 Quality Management system: Quality assurance procedure may be provided by the following two major parts- Quality control On Line Testoff Line Test Physical TestsChemical Tests On Line Test - Fabric GSM control - Grey Fabric Inspection with 4 point system - Diameter and Width control - Shade Check; - Bias and Bowing; - Visual appearance (Enzyme performance); - Stripe. Off Line Test Off line quality are divided into two groups- Physical Tests and Chemical Tests.
  59. 59. 59 Physical Tests  GSM of Fabric;  Rubbing Fastness or Crocking;  Pilling test;  Diameter and Width;  Tensile strength;  Tearing test;  Bursting test;  Light Fastness test;  Drape, Stiffness, and Handle;  Course per inch;  Wales per inch;  Picks per inch;  Ends per inch. Chemical Tests  Shrinkage and Spirality or Twisting;  Fastness to Washing;  Fastness to Perspiration;  Fastness to Chlorine;  PH test. Quality assurance: Quality assurance is defined as all those possible planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence than a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. The Quality Assurance Department is assigned to maintain consistently uniform quality of the material in process and various stages of its manufacturing. Quality assurance at different stage: Assures the quality of the products of dyeing section in the following three steps:  In laboratory  In dyeing section &  In finishing section
  60. 60. 60 Procedures are described below: In laboratory  Swatch card from buyer according to their requirement  Recipe prediction for sample dyeing  Sample dyeing until matching with swatch card  Fastness & other tests of the fabric or yarn are done here. In dyeing section  According to the buyer’s sample, sample dyeing is done in sample dyeing machine in dyeing shed & again matched with the approved sample.  If result is OK, then bulk production.  During dyeing, samples are taken until accurate shade matching. The interval may be 30-40 minutes.  After dyeing sample is collected after softening matching is done.  Last of all, sample is collected after fixation & matched.  Then allowed the fabrics to be finished. In finishing section By using a series of finishing machines correct width, softness & appearance are maintained according to requirements. Then sampling is done for several times to test GSM, Shrinkage & fastness properties. Finally fabric is inspected & prepared for delivery. Fabric Inspection: The inspection of fabric is a procedure by which the defects of fabric are identified and fabric is classified according to degree or intensity of defects. The fabric inspection is done for both gray and finished fabric. Grey Fabric Inspection: Grey fabric inspection is performed according to 4-point system.
  61. 61. 61 Finished Fabric Inspection: 4 point numbering system is followed for finished fabric inspection. Defects found in the final inspection:  Uneven shade  Oil spot  Neps  Crease mark  Machine Stoppage mark  Listing  Line mark  Pick missing  Double yarn  Dead cotton  Bowing  Fly yarn contamination Test procedures for Quality Control 1. GSM Test GSM is the most important factor. There is a G S M Cutter. The Sample is cut then weighted in the electronic balance. The reading is then (in gm) from the balance, multiplied by 100, to get Value of G S M. 2. Finished Fabric dia In Knit, dyeing finishing, finished diameter is Very important factor. It should be kept as the buyer requirements. Simply a measuring tape measures it. Finished diameter is controlled at compacting m/c.
  62. 62. 62 3. Rubbing test: 1. Purpose: The fastness test to rubbing is used on a fabrics to evaluate the transfer of surface dye from the test fabric when it is applied surface friction or rubbing against a rough surface. 2. Apparatus: Crock-meter and grey scale 3. Method: ISO-105x12 4. Test specification: Sample fabric size : 250mm X 50mm Crocking Fabric size: 50mm X 50mm The crocking cloth against which then sample will be rubbed is a white, bleached, Un-dyed cotton fabric. Procedure:At first the sample is placed with template over the metallic mounting plate. Then the cracking cloth is set in the crocking pin (peg) with clip. Then the test specification is rubbed to & for (10s X 10 rubs, 1 rub/sec) by means of crock meters figure. Finally the crocking cloth is removed from the peg. In case of wet rubbing test, the crocking cloth is wetted at room temperature. Evaluation: Compare the contrast between untreated & treated white crocking cloth with the staining grey scale. Again, color contrasts of rubbed and un-rubbed by sample are compared with color changing grey scale. For both type of rubbing test, the fastness is rate from 1 to 5, where 1 means worst rubbing fastness & 5 means excellent rubbing fastness. Wash fastness: A. Purpose: The resistance of the color of any dyed/printed material to washing is known as wash fastness. B. Apparatus:  Wash fastness tester,  Grey scale,  Multi-fiber. C. Method: ISO-105-CO6 D. Test specimen: For Fabric: Fabric, size 10 cm X 4 cm.
  63. 63. 63 Multi-fiber fabric: Multi-fiber fabric size 10 cm X 4 cm. E. Reagent:  ECE determent 50gm  Na-perborate 10gm  Tade= 2gm  4BK= 2gm  Water= 20lt  pH =10.5±1  Time = 30min  Temperature = 600 C  No. of still ball (on condition) =50 F. Procedure:  Weight of the specimen & volume of the wash liquor are calculated as require ISO-105- CO6 method.  Place of the specimen in the container with the wash liquor.  Run the machine & rise the Temp. at600 C and run for 30min.  m/c will automatically wash & rinse the fabric  Drying: Drying in a fully automatic dryer at temperature not more then 600 C then keep in relax for 1 hour. H. Assessment: color change: The original & tested dyed sample are placed by side, oriented in the same direction along with the color change grey scale and compare the contrast between the treated dyed sample and the same untreated sample with the appropriate pair of color change the grey scale. If there is no change in color, then its ratting will be 5.
  64. 64. 64 Chapter- 7 Garments Section 64 Chapter- 7 Garments Section 64 Chapter- 7 Garments Section
  65. 65. 65 Garments Manufacturing Garment making is one of the basic content of fashion designing. Proficiency in the art of sewing is an essential pre-requisite in garment making. Therefore, it is necessary to know the techniques of sewing for producing attractive garments with good fit. Garment making is thus a technical accomplishment that requires knowledge of fabrics, principles of clothing construction and skills involved in it. This depends on the ability to select the correct fabric, colour, design and accessories to suit an individual occasion. A garment that is made will be attractive if it fits well and proper attention is paid to its finer details. There are 2 types of garments. One is Woven garments. Another is Knitted garments. Shirts, trousers, sharees, bed spreads, blankets, towels and made ups are Woven. T shirts, sweatshirts, undergarments, pajamas and socks are Knits. Woven fabrics are made in hand looms, power looms and mill made. Making woven fabrics is simple. But yarn counts, reed & picks (warp & weft), width should be considered with more care. The fabric quality is made differently by various methods of finishing and treating. Knit fabrics are made in different kinds of knitting machines. According to the structure of fabrics, they are called by different names. The mainly used fabrics are Jersey, Pique, Interlock, Rib, French Rib, Flat back rib, Loop knit, Fleece, Polar fleece and Jacquards. The knit garments can be made in solid dyed or all over printed or yarn striped or jacquard fabrics
  66. 66. 66 Garments Manufacturing Sequence Garments manufacturing follows a flowchart where in each steps definite works are completed to carried out a complete garments. Here I will show you all of the garments manufacturing steps that you must follow to make a garment.
  67. 67. 67 Flow chart of garments manufacturing:
  68. 68. 68 Sample section: Sample is the protitype or model of the garments, upon what the buyer can decide on how and whether to confirm the order or not. It makes for buyer approvel and before bulk of production to minimize the faults and errors and also find the easy process for bulk production. The details attached to the garments sample: After the confirmation of order each sample sent to the buyer has the following deails attached to it with the help of a tag. It contains the details pertaining to both what the buyer has demanded and what supplement fabric/trim etc they have used. Ref no. Colour. Fabric Composition Description Quantity Style no/size Store Persons involved in sampling: Salesman samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or referencce samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples Production samples Shipment samples
  69. 69. 69 Types of Sample:  Photo sample  Fit sample  Size set sample  Pre Production sample  Salesman sample  Counter sample  Shipping sample Cutting Section: Fabric cutting depertment is the one which plays a key role in production. It is the begining of the production. So the fabric cutting has the most efficient processionals working in it. The fabric cutting depertment should work as fast as possible because the more the unloading of bundles take place the more the production can take place. Objectives of cutting section: Prepare fabrics for ready made garments. Cut fabrics according to design and pattern. Prepare fabrics for sewing and also for printing and embroidery. MARKER MAKING: It is a thin paper which contains all the necessary pattern pieces for all sizes for a particular style of garments. It gives special instruction for cutting. It can be done both manually and computerized CONSIDERABLE POINTS BEFORE MARKER MAKING:  Fabric width (1/2) higher than marker width  Fabric length higher than marker length (1” + 1”)  The grain line should be parallel to the line of Wales in knit fabrics.  All the pattern pieces of garments should be along the same direction when laid on an asymmetric fabric.  Considered garments production planning.
  70. 70. 70 COMPUTERISED MARKER MAKING: There are two systems for marker making Digitizing system. Automatic system. FACTOES RELATED TO MARKER EFFICIENCY:  Marker planer  Size of garments  Marker length  Pattern engineering  Fabric Characteristics  Marker making method  Marker width.  Style of garments. MARKER EFFICIENCY: The marker planner measures his success by the efficiency of the marker plan. The following formula is used to measure the efficiency: Marker efficiency=Area of the pattern in the marker plan/ Total area of the marker plan X 100%. MINIMIZATION OF FABRIC WASTAGES OUTSIDE THE MARKER: There are four points for the fabric minimization outside the marker 1. Ends of ply losses. 2. Loss of fabric in roll. 3. Selvedge loss. 4. Purchase loss.
  71. 71. 71 FABRIC SPREADING: Spreading is the process of superimposing lengths of fabric on a spreading table or cutting table or specially designed surface in preparation for the cutting process: The marker planner measures his success by the efficiency of the marker plan. The following formula is used to measure the efficiency: Marker efficiency=Area of the pattern in the marker plan/ Total area of the marker plan X 100%. There are four points for the fabric minimization outside the marker 1. Ends of ply losses. 2. Loss of fabric in roll. 3. Selvedge loss. . A spread is the total amount for a single marker. EQUIPMENT OF FABRIC SPREADING: Spreading equipment consists of:  Spreading surface.  Spreading machines.  Fabric controlling device.  Fabric cutting devices.  The appropriate type of spreading surface is determined by the type, spreading equipment, cutting method, cutting equipment, and the industry’s quality standards.  The fundamental purpose of a spreading machine is to superimpose layers of the fabric in a smooth, tension –free manner for accurate and efficient cutting.  Fabric control devices at higher rates of travel, it is an operate to monitor more than one aspect of the operation ; therefore ,edge sensing devices; lap counters , with monitors, and out-of –cloth sensors simply the operation so the operator’s primary concern is the fabric being spread.
  72. 72. 72 Objects of fabric spreading:  To place the number of plies of fabric to the length of the marker plan correctly aligned as to length and with and without tension.  To cut the garments in bulk and saving in cutting time per garment that result from cutting many plies at the same time. TYPES OF SPREADING: There are two types of spreading 1. Flat spreading. 2. Stepped spreading. MEHODS OF FABRIC SPREADING: 1. Manual method. 2. Mechanical method. a) Semi automatic. b) Full automatic. REQUIRMENTS OF FABRIC SPREADING: 1. Alignment of fabric ply. 6. Elimination of static electricity. 2. Correct ply tension 7.Matching checks and stripes. 3. Fabric must be flat. 8. Easy separation of cut lay into bundles. 4. Elimination of fabric flaws. 9. Avoidance of fusion of plies during cutting. 5. Correct ply direction and stability. 10. Avoidance of distortion in Spread.
  73. 73. 73 Types and name of cutting machines: There are many kinds of cutting machine are used in our country. Cutting machine is as follows: 1. Straight knife cutting machine. 2. Band knife cutting machine. 3. Round Knife cutting machine. 4. Die cutting machine. 5. Automatic Straight Knife cutting Machine 6. Cutting by laser beam 7. Cutting by water jet.
  74. 74. 74 List Of Garments Machineries: Name No’s Name No’s Plain Machine Single needle : 400 Feed of the Arm 02 needle : 10 Double needle : 50 04 needle : 15 Over Lock 03 thread : 40 Back tape : 30 04 Thread : 400 Binding Cutter : 50 05 Thread : 70 Blind Stitch : 50 Gathering over lock : 30 Latus Stitch : 60 Flat Lock Cylinder bed normal : 80 Rib Cutter Machine : 30 Cylinder bed computerized : 200 Chain Stitch Single needle : 30 Cylinder bed small singling : 60 Double needle : 30 Cylinder bed auto trimmer : 200 Fusing : 20 Flat bed : 250 H&E : 10 General Category Button Hole : 30 Elastic join flat lock : 60 Button Stitch : 30 Placko Stitch : 20 Kansal special : 40 Elastic join Over Lock : 60 Bar-tack : 30 Single Needle : 153 Snap button : 30 O/L : 55 Picot : 20 Cylindered Engle : 40 Cocot : 20 Button Hole : 06 Smoke 12 needle : 10 Button Stitch : 06 33 needle : 10 Rib Cutting : 02 Zig-Zag : 50
  75. 75. 75 SEWING SEQUENCE OF BASIC T-SHIRT: Serial Operation Machine used 1. Front part gathering Plain M/C(2) 2. Solder Joint Over lock M/C(1)Thread no.4 3. Neck rib make Plain M/C(1) 4. Neck joint Over lock M/C (1) 5. Main+Size level joint Plain M/C(1) 6. Level joint Plain M/C (1) 7. Sleeve gathering Plain M/C(2) 8. Sleeve joint Plain M/C () 9. Side seam Over lock M/C(2) 10. Cuff rib make Plain M/C(1) 11. Bottom make Over lock M/C(1) 12. Bottom joint Plain M/C(1) 13. Loop make Plain M/C(1) 14. Loop top seam Over lock M/C(1) 15. Loop attachment Plain M/C(3)
  76. 76. 76  Sewing machines : 1.Butterfly Sewing machine Model number: Ja-2 Brand name :Butterfly Country :China Stitch: Lock stitch 2.Flat bed interlock sewing machine: Model number:FY31016-01CB Brand name: YAMATA Country: China Stitch : Chain stitch
  77. 77. 77 3.Over lock Sewing machine Model number:HR3614 Brand name: Honrey Country:China Stitch: overlock
  78. 78. 78 Stitch: Stitch is one unit of conformation of thread resulting from repeatedly passing a strand(s) and/or a loop(s) of thread into or through a material at uniformity spaced intervals to form a series of stitches. The simplest definition of “stitch” is a formation of thread for the purpose of making a seam. “Stitch” may be referred both to the thread interloping or interlocking used to make seams. Stitch quality measured with:  Stitch size.  Stitch tension.  Stitch sequence.  Elongation.  Elasticity.  Fabric distortion. Stitch types: According to British standard stitch can be classified as- 1. Stitch class 100- Chain stitch. 2. Stitch class 200- Stitches originating as hand stitch. 3. Stitch class 300- Lock stitch. 4. Stitch class 400- Multithread chain stitch. 5. Stitch class 500- Over edge chain stitch. 6. Stitch class 600- Covering chain stitch.
  79. 79. 79 In stitch classes, the numbers carry the following meanings: The first digit designates each stitch class. The second & third digits identify the stitch type within the class. For example, 301 & 304 indicates that these are stitch types of Class 300 and 01 and 04 are the first variation and forth variation respectively. Stitch Class 100 (Single Thread Chain Stitch): This is basically a single thread chain stitch. It is formed with one or more needle threads that form a loop on the underside of the fabric. It doesn’t have under thread. The needle thread interlopes with itself on the back of the fabric to form a simple chain. Features of Class 100: » Simple chain stitches. » Interloped. » Plane on face & single chain on back. » Flexible but unravel easily. » Use one thread only. Types of Stitch Class 100: Stitch class 100 includes stitches types 101,102,103,104 & 105. Fig: Stitch Type 101 & 103
  80. 80. 80 Applications of Stitch Class 100: This stitch class is generally used for –  Button sewing.  Bag closing.  Padding operations.  Trousers.  Hemming.  Belt loops  Snap fasteners  Cuffs tacks etc STITCH CLASS 200: This class of stitch is formed by hand with needle thread and requires that each threads and requires that each thread passes through the materials as a single line of thread. Each stitch is secured by the single line of thread passing in and out of the material or the interloping of the threads themselves. When more than one thread is used, the thread passes through the same perforation in the material. (Stitch class 205 is exception, because this type simulates a hand running stitch but is formed by a special machine). Types: The types of stitches under Class 200 are 201,202,203,204 & 205. Fig: Stitch Class 200,202,203,204 & 205.
  81. 81. 81 Applications of Stitch Class 200: Stitch Class 200 is generally used in » Outer edges of tailored jackets. » Leg opening of Pants. » Sleeve edges of short sleeve shirt. Stitch Class 300 (Lock Stitch): This class of stitch is formed with two or more groups of threads and requires the interlacing of the two groups. Loops of the first group are passed through the material where they are secured by the threads of the second group to form a stitch. This type of stitch which is known as straight stitch or plain stitch and it is actually the same that is made by house-wives on conventional domestic sewing machine. In fact, these stitches are the single, straight and continuous row of stitches on both sides of the fabric . Fig: Stitch type-300 Features of Stitch Class 300: » Lock stitches. » Interlocked. » Strong but not very extensible.
  82. 82. 82 » Seams do not grin but tend to pucker. » Flat » Non-bulky. » Very comfortable. » Hard to unravel. Types of Stitch Class 300: Fig: stitch class 304 Types of stitches under this class are 301,302,303,304,305,306,307,308,310,311,312,313,314,315 & 316. Applications of stitch class 300: Stitch class 300 is generally used for top stitching, lingerie, swim wear, sails etc. For a seam joining of facing collars pockets and many similar garments parts. Stitch Class 400:
  83. 83. 83 These are multi-thread chain stitches or double-locked chain stitches. Multi-thread chain stitches are formed by one or more needle threads passing through the fabric and inter-looping with looper thread (under thread). This stitch is the two-thread chain stitch that consists of a needle thread interloping with the lopper thread and due to its strength and extensibility, it is more suitable in comparison to 300 lock stitches for stitching of elastic and knit apparels. On face of the fabric it looks like a 300 lock stitch, but its double loops are visible on back of the fabric. Fig: Stitch type 401 Features of Stitch Class 400: » Multithread chain stitches » Interloped » Strong and more extensible than class 300 » Seam grin but less likely to pucker than 300 » Bulkier and slightly less comfortable than 300 Types of stitch class 400: Types of stitches under this class are 401,402,403,404,405,406 and 407.
  84. 84. 84 Fig: Stitch type-400 Applications of stitch class 400: This class is mainly used for main seaming as in jeans, belt loops, binding, attaching elastic, hemming etc. Also used in combination with an over edge stitch for economy of seam joining and neatening in bulk production. Stitch class 500: This class is termed as over edge, because these are formed over the edge of the fabric, encasing the edge in thread interloping. Over edge stitches are made on conventional and small sewing machines called over-edgers or sergers. 500 stitch features a needle thread and two lopper threads. It does two jobs simultaneously. One, it sews the seam as well as makes the edge neat by trimming and finishing. 500 stitch results in purled edge, a series of raised loops formed by the interloping of lopper threads at the edge.
  85. 85. 85 Fig: Stitch type 503 Features of Stitch Class 500: » Over edge stitches » Interloped » Strong (safety stitches very durable) » Very extensible » Seam grin is a problem but not likely to pucker » Some what bulky and less comfortable than 300 » Can be used only on edges » Stitches seam » Trims and finishes edge simultaneously Types of Stitch Class 500: The types of stitches under this class are 501,502,503,504,505,506,507,508,509,510,511,512,513,514,515,516,517,518,519,520, 521 and 522.
  86. 86. 86 Fig: Stitch class-503,504 Applications of stitch class 500: This stitch class is used for but edge seaming , wetting, surging, knit goods etc. » This type of stitch can be used to provide a decorative neatening edge if sewn with high stitch density and where narrow dense stitch is required. » Specially used for men’s wear » Particularly suitable for trousers/pants Stitch class 600: Stitches of this class are termed as cover stitches also known as interlock stitches, flat lock stitches or flat seam stitches.
  87. 87. 87 This class joins two fabric plies and cover the face and back of the seam with stitches in a single run through the machine. That is why, sometimes, these stitches are also described as top and bottom covering stitches. The machine used for stitching of this class are extremely fast, efficient and can operate a very high speed like 7000 to 9000 spm. In this class, stitch is formed by two or more needle loops passing through material, interloping on the underside and interlocking on the upper side. Fig: Stitch class-600 Features of Stitch Class 600: » Cover stitches » Interloped » Strong » Very extensible » Not likely to pucker » Several threads show face and back » Stitch somewhat bulky » Less comfortable than 300
  88. 88. 88 » Stitches flat seams » Joins abutted or overlapped edges » Covers top and bottom of seam simultaneously Types of Stitch Class 600: The types of stitches under class 600 are 601,602,603,604,605,606 and 607. Fig: Stitch class –607,605 Applications of stitch class600: These stitches are commonly used for binding, attaching elastic, under wear, swim wear, interlock garments etc. » Mostly used in making a flat, comfortable elastic joining. » Joining braid or bi-adding to the edges of garments. Seam: A seam is made when two or more layers of fabric are stitched together. It’s the ‘line’ that is formed by sewing together pieces of cloth. Stitches used to make such a line.
  89. 89. 89 Fig: Seam Seam Types:  Class-i, superimposed seam.  Class-ii, Lapped seam.  Class-iii, Bound seam.  Class-iv, Flat seam.  Class-v, Decorative seam.  Class-vi, Edge Neatening seam.  Class-vii, like as Lapped seam.  Class-viii, Class 8. Superimposed seam: The superimposed seam is used to join two or more pieces of material (fabric or otherwise) together. It is created by one ply of fabric being stacked (superimposed) upon another with their right sides (the one that will show when the item is worn or used) together and using thread to stitch through all layers. This is one of the most common and simplest methods of seaming and is used to construct most commercial garments. 89 Fig: Seam Seam Types:  Class-i, superimposed seam.  Class-ii, Lapped seam.  Class-iii, Bound seam.  Class-iv, Flat seam.  Class-v, Decorative seam.  Class-vi, Edge Neatening seam.  Class-vii, like as Lapped seam.  Class-viii, Class 8. Superimposed seam: The superimposed seam is used to join two or more pieces of material (fabric or otherwise) together. It is created by one ply of fabric being stacked (superimposed) upon another with their right sides (the one that will show when the item is worn or used) together and using thread to stitch through all layers. This is one of the most common and simplest methods of seaming and is used to construct most commercial garments. 89 Fig: Seam Seam Types:  Class-i, superimposed seam.  Class-ii, Lapped seam.  Class-iii, Bound seam.  Class-iv, Flat seam.  Class-v, Decorative seam.  Class-vi, Edge Neatening seam.  Class-vii, like as Lapped seam.  Class-viii, Class 8. Superimposed seam: The superimposed seam is used to join two or more pieces of material (fabric or otherwise) together. It is created by one ply of fabric being stacked (superimposed) upon another with their right sides (the one that will show when the item is worn or used) together and using thread to stitch through all layers. This is one of the most common and simplest methods of seaming and is used to construct most commercial garments.
  90. 90. 90 Fig: Superimposed seam. Usage: - Side seam of basic pants. - Side seam of shirts. Lapped seam: This class of seaming has the largest number of variations. This type of seam is produced by overlapping of two raw edges of the fabric and at least one of the edge must be neatened in a decorative manner, by using two or more rows of zigzag stitching. Fig: Lapped seam. Usage: - Inner seam of long sleeve. - Side seam of jeans etc. Bound seam: The purpose of a bound seam is to finished the raw edge of a garment. A common usage of this finish is seen on the neckline of a collarless garment made of woven fabric. A bound seam is made by using one piece of usually bias-cut fabric to enclose the raw edge of another piece of fabric. There are many variations of a bound seam. Technically this is a finishing method, rather than a seam. 90 Fig: Superimposed seam. Usage: - Side seam of basic pants. - Side seam of shirts. Lapped seam: This class of seaming has the largest number of variations. This type of seam is produced by overlapping of two raw edges of the fabric and at least one of the edge must be neatened in a decorative manner, by using two or more rows of zigzag stitching. Fig: Lapped seam. Usage: - Inner seam of long sleeve. - Side seam of jeans etc. Bound seam: The purpose of a bound seam is to finished the raw edge of a garment. A common usage of this finish is seen on the neckline of a collarless garment made of woven fabric. A bound seam is made by using one piece of usually bias-cut fabric to enclose the raw edge of another piece of fabric. There are many variations of a bound seam. Technically this is a finishing method, rather than a seam. 90 Fig: Superimposed seam. Usage: - Side seam of basic pants. - Side seam of shirts. Lapped seam: This class of seaming has the largest number of variations. This type of seam is produced by overlapping of two raw edges of the fabric and at least one of the edge must be neatened in a decorative manner, by using two or more rows of zigzag stitching. Fig: Lapped seam. Usage: - Inner seam of long sleeve. - Side seam of jeans etc. Bound seam: The purpose of a bound seam is to finished the raw edge of a garment. A common usage of this finish is seen on the neckline of a collarless garment made of woven fabric. A bound seam is made by using one piece of usually bias-cut fabric to enclose the raw edge of another piece of fabric. There are many variations of a bound seam. Technically this is a finishing method, rather than a seam.
  91. 91. 91 Fig: Bound seam Usage: -To attach elastic in the edge of garments. -In Neck edge of basic T-shirt, waist band, woman’s blouse, baby’s nightgown, child bishop dress, camisole etc. Flat seam: In this seam type, fabric edges buttled together without causing any gap and joining across by a stitch, which has two needles sewing into each fabric ancovering threads passing back and forth between these needles on both sides of the fabric. Fig: Flat seam. Usage: -Hem of knitted underwear. -For decorative garments items. Decorative seam: The seam in this class is produced by decorative stitching across a garment panel, where single or multiple rows of stitches are sewn through one or more layers of fabric. These several layers can be folds of the same fabric.
  92. 92. 92 Fig: Decorative seam. Usage: -To produce gathering on fabric. -To make pleat in the garments. -To attach ribbon etc. Edge neatening seam: Seam types in this class include those, where fabric edges are neatened by means of stitches (over lock stitches) well as folded hems and edges. Fig: Edge neatening seam. Usage: -In side edges of a pant’s side seam. -Hems of skirt, shirt etc. -Button holes.
  93. 93. 93 Like as lapped seam: Seam in this class relate to the addition of separate items to the edges of a garment part. They are similar to the lapped seam, except that the added component has a definite edge on both sides. Usage: -Inserted elastic on the leg of a swimming dress. -Band and lace attachment to the lower edge of sleeve. -Elastic braid on the edge of the bra. Class 8: Final seam class, where only one piece of material need to be involved in constructing the seam. Usage: -Belt loop as used on jeans, rain coat. -Loop for braid penetration in children wear. Printing Section There are one floors in the printing section. Here are the details about Printing- Machinery of Printing Section
  94. 94. 94 Sl.No Machine Name Total No’s 1 Auto Screen Printing Machine 5 2 Manual Revolving Printing Machine 10 3 Manual Flat bed Printing 10 Lines 4 Flock Machine 10 Lines 5 Dryer 10 6 Expose Machine 7 7 Heat Press Machine 2 8 Fushing Conveyer 8 Different types of Printing:  Pigment Print  Rubber print  High Density Print  Plastisol Print  Puff print  Gliter print  Rainbow print  Pearl scent  Radium print  Foil print  Jel print  Metallic print  Heat transfer (this system is not used)  Flock Print (this system is not used)  Discharge print Printing faults: 1. Print color shading 2. Print slarted 3. Color spot 4. Bleeding 5. Print wrong 21. Wrong side 22. Color wrong 23. Size mistake 24. Bunoledle card mistake 25.Fabric h
  95. 95. 95 6. Print burn 7. Air hole 8. Print bubble 9. Print missing 10. Wrong place 11. Not properly attached 12. Hand feels 13. Migration 14. Dirty mark 15. Uneven shade 16. Shade variation 17. Print sticky 18. Print not coverage 19. Print gap 20. Print over 26.Fabric shade 27.Crease mark 28. Oil spot 29. Fabric burn 30.Needle mark 31. Cutting problem 32. Sticker wrong 33. Dye migration 34.Yarn hole 35. Yarn contamination 36. Fly yarn.
  96. 96. 96 Embroidery Section Embroidery is the art of handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread of yarn. Embroidery may incorporate other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beds,quills, and sequins. Types of Embroidery: 1. All-overs. 2. Trim. 3. Collar 4. Insert. 5. Rubber bobbins. 6. Ribon Inserts. 7. Applique Embroidery. 8. Hand Cut Embroidery. 96 Embroidery Section Embroidery is the art of handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread of yarn. Embroidery may incorporate other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beds,quills, and sequins. Types of Embroidery: 1. All-overs. 2. Trim. 3. Collar 4. Insert. 5. Rubber bobbins. 6. Ribon Inserts. 7. Applique Embroidery. 8. Hand Cut Embroidery. 96 Embroidery Section Embroidery is the art of handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread of yarn. Embroidery may incorporate other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beds,quills, and sequins. Types of Embroidery: 1. All-overs. 2. Trim. 3. Collar 4. Insert. 5. Rubber bobbins. 6. Ribon Inserts. 7. Applique Embroidery. 8. Hand Cut Embroidery.
  97. 97. 97 Embroidery faults: -down hole
  98. 98. 98 Finishing: Finishing is the addition of special detailing such as pleats, embroidery and screen printing to a garments. This includes hand stitching (unseen handwork done inside collars and lapel to given them shape) and its automated substitutes. This may also include adding buttons, hooks, eyes or trims as well as clipping loose threads. All finishing of moderate and lower priced garments is done by machine. Pressing: Some pressing termed under pressing may be done in the course of assembling a garments for example, ironing a collar. Most pressing is done after assembly folded instead of pressed. Although pressing remains largely a manual task, new automated process exists that apply force and steam to garments placed over a body form. Categories of pressing: 1. No pressing: Here pressing is not required, e.g. knitted garments such as undergarments, briefs etc. 2. Minimum pressing: Only heat is applied to garments, such as sweater, T-shirt etc. 3. Under pressing: Before sewing some parts of garments are pressed for its proper finishing, such as pants, coats/blazer etc. 4. Final pressing: After completing the garments final pressing is done then it is packed to a poly bag for shipment. 5. Permanent pressing: Many fabric effects are made by heavy pressing; this is known as permanent pressing, e.g. pleat of shirt, dirt of pant, lapel of coat etc. Pressing equipment and methods: 1. Iron 2. Steam process 3. Steam air finish 4. Steam tunnel
  99. 99. 99 Ironing: This is a finishing process done by subjecting a cloth to heat & pressure with or without steam to remove unintended creases and to impart a flat appearance to the or garments. Also, pressing is done to introduce creases in the garments, in garments industries, pressing is called Ironing. Objects of Ironing: 1. Remove of unwanted creases and crinkles. 2. To apply creases where necessary. 3. Shaping. 4. Under pressing. 5. Under pressing. 6. Final pressing. Folding: After pressing garments are given crinkle according to the specific volume or standard volume is known as folding. Folding types are depends on the different types fabric/garments. There are four types of folding for shirt, they are- 1. Standup: Collar is situated when it is crinkle with body at 90° angel. 2. Semi standup: Collar is situated when it is crinkle with body at 45° angel. 3. Flat pack: Collar is totally laid down on the body of shirt. 4. Hanger pack: Shirt is exported with hanger packing form. Packing: After folding the garments, it is packed in to polyethylene packet. Pet packet has a specific size. Poly used for packing: 1. PP (not soft). 2. PE (soft). Used of poly depends on the buyer’s requirement. Buyer also noticed about folding, packing & cartooning.
  100. 100. 100 Cartooning process: For cartooning, maintain (Length × Width × Height). According to the buyer’s recommendation, use (60 × 40 × 30) size for the weight of 15 kg. Assortment types for carton: 1. Solid color solid size. 2. Solid color assorted size. Size/color S Blue =12 pieces 3. Assorted size solid color. Size/color S M L Piece Blue 4 6 2 =12 4. Assorted size assorted color. Size/color S M L Piece Blue 1 2 1 =4 Red 1 1 2 =4 White 2 1 1 =4 Total =12
  101. 101. 101 Packing mistake:  Not packed according to packing list per product.  Wrong price tag.  Missing price tag without merchandiser approval.  None seen able price tag.  Missing price tag on out side of carton.  Wrong packing of assortment.  Wrong carton size.  Wrong weight of packing list.  Wrong weight per size on packing list.  Missing specification.  Packing list template not used.  Carton making template not used. The requirements to maintain quality in packing &assortment: 1) Wrong Model 2) Wrong Quantity 3) Missing labels & tags 4) Wrong Size & Colour assortment 5) Wrong Folding
  102. 102. 102 Garment Inspection: All garment retailers expect to sell high quality products from manufactures. The quality of the garments any vary depends on the price market they are being made for so therefore buyers expect manufacturers expect manufacturers to follow various methods of inspection techniques all through the production and prior to shipment release from factory. Following correct inspection procedures, inspection systems and eventually shipment release gives the clear judgment of the quality of the garment. Under quality assurance process, the bulk production is inspected before delivery to the customer to examine if it meets the specifications. The consumers want to get quality products and the products should reach the consumers with right quality. Quality assurance covers all the processes within a factory that contributes to the production of quality garment products and is conducted right from where housing, manufacturing, finishing and packing process until shipment is released. The final inspection is carved out by buyer representative or independent auditors free from any pressure from vendor or factory representative. Air of final inspection is to visually inspect articles at random from fully or 80-90% packed purchase order to verify their general conformity and appearance with instruction/description and/or reference tagged sample received from buyer. Result is documented and recorded as reference but still vendor/manufacturer is always responsible for claims if any arising due to any defective goods found packed and inspected at buyers warehouse. Types of Inspections Pre-Production Inspection: This is done before production starts. It is done to crosscheck for final verification of Bulk fabric and trims materials, styling cutting way, manufacturing details and workmanship of the garment or pre-production sample as per the customer requirement. 1st inline production inspection: This inspection is done at the start of production when first production output of particular style of garments is inspected; to distinguish possible discrepancies or variation and to do necessary corrections to be made bulk production. This type of inspection is done at preliminary stage of manufacturing of a
  103. 103. 103 style covering mainly style detail, general appearance, workmanship, measurements, fabric quality, Trims and components, Lot color, printing, embellishments and washing quality. 2nd line Production Inspection: This inspection is done during production to ensure initial discrepancies have been corrected and rectified. This inspection is a follow-up of the 1 st inline production inspection and is generally carried out after 1st line inspection when discrepancies have been detected at that time.
  104. 104. 104 Chapter- 8 Merchandising Section 104 Chapter- 8 Merchandising Section 104 Chapter- 8 Merchandising Section
  105. 105. 105 Merchandising: Merchandising is the depertment which mediates marketing and production depertments. It is space optimization through effective brand/package allocation, focusing on gaining first position, providing greatest exposure of brands to all consumers,creating a consistent, orderly and clean appearence for the products, maximizing the use of POS to increase consumer awarness of brand and promotions. Sometimes, merchandising department will have to do costing and pricing also.. In any case the merchandiser is the person whose responsibility is to execute the orders perfectly as per the costing and pricing. So it is very valuable department Two types of merchandising done in garments exports: 1. Marketing merchandising. 2. Product merchandising. Marketing merchandising: Main funtion of marketing merchandising is-  Product development.  Costing.  Ordering marketing merchandising is to bring orders costly products development and it has direct contact with the buyer. Product merchandising: Product merchandising is done in the unit. This includes all the responsibilities from sourcing to finishing i.e. first sample onwards, the products merchandising work start and ends till shipment
  106. 106. 106 A Merchandisers key responsibilities is as follows:  Product development  Market and product analysis  Selling the concept  Booking orders  Confirming deliveries  Designing and sampling  Costing  Raw materials  Production follow ups  Payment follows  Internal & external communication  Sampling  Lab dip  Accessories and trims  Preparing internal order sheet  Preparing purchase orders  Advising and assisting production  Advising quality department about quality level  Giving shipping instruction and following shipping  Helping documentation department  Taking responsibility for inspections  Following up the shipment
  107. 107. 107 Process flow chart of Merchandising: Merchandiser Negotiation with buyer & collect order Costing Sample making Get approval & placement of order Collect accessories for production Line balancing Production monitoring Final Inspection Banking Shipment
  108. 108. 108 Purchase order sheet: What is Purchase Order Sheet?  This is generally abbreviated to P.O.  The Purchase Order can be defined as a written sales contract between buyer and seller detailing the exact merchandise to be rend from a single vendor.  It will specify payment terms, delivery dates, item identification, quantities, shipping terms and all other obligations and conditions. A contract to purchase merchandise may include a number of P.O. sheets defining them color- wise and size-wise quantity or as per buyers' wish What does a P.O. Contain? The Purchase Order is provided to the vendor as a record of the Purchase. A sample Purchase Order sheet indicates the followings- A) Purchase Order Number - The number is assigned to the purchase order. This is used to identify a definite order and for departmental record keeping, B) vendor's Name and Address - The complete name and address of the individual or company which manufacture the merchandise. - The sequential line number which corresponds with the line on the requisition (i.e., the first item would be line 1; the second would be line 2, etc.). C) Quantity - The quantity of the item being purchased. D) UQP (Unit of Purchase) -The packaging of the item to be purchased (i.e., each, box, package, poly, dozen, carton etc.) E) Unit Price - The unit price of the item ordered.
  109. 109. 109 F) Extended Price/ Total Price - The total quantity of the item multiplied by its unit price. G) Description - The complete description of the item ordered in detail, i.e. color, size ratio, critical designs, buttons and other trims, printings, sewing thread used etc, H) Total - The total amount of all items on the purchase order. - During partial shipment, color-wise andsize-wise quantity to be shipped is mentioned. I) Ship To - Receiving Department address J) Deliver To - The complete name and location of the individual who requested the ordered goods. K) Dale - The date at which the purchase order was received and also the date at which the order will have to be shipped. L) Payment Terms - Payment terms defined by Purchasing Department of the buyer. M) Ship Via - Shipping instructions entered by Purchasing Department. N) F.O.B. - Shipping terms defined by Purchasing Department. O) Freight Terms - Freight terms defined by Purchasing Department. P) P. O. Line No.
  110. 110. 110 Inquiry sheet: What is an Inquiry Sheet? This is the most important document sent by the buyer to a merchandiser to start the merchandising activities. The technical term of Inquiry Sheet is Product Specification Sheet (P, S, S,). But some buyer and some manufacturer also use the term of Tech-Pack or Style-Pack. The buyer specifies all the necessary points of a particular garmentWhat they want to purchase- The merchandiser has to study the P, S.S. very well for fartherActivities. He must reply within 24 hours. What does the Inquiry Sheet possess?  The Tech-Pack includes the following-  Styling of the garment  Sketch of the garment  Size range  Fabric (denoted with cut-able width )  Interlining  Pocketing(for shirt or pant)  Measurement sheet Trims/Accessories- I. Label  Main label (with/without size)  Care label  Trucking label/DPCR label  Size label II. Tag III. Hang tag, joker tag and adjustable waist tag. IV. Thread: color & count specified. V. Button: Ligne number and types specified. VI. Zipper VII. Bow (for kids' item) VIII. Poly IX. Tag pin X. Gum tag
  111. 111. 111 XI. Carton ETC  Washing details (for denim fabrics)  Embroidery details (if any)  Printing details on Art Sheet (if any) SWATCH CARD: What is Swatch Card? When all the items (fabric and accessories) needed to manufacture a particular style of garment are attached on a board as a sample by using both side adhesive tapes, it is called Swatch Card. Separate swatch card is prepared for different style of garment. The objective of making 'Swatch Card1 is to assess the quality forproduction The items attached in a swatch card are -  Fabric - separately for each different color.  Thread - for different count and type  Button - for different Ligne Number  Label - for different types (main, size & care label etc) and forDifférent size (2T, 3T etc).  Price tag  Poly bag  ETC Swatch Card has to made a few for each separate department, for example -  For Production Manager  For Quality Manager  For Store Office  For Buying house / Buyers representative  For Merchandiser own self  And for each production unit.
  112. 112. 112 Importance of Swatch Card: For a merchandiser this is very important for continuing his job. Without this he cannot move his arena- It is chat where all materials and accessories are present with their color combination. For this, it is much more important to lake approval from the buyer as well as to give the appropriate instructions to the supplier to supply the necessary and appropriate goods. How can we get Fabric Consumption & Fabrics Price? Say: ** Body Length = 85, Chest Width = 52, Sleeve Length = 44 & G.S.M = 240 Fabric Description: 100 % Cotton S/J Fabric Need = [(85+5 +44+5 )  52+5 ]  2  12  240/10000000+10% = [(90+49)  57]  2  12  240/10000000+10% = (13957)  2  12  240/10000000+10% = 7923 12  240/10000000+10% = 45636480/10000000 + 10% = 4.563648 +10% = 4.563648 + .4563 = 5.02 Kgs Fabrics Say Per Kgs Price: US$ 6.00/Kgs Fabrics Price: Total Fabric Need 5.00 Kg  $ 6.00 = $ 30.00 Trim/ Accessories (Minimum Charge) = $ 2.50 Cutting & Making Charge (C.M) = $ 5.00 Printing Charge (If any) = $ 0.00 Embroidery Charge (If any) = $ 0.00 Buying Commission (If necessary) 5% = $ 1.97 = $ 39.47/12 Poly bag costing : Total Length X width X Thickness = 36cm X 28cm X 10mm
  113. 113. 113 = 10080/72000 = 0.14pcs/lb
  114. 114. 114 Chapter-9 Maintenance Section
  115. 115. 115 Maintenance: Machine, buildings and other facilities are subjected to deterioration due to their use and exposure to environmental condition. Process of deterioration, if unchecked, culminates in rendering these service facilities unserviceable and brings them to a standstill. In Industry, therefore has no choice but to attend them from time to time to repair and recondition them so as to elongate their life to the extent it is economically and physically possible to do so. Objectives of Maintenance: 1. To keep the factory plants, equipments, machine tools in an optimum working condition. 2. To ensure specified accuracy to product and time schedule of delivery to customer. 3. To keep the downtime of machines to the minimum thus to have control over the production program. 4. To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range. 5. To modify the machine tools to meet the need for production Maintenance of Machinery: Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Break Down Maintenance Electrical Mechanical Electrical Mechanical
  116. 116. 116 Preventive Maintenance: Preventive maintenance is a predetermined routine actively to ensure on time inspection / checking of facilities to uncover conditions that may lead to production break downs or harmful description. Break Down Maintenance: In this case, repairs are made after the equipment is out of order and it cannot perform its normal functions. Routine Maintenance: Maintenance of different machines are prepared by expert engineer of maintenance department. Normally in case of dyeing machine maintenance after 30 days complete checking of different important parts are done.
  117. 117. 117 Maintenance of knitting machine: SL. No. Items need to be checked & Serviced 1 Check and tightening all motor terminals. 2 Check and clean pressure sensor and tightening terminals 3 Clean the ventilation fans of panel board and circular fan on top of machine 4 Check and clean the interfacing and data cables. 5 Check and tightening the proximity switch terminals. 6 Inspection, cleaning and tightening all the terminals in the panel 7 Check and tightening limit switch, safety door guard and the emergency switch. 8 Functional test of the yarn detector.
  118. 118. 118 Check List of Different Parts Maintenance: Mechanical.Machine: Dyeing machine SL. No. Items need to be checked & Serviced 1 Crease the m/c bearing. 2 Complete cleaning of machine. 3 Cleaning of drain valves, replace seals if required. 4 Check air supply filters, regulators auto drain seals 5 Clean filters element and blow out 6 Greasing of unloading roller bearing. 7 Checking of oil level and bolts of unloading roller gearbox. 8 Checking of unloading roller coupling and packing. 9 Checking & cleaning (if required) of main vessel level indicator. 10 Check the oil level of pump bearing and refill if required. 11 Check the function of heat and cool modulating valves 12 Check all door seals
  119. 119. 119 Machine: Dyeing machine SL. No. Items need to be checked & Serviced 1 Check & clean fluff and dirt at dirt at all motor fan covers. 2 Check all motor's terminals 3 Check main panels (by using compressed air) 4 Check panel cooling fan & clean its filter 5 Clean main pump inverter and its cooling fan. 6 Check all circuit breaker, magnetic conductors and relays. 7 Check current setting of all circuit breaker & motor over load. 8 Visual checking of all power & control cables. 9 Check all pressure switches 10 Check calibration of main vessel & all addition tank 11 Check all pneumatic solenoids 12 Check calibration of heating/cooling modulating value
  120. 120. 120 13 Check setting of tangle sensor. 14 Check setting & operation of lid safely switches. 15 Check setting & operation of lid safely switches. 16 Check all emergency switches 17 Check all indicating lamps 18 Check all on/off switches Maintenance: Mechanical Machine: Boiler SI. No. Item needed to be checked & Serviced 1 Checking of gas pressure and gas supply line 2. Dosing of softening chemicals to supply water 3. Checking of all steam lines 4. Cleaning of burner tank (after six month interval) 5. Checking and replacement of valves 6. Cleaning of feed water tank 7. Checking and replacement of filters 8. Cleaning of sight glass
  121. 121. 121 Maintenance Tools & Equipments: 1. Combination tools / spanner: Function: Tightening & loosening of nuts & bolts. 2. Socket ratchet set: Function: Tightening of nuts & bolts. 3. Slide range: Function: Tightening & loosening of nuts & bolts. 4. Monkey pliers: Function: Tightening & loosening of nuts & bolts. 5. Pipe threat cutting tools: Function: To cut the threat in pipe. 6. Bearing puller: Assist the opening of bearing from shaft. 7. Pipe range: Function: Tightening & loosening of pipe joint. 8. Pipe cutting tools: Function: For pipe cutting. 9. Hole punch: Function: Punching the hole.
  122. 122. 122 10. Divider: Function: For circle marking on metal & wood. 11. Easy opener: Function: To open the broken head bolt. 12. External threat die: Function: For external threat cutting. 13. Heavy scissor: Function: Cutting of gasket & steel sheet. 14. Oil can: Function: Oiling of moving parts. 15. Drill machine and drill bit: Function: For drilling. 16. Grease gun; Function: For greasing of moving parts of m/c. 17. Grinding m/c: Function: For grinding & cutting of mild steel. 18. Welding m/c: Function: For welding & cutting. 19. Spirit leveler: Function: For perfect leveling.
  123. 123. 123 20. File: Function: For smoothing the surface. 21. Hammer: Function: For scaling & right angling. 22. Circle tools: Function: Circle opening & closing. 23. Hacksaw blade: Function: For metal cutting. 24. Handsaw (wood):
  124. 124. 124 Chapter – 10 Utilities and Power Development
  125. 125. 125 Utilities: Abanti colour Tex LTDis a big project and so of course having a vast project of utility and electricity service.Here ACTL use Gas generator. GAS GENERATOR Brand Capacity Country of Origin QTY Function ■ WAUKESHA 1125 KVA / 900 KW USA 1 Set GAS ■ KUMINS 500 KVA UK 1 Set DIESEL ■ KUMINS 1250 KVA UK 1 Set DIESEL ■ KUMINS 150 KVA UK 1 Set DIESEL
  126. 126. 126 Chaprter- 11 Compliance
  127. 127. 127 Compliance Compliance means conformity of certain standard. PPC maintain a moderate working condition for their employees. Though it is well established project, there is some lacking of proper compliance issues. Here is list of compliance in which some points are maintained fully and some are partially.  Compensation for holiday  Sexual harassment policy  Child labor abolition policy  Anti-Discrimination policy  Zero abusement policy  Working hour policy  Hiring /recruitment policy  Security policy  Buyers code of conduct  Health & safety committee  Canteen  National Festival holiday  Weekly holiday fund  Time care  Overtime register  Leave with wages Health:  Drinking water at least 4.5 L/day/employee  Cup availability  Drinking water supply  Drinking water signs in bangle & English locate min. 20 feet away from work place  Drinking water vassal clean at once in a week  Water center in charge person with cleanliness  Suggestion box register Toilet:  Separate toilet for women and men  A seat with proper privacy and lock facility  Effective water sewage system  Soap toilet  Water tap  Dust bin  Daily cleaning log sheet  No-smoking signs  Ladies/gents toilet signs both in bangle and English
  128. 128. 128 Fire:  Sufficient fire extinguisher and active  Access area without hindrance  Fire signs in both languages  Fire certified personal photo  Emergency exit Safety Guard:  Metal glows in good conditions  Rubber mats & ironers  First air box one  First trained employees  Eye guard  Doctor  Medicine  Welfare officer Others:  Room temperature  Lighting facilities
  129. 129. 129 Chapter- 11 Conclusion
  130. 130. 130 Conclusion: The industrial training gives us the opportunity to work in mills. It is an experience of normal academic learning, This training gives us actual picture about man, machine, material, methods and market. We have earned the direct knowledge about the raw materials, actual running condition of the m/cs. Works technologist and administration. This mill is a well planed with enough expansion facilities. There are wonderful employer and worker relation. Working environment for the labors is also good. During our training we visited knitting section, dyeing & finishing section, garments section, store, maintenance, administration section etc. Everywhere we got cordial behavior from all employees. Above all this training for 60 days in the Abanti Colour Tex Ltd. has given us a new experience for practical life. Southeast University has given me the field to perform the industrial attachment with Abanti Colour Tex Ltd. This attachment seems to me as a bridge to minimize the gap between theoretical and practical knowledge. Undoubtedly, this attachment paved us the way to learn more about Textile engineering, industrial practices, and industrial management and production process. Besides this attachment gave us the first opportunity to work in an Industry and acquainted us with the internal sight and sound of Textile Industries. We believe with all these, the experience of the industrial attachment will help our future life as a Textile Engineer.

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