Mill training report viyellatex dyeing


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Mill training report viyellatex dyeing

  1. 1. Acknowledgements First of all, our gratefulness goes to Almighty Allah who gave us strength and ability to complete the industrial training and prepare this report; may your name be exalted, honored & glorified. We are highly delighted to express our regards & gratitude to honorable Vice-Chancellor Prof. Dr. Nitai Chandra Sutradhar & Prof. Dr. Md. Zulhash Uddin; Dean, Faculty of Textile Chemical Processing Engineering & Applied Science, for providing us the opportunity to complete our industrial attachment with Viyellatex Group. Our heartiest gratitude to our supervising teacher, Mrs. Sharfun Nahar Arju; Head, Department of Wet Processing Engineering to whom we are extremely indebted for her tremendous support and guidance throughout our training period, without her help it would not have been possible to complete the training successfully. We also take the opportunity to express our sincere thanks to the management, administration & personnel of Viyellatex Group for giving us permission to complete our training period in this industry. We are really grateful to our industrial coordinator Engr. Dewan Mahbub Kamran, Executive Dyeing, Viyellatex Group for his encouragement, inspiration, support, supervision, special care & co-operation during training period. We would also like to thank specially Engr. Faridul Hasan, Executive Dyeing and also Engr. Mr. Mahmud, Engr. Mr. Arif, Engr. Mr. Faisal, Engr. Mr. Fayez for their Cordial Cooperation during the intern period. Above all, we would like to acknowledge our deep debt to all teachers of our university & particularly of Wet Processing Department for their kind inspiration & help, which remain as the backdrop of all our efforts.
  2. 2. Table of Contents S.N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Introduction Project Description Manpower Management Knitting Section Batch Section Dyeing Section Raw Materials Finishing Laboratory Garments Section Printing Section Embroidery Section Washing Section Maintenance Utilities Effluent Treatment Plant Inventory Control Costing Marketing Recommendations Conclusion Contents Page No. 3 4 11 16 27 30 56 60 75 86 90 95 96 101 108 114 118 120 124 127 128
  3. 3. Introduction By means of practical knowledge it is possible to apply the theoretical knowledge in the practical field. For any technical education practical experience is almost equally important in association with the theoretical knowledge. The industrial attachment is the process which builds understanding skill and attitude of the performer, which improves his/her knowledge in boosting productivity and services. Academic education provides us vast theoretical knowledge as well as more practical attachment, despite all these industrial attachment help us to be familiar with the technical support of modern machinery, skill ness about various operation stages. It also provides us sufficient practical knowledge about production management, Productivity evaluation, work study, efficiency, industrial management, production planning & control, production cost analysis, inventory management, purchasing, utility & maintenance of machinery and their operation techniques etc. The above mentioned cannot be achieved successfully by means of theoretical knowledge only. This is why it should be accomplished with practical knowledge in which it is based on industrial attachment makes us reliable to be accustomed with the industrial atmosphere & improve courage & inspiration to take self- responsibility. At Viyellatex Limited, cutting-edge technologies merge seamlessly with human ingenuity and deep seat recommitment to ensure excellence in every stage and area of their activities. From fiber to fabric, Viyellatex Limited is truly integrated undertaking. The Viyellatex Limited has the capability to offer a complete product range for the export textile markets. The goal of Viyellatex Limited is to become the preferred partner for sourcing high quality fabrics and clothing from Bangladesh with highly advanced technology and an emphasis on developing local human resources.
  4. 4. Project description
  5. 5. Project Description x x x x x x Company Name: Viyellatex group ltd. Status: Private Ltd. Company Type: 100% Export oriented composite knit Dyeing Industry. Sponsor: Mr. Rezaul Hasnat. Annual Production Capacity for dyeing: 75000tons Product Mix: x 100% cotton x 100% polyester x x x x a) Spun b) Filament x x x Year Year of starting production: 2002 Address: Nylon Chief Value Cotton (CVC) Polyester Cotton blend Gray mélange (15% Viscose 85% cotton 10% Viscose 90% cotton 30% Viscose 70% cotton) Ash mélange (1% Viscose 99% cotton) of establishment: 2001 Factory:297, Khortoil, Tongi, Gazipur- 1712 Head office: 297, Khortoil, Tongi, Gazipur- 1712 Telephone no. +880-2- 9813001 Fax No. +880-2-9811400 20 million $ for dyeing and finishing in the year 2008. Website: x Project cost:
  6. 6. Sections of Viyellatex: Knitting Section Dyeing Section Yarn Store Batch Section Circular Knitting Dye House V-bed Knitting Dyeing Machine Inspection Finishing Grey Fabric Store Quality Control Garments Section Maintenance Section Merchandising Mechanical Sample Section Electrical CAD/CAM Section Printing Section Cutting Section Washing Section Embroidery Section Sewing Section Store Section
  7. 7. Location from Dhaka: Masco Industries Ltd. KAI Alluminim Co.Ltd. ViyellaTex FH Fabrics Ltd. SMP Design Pvt. Ltd. Gajipura Tongi Dhaka-Mymensingh Highway Physical Infrastructure: Viyellatex Group is a Knit Composite Garments Manufacturer & Exporter, having all state of the art facilities with the annual turnover US$ 106.6 Million (2006-2007). They have different types of Knitting, Dyeing, Cutting, Sewing, and Finishing machines supplied by mostly Germany, Japan, Taiwan, China, U.K, U.S.A, Singapore, etc. which are very latest. It has high production where 30 tons of dyed and finished fabrics are produced per day. The production is controlled by technical persons. All of the decision makers of production sector in Viyellatex Group are textiles graduates. All the chemicals and dyes use for dyeing and finishing are well branded. They produce product for their buyer and client coming from international market like U.K, Sweden, Netherland, France, U.S.A, Germany and Spain. Their customer profile is big and top end such as Esprit, M&S, S-Oliver, Puma, G-star, Gap, Tesco and Grew waver etc. They follow all the system for their machines maintenance so production cannot hamper. The mill is built in such a way that there is possibility for further expansion of the mill. The structure such as mill, office buildings, record rooms, guard room etc. are made of solid hard concrete & brick materials. . The whole area is surrounded by safety brick wall .The main set up for m/c‘s are built of corrugated iron & iron sheet, transparent hard plastics with enough ventilation & scope for passing light & air. Dyeing, finishing and knitting section have shade roof. The garments section is in corporate building. The mill has water treatment plant and BoardBazar Dhaka
  8. 8. effluent treatment plant has a large canteen with facilities for 6000 employer. The mill has official quarter for higher rank officers, which is build the previous year. x x Vision: To be the most regarded company in Bangladesh by 2015. Mission:We strive to provide quality services on time, based on best practices for the satisfaction of our Partners & Stakeholders. We foster friendly working environment through open communication and mutual respect. We encourage initiative, innovation and teamwork. Workers welfare and right is our premier focus. We are committed for cleaner and greener environment. We are driven by our responsibility to the society as a Corporate Body. x Viyellatex Values: x x x x x x Integrity Commitment Customer Satisfaction Innovativeness Fairness Environment Major buyers of Viyellatex Group: » » » » » » » » PVH S-Oliver Puma Espirit G-Star M&S Ito Yokoda WoolWorths
  9. 9. Business Achievement of the Group: x Corporate Social Responsibility Commitments: x x x x x x Execute business with transparency and integrity Comply with all legal requirements to conduct business. Emphasizing and rewarding for better job. To become environment friendly as much as possible. Emphasizing on the up-liftment of the community around the company. Focusing on improved service to the customers and stakeholders. x Social contribution: Green (Environment) initiative: Viyellatex is most renowned environment friendly textile production facility in the world. Our renowned environment initiatives have been well recognized not only by other international business organization but also by World Bank & Asian Development Bank as well. Our few exemplary initiatives: x x x More than 280000 liters of treated effluent water is being used for 7000 worker‘s toilet flush every day, saving 75M liters of underground water every year. 250000 square feet roof top is being used to collect approx. 45 million liters of rain water which is later used in textile wet processing without utilizing the valuable underground water and saving extra chemicals of water softening. 5 MW gas generator exhaust used in co-generation chiller to support 750 MT of air cooling in the Viyellatex Spinning Mill. Also in the fabric plant, it is planning to use 3MW generator exhaust in the Boiler. Both technology saves substantial energy and reduced carbon emission. Re-condensed steam water is being transported to the boiler feeder tank which increases the temperature by 15-20C, saves hefty energy and minimizes global warming. x
  10. 10. x x x x x Fabric dryer exhaust is being redirected to air inlet and feed into the burner to reduce the energy consumption. A simple innovative technique which Viyellatex started to use 3 years back and now incorporated by famous GMBH Textile Machine Manufacturer, Bruckner in their latest series of Stenter. Per year approx. 50 Tons of food residue created during lunch of 7000 employees, are being used to develop natural fertilizer and being distributed among the neighboring farmers at free of cost- an initiative which avoids environment pollution and supports the community. Instead of air condition Viyellatex installed Energy Saving Evaporating Cooling System to apparel production floors. Viyellatex is constantly doing projects with International Partners to develop eco- friendly textile products. It did the Carbon foot print project to minimize the carbon emission in the wet processing with the assistance of world recognize company BASF. Became self-reliant in the society & unique return for any business group of Bangladesh.
  11. 11. Manpower management Viyellatex Group contains a no. of departments and each department is controlled by a chief operating officer. The board of directors maintains control on overall departments. Viyellatex limited possess a strong management system and all the activities are done in efficient way and in a systematic process. x Board of Directors: 1. 2. 3. 4. Mr. K. M. Rezaul Hasanat, Chairman & CEO Mr. Ahasan Kabir Khan, Vice Chairman Mrs. Kaniz Fatema Zareen, Director Amina Salima Khan, Director x Organogram of Viyellatex Group: Chairman & CEO Vice Chairman Group Commercial Group IT FPPL ISML VTG VSL GDL FABRICS Group FINANCE Group HR LM&S Ruthna Tea Estate
  12. 12. x BUs Head of Viyellatex: Mr. Syed Fatemy Ahmed Roomy Mr. Md. Masudul Hoque Mr. Md. Abu Haider Rumi Mr. Arif Bhuiyan Mr. Kazi Monjurul Islam Mr. Fateh Ul Islam Mr. Yakub Ali Mr. Md. Sharif Dad Khan Mr. Kazi Shahidul Karim Mr. Ruhul Amin Chowdhury Director MD & COO, GDL MD & COO, FPPL COO, Viyellatex Garments COO, Viyellatex Fabrics COO, Interfab COO, Ruthna Tea Estate DGM, VSL DGM, Commercial, VG Head of ISS x Organogram of Knitting department: DGM/AGM Manager / Asst. Manager (Store) Sr. Executive / Executive Manager / Asst. Manager (Prodn & Plan) Manager/Asst. manager Sr. Fitter / Fitter Sr. Executive (Prodn, Plan & Sample) Knitting Master/Executive (Flat) Asst. Fitter Needle man Servicing man Servicing helper Jr. Executive (Yarn) Store Asst. (Yarn) Loader (Yarn) Jr. Executive (Grey Fabric) Store Asst. (Grey Fabric) Batch Helper/Loade Executive/Jr. Executive (Prodn, Plan & Sample) Sr. Fitter / Fitter Operator/Asst. Operator Helper Sr. Supervisor / Supervisor Sr.Operator / Operator Asst. operator Sample supervisor Sample asst. Production Helper
  13. 13. x Organogram of dyeing: DGM/AGM Manager Planning Asst. Manager Sr. Executive/ Executive Jr. Executive Sr. Supervisor/ Supervisor Production Asst. Manager Sr. Executive/ Executive Jr. Executive Sr. Supervisor/ Supervisor Store Asst. Manager Sr. Executive/ Executive Jr. Executive Sr. Supervisor/ Supervisor Washing Asst. Manager Sr. Executive/ Executive Jr. Executive Sr. Supervisor/ Supervisor x Organogram of finishing:
  14. 14. Management system: x x x x Intercom telephone Fax Written letters & Oral Shift change: Viyellatex limited maintain three shifts at every day‘s work. So the shifts are changed at every three hours. The shifting times are – A Shift – 06:00 – 14:00 B Shift – 14:00 – 22:00 C Shift – 22:00 – 06:00 General shift & Office time: 09.00 – 18.00 Responsibilities of production officer: x x x x x x x x x x To give dyeing program slip. To match production sample with target shade. To collect production sample for sample matching next production. To observe dyed fabric during finishing running & also after finishing. To identify disputed fabrics & report to P.M/G.M for necessary actions. To discuss with P.M. about overall production if necessary. To sign the store requisition & delivery challan in the absence of P.M. Also to execute overall floor works. To maintain loading/unloading khata. Any other assignment given by higher authority. Job Description of P.O & S.P.O: Job title: Production officer & Senior Production officer Report to: Production Manager Purpose: To control shift according to the plan made by the production manager Territory: Dyeing section (major) Batching and Finishing section (minor) Nature and Scope: Responsible for the production during his own shift with good quality and minimum time. Environment: Production officer has to work under huge stress. He has to work in acute heat under physical and mental pressure. Also he has to work in acute heat all the year round.
  15. 15. Job Description of Production Officer: Report To: Sr. production officer Job Summary: To plan, execute & follows up the production activities & control the quality production with related activities. Duties x x x x x x x & Responsibilities: Overall supervision of dyeing, finishing production. Batch preparation & PH check. Dyes & chemical requisition issue & check. Write fabrics loading & loading time from m/c. Program making, sample checking, color management. Control the supervisors, operator, asst. operator & helpers of dyeing m/c. And also any other work as & when required by the management. Job Description of Sr. Production Officer: Report To: P.M (production) Job Summary: To plan, execute & follows up the production activities & control the quality production with related activities. Duties & Responsibilities: x x x x x x x Overall supervision of dyeing, finishing production. Checks the different log books of different areas & report to management. Checks the sensitive parameters of different machine for smooth dyeing. Checks out the plan to control the best output from supervisor & workers. To trained up & motive the subordinates how to improve the quality production. Maintenance of machine & equipment. Any other works & when required by the management. Control the supervisors, operator, asst. operator & helpers of dyeing m/c.
  16. 16. Process flow chart for knitting: Yarn in package form x Place the package yarn in the yarn x Feeding the yarn x Set the machine as per design & GSM x Knitting x Withdraw the roll fabric and weighing x Roll marking x Inspection x Numbering Yarn types: 1. 100% cotton x x x 2. Man made x x 3. Blended x x x Carded Combed Rotor Polyester Lycra CVC (Cotton + Polyester) PC (Polyester + Cotton) Mélange (Cotton + Viscose) x White/Ecru Mélange (Dyed fiber – 0.2-2.0%) x Grey Mélange (Dyed fiber – 2.0-15.0%) x Anthra Mélange (Dyed fiber – 15.0-30.0%) 4. Regenerated cellulose x Viscose x Modal Commonly used yarn count: x x x x x Carded yarn – 18,20,24,26,30,32,34,36 Ne Combed Yarn – 20,22,24,26,28,30,32,34,36,40 Ne Rotor yarn– 7,10,12,14,16 Ne Polyester yarn – 75,100,150 Denier Lycra yarn– 20,30,40,50,70 Denier
  17. 17. Sources of yarn: 1. Cotton (Both Carded & Combed) - Viyellatex Spinning Limited 2. Polyester - Kader Synthetic - China 3. Mélange - Patartoli - Prime - Sohagpur - Thermax 4. Lycra - China - Korea - Taiwan - Japan List of machines: Name of the machine Single jersey Fleece Double jersey Auto striper (S/J) Auto striper (Rib) Flatbed knitting machine Fabric inspection machine Quantity 35 10 19 06 02 25 03 Brands of the machine: x x x x x x x Fukuhara Matsuya Mayer & Cie. Keumyong Pai Lung Terrot Uzu
  18. 18. Specification of different types of machine: Single Jersey machine: Brand name: Pai Lung Origin: Taiwan Model: PL XS 3B Feeder: 108 Gauge: 24 Diameter: 36‖ No of needle: 2712 Machine speed: Up to 35 rpm Auto Striper machine: Brand name: Pai Lung Origin: Taiwan Model: PLXD CS 6U Feeder: 54×6c Gauge: 18 Diameter: 36‖ No of needle: 2040 Machine speed: Up to 16 rpm Fabric Inspection machine: Brand: Uzu cloth inspection machine Manufacturer: AATPR Industry Co. Ltd. Model: UZ 900-3 Origin: Thailand Double Jersey machine: Brand name: Pai Lung Origin: Taiwan Model: PL XRA CE Feeder: 76 Gauge: 18 Diameter: 38‖ No of needle: 2124 Machine speed: Up to 24 rpm Flat Bed Knitting machine: Brand name: Matsuya Origin: Japan Model: M-100 Feeder: 6 Gauge: 14 Head: 2 Bed length: 102‖ Different parts of the machine: 1. Start/Stop/Inch buttons: This set of buttons is used to start/stop/slow running of machine. 2. Ratchet lever: This lever permit the hand movement of the machine. 3. Auto stop motion: Automatic three stages 24v yarn motion, positive feed tapes & knitting zone. Indicator lamps are on individual stop motions & on the main control panel. While the yarn is broken we can find the location which is broken as well as to repair, meanwhile the motor can brake and stop operation at once to keep the security of the machine. 4. Side creel: For each feed, there are two cones of yarn on the creel. 5. Tensioning device: The yarn goes to the feeder of the machine from the creel through different tensioning devices. These devices are used to maintain the proper tension of the yarn. 6. Feeder: Feeder is used to feed the yarn. 7. VDQ pulley: This is one of the important parts of the machine. Through VDQ pulley, the GSM of the fabric is controlled. If the value of the VDQ pulley is increased, then the loop
  19. 19. length of the fabric will be less and the GSM of the fabric will be high. Vice versa for make low GSM fabric. 8. Auto counter: Two shift revolution with display counter with predetermined stop, to settle freely the weight or yardage of fabric. 9. Variable speed drive with machine break: Transistor inverter provided for free controlled, the process of ―V.S. motor-drive from slow operation to normal operation‖ is quite & fast brake to prevent damages in case of needles or yarn breakage. 10. Fabric take up system: With variable speed control by a belt drive set canbe adjusted the speed for different course of fabric-constant and uniform fabric tension. Points should be considered for GSM changing: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. VDQ (Variable Dia. Quality Control) pulley diameter. Yarn count. Machine gauge. Cam position Take up motion Factors that should be considered for changing of fabric design: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Cam arrangement changing. Needle butt setting & needle dropping. Using of different colors in selected feeder. Using of jacquard mechanism. Size of the loop shape Recommended points of buyer: When a buyer orders for fabric then they mention some points related to production and quality. Before production of knitted fabric, these factors are needed to consider. Those are as follows- 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Diameter of the fabric Design of the fabric GSM of the fabric Total wt. of the fabric Yarn count Types of yarn Color of the fabric Finishing of fabric. Handling & fastness property.
  20. 20. End products of the knitting machine: 1. Single Jersey machine: - Plain jersey - Lycra jersey - Single Lacoste - Double Lacoste - Single Pique - Double Pique - Fleece (Three thread) - Terry Fleece (Two thread) 2. Double Jersey machine: - 1×1 Rib - 2×1 Rib - Interlock - Mesh - Flat back Rib - Waffle 3. V-bed knitting machine: - Collar - Cuff - Emboss Production parameters: - - - - - - - Machine Diameter Machine rpm (revolutions per minute) No. of feeds or feeders in use Machine Gauge Count of yarn Required time (Machine running time) Machine running efficiency Production calculation: 1. Production/shift in kg at 100% efficiency: x RPM x No. of Feeder x No. of Needle x SL(mm) x 60 x 12 10 x 2.54 x 36 x 840 x 2.2046 x Yarn count RPM x No. of Feeder x No. of Needle x SL(mm) 3527.80 x Yarn countx 2. Production/shift in meter: Course / min . Course / cm RPM x No. of Feeder x 60 x 12 x Efficiency x Course / cm x 100 x 3. Fabric width in meter: Total no. of wales Wales / cm x 100 Total no. of Needles knitting x Wales / cm x 100 x
  21. 21. Methods of increasing production: There are few ways of increasing production of the machine – 1. By increasing m/c speed: Higher the m/c speed faster the movement of needle and ultimately production will be increased. 2. By increasing the number of feeder: If the number of feeder is increased in the circumference of cylinder, then the number of courses will be increased in one revolution at a time 3. By using machine of higher gauge: The more the machine gauge, the more the production is. So by using machine of higher gauge, production can be increased. 4. By imposing automation in the m/c: a) Quick starting & stopping for efficient driving system. b) Automatic m/c lubrication system for smoother operation. c) Photo electric fabric fault detector. 5. By imposing other developments: a) Using creel-feeding system. b) Applying yarn supply through plastic tube that eliminates the possibilities of yarn damage. c) Using yarn feed control device. d) Using auto lint removal. Commonly found fabric faults in the Knitting floor: x Needle mark: Appearance: Spot of line is found at wales direction. Causes: x Due to decayed needle. x Due to bended needle. x Due to old needle. Remedies: x Change the needle. x Sinker mark: Appearance: Spot of line is found at wales direction. Causes: x Due to decayed sinker. x Due to faulty adjustment of sinker with sinker cam. Remedies: x Change the sinker. x Make necessary adjustments of sinker with sinker cam as required.
  22. 22. x Hole: Appearance: Hole on the fabric. Causes: x If needle latch is not working properly. x Due to uneven tension. x Due to needle head breakage. x Due to improper cam setting. Remedies: x Change the needle. x Adjust the tension as required. x Adjust cam setting properly. x Loop: Appearance: As like small size holes. Causes: x Due to uneven tension. x If cam box is loose, during the cam box setting. x Any type of problem is occurred in m/c setting. Remedies: x Change the needle & sinker. x Adjust the tension as required. x Baree Mark/Patta: Appearance: Found stripe effect towards the coarse on knit fabric. Causes: x If yarns of different lot are mixing together. x If different counts of yarn are mixing together. Remedies: x Operator should be careful about that different lots of yarn cannot be mix up. x Yarn should be tested before knitting. x Slub: Appearance: A thick place is made in a particular place on fabric surface. Causes: x Due to using of low quality yarn. Remedies: x Yarn quality should be good. x Yarn testing should be done very carefully. x Thick & Thin Place: Appearance: Higher & lower counts of yarn are knitted at a time. Causes: x Due to using of different counts of yarn during knitting. x Due to irregular yarn dia.
  23. 23. Remedies: x Operator should be careful during the operation that for a particular design. x Count of every cone package should be same. x Tension Mark: Appearance: Found spot at wales direction of knit fabric. Causes: x Due to excessive tension in yarn. Remedies: x Tension should be adjusted as required. x Oil Spot: Appearance: Oil spot on fabric surface. Causes: x Due to excessive bleeding of oil in the m/c. x If there is any type of problem in needle & sinker, oil can be bled on the fabric. Remedies: x Change the faulty needle & sinker. x Machine should be cleaned time to time. x Pin Hole: Appearance: Small size of hole as like pin. Causes: x Due to wrong adjustment of cam box. x If the yarn quality is low especially yarn with less strength causes pin hole in the fabric. Remedies: x Make required adjustment of cam box. x Use high quality yarn. x Lycra Out: Appearance: A Lycra yarn is missing at vertical direction. Causes: x If Lycra yarn missed or breakage happened. Remedies: x Operator should be more cautious to make necessary adjustment or replacement or joining the yarn. x Lycra Drop: Appearance: Tension caused in Lycra out. Causes: x Due to excessive tension on Lycra yarn when knitted (within its tolerance limit). Remedies: x Make necessary adjustments to the tension of Lycra yarn.
  24. 24. x Set Off: Appearance: Found loop gap on knit fabric. Causes: x Set off occurred when needle & sinker both inactive simultaneously in the process of knitting. Remedies: x Machine should be stopped as early as possible. Remarks: Grey fabrics from knitting are used in dyeing. So the quality of the fabrics should be good so that there are no faults found for knitting of fabric after dyeing process. Also the GSM and diameter of the fabric should meet the requirements.
  25. 25. Batching: Batching is the process to get ready the fabrics which should be dyed and processed for a particular lot of a particular order. In other words— Batching means separation of fabric according to specification, Dyeing machine capacity & availability, urgency of the order. Batch contains body of garments as well as collar-cuffs according to the design. Types of Batching: 1. Solid 2. Assorted Batch Quantity = Total required quantity X Dia Quantity/ Total quantity Batch Ratio = Total batch quantity + total parts/ Batch Quantity Batch distribution: x x x Batch is distributed according to nozzle capacity. During distribution maximum equilibrium of different parts is taken into consideration. Lycra fabrics are slit-cut to heat-set. That‘s why before dyeing they need to re-sewn. This is done by ‗Bag-sewing‘ machine. Tubular fabrics are turned into their backside by turning machine. x Function or Purpose of Batch Section: - - - To receive the grey fabric roll from knitting section or other source. Turn the grey fabric if required. To prepare the batch of fabric for dyeing according to the following criteria – x Order sheet (Received from buyer) x Dyeing shade (color or white, light or dark) x M/C capacity x M/C available x Type of fabrics(100% cotton, PE, PC, CVC) x Emergency To send the grey fabric to the dyeing floor with batch card. To keep records for every previous dyeing. - - Proper batching criteria: x x x x To To To To use maximum capacity of existing dyeing m/c. minimize the washing time or preparation time & m/c stoppage time. keep the no. of batch as less as possible for same shade. use a particular m/c for dyeing same shade. Batch management: Primarily batching is done by dyeing manager taking the above criteria under consideration. Batch section in charge receives this primary batch plan from dyeing manager. Sometime planning is adjusted according to m/c condition or emergency.
  26. 26. Machines used in Batching: 1. Bag Sewing machine: There are total 2 sewing machines— Brand: Juki, Model: G39/0141 Power: 10A, 230V Type: 2 Needle 2 Looper chain stitches. 1 Needle 2 looper in use. Origin: Japan Brand: Pegasus, Model: M7S2-181 Specification: 2 Needle 4 Loopers. 1 Needle 2 Looper in use Device: BT/88 Origin: Japan 2. Turning machine: There are two turning machines also. Both of them have same specification. Brand Name M/c Speed Model Max up clothing Company Origin : Taida : 300-500m/min : DF 200 : 150 kg : Shandong Taida Dyeing & Finishing Machinery Co. Ltd. : China 3. Light box: Brand: Verivide Model: CAC60 No. of light sources: 4, TL84, D65, F, UV Serial no.: E 614506 Manufacturing year: 2002 Power: 220-230V, 270W Origin: England
  27. 27. Layout plan of dyeing floor Number of machine: Turning machine: 02 Bulk dyeing machine: 15 Sample dyeing machine: There are two brands of dyeing machine used in Viyellatex. They are: 1. Fong‘s 2. Thies Fong‘s machines are from China and Thies machines are from Germany.
  28. 28. Number of Fong‘s Machine: Bulk machine: 10 Sample machine: 6 Total number of Thies machine: Bulk machine: 5 Sample machine: 1 Total length of dyeing floor: 412 feet Total width of dyeing floor: 34 feet Area of the dyeing floor: 412×34 = 14008 square feet. Production per day: • • • Maximum Loading capacity 100% (11.36 tons) Possible maximum loading 80% (9.088 tons) Total production per days (3 shifts) = 9.088 x 2.5 (considering 2.5 batch in 3 shifts) = 22.72 tons. Bulk machine specification M/C No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Brand Fong‘s Thies Thies Thies Thies Thies Fong‘s Fong‘s Fong‘s Fong‘s Fong‘s Fong‘s Fong‘s Fong‘s Fong‘s Model ECO 38 2T Farbavessel ECOSOFTPLUS Farbavessel ECOSOFTPLUS Farbavessel ECOSOFTPLUS Farbavessel ECOSOFTPLUS Farbavessel ECOSOFTPLUS ECO 61T ECO 61T ECO 61T HSJ-4T HSJ-3T HSJ-SR-2T HSJ-SR-6T HSJ-SR HSJ-SR Year of Mfg. 2003 2004 2003 2002 2002 2002 2005 2005 2005 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 Origin China Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany China China China China China China China China China Capacity Kg 500 1000 1000 250 500 750 200 250 750 1120 840 560 1680 840 1120 No. of Nozzle 2 4 4 1 2 3 1 1 3 4 3 2 6 3 4 Maxm temp 0C 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 Maxm Pressure Dimension KPa(inch) 380 550 550 550 550 550 380 380 380 350 350 350 350 350 350 12×18 20×18 20×18 12×18 14×18 16×18 9×18 9×18 20×18 21×18 18×18 15×18 33×18 18×18 24×18
  29. 29. Sample machine specification M/C No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Brand Fong‘s Thies Fong‘s Fong‘s Fong‘s Fong‘s Fong‘s Model ALLFIT-30 N/A ALLFIT-30 ALLFIT-30 ALLFIT-30 ALLFIT-30 ALLFIT-30 Year of Mfg. 2003 2002 2005 2005 2006 2007 2007 Origin China Germany China China China China China Capacity Kg 25 25 30 120 30 60 60 Maximum Maximum Temp.Pressure 0CKPa 140400 140 140 140 140 140 140 350 400 400 350 350 350 Dimension (Inch) 9×13 6×13 3.5×11 6×16 4×11 4×15 4×15 MACHINE DESCRIPTION Technology of the dyeing machine: Viyellatex dyeing unit used special types of dyeing machine. In these machine, the Jet and Winch technology is combined i.e. during dyeing, dye liquor circulate through the machine like jet dyeing machine also the fabric is circulated through the winch as like winch dyeing machine. This combination is made for better dyeing of the fabric. Main parts of dyeing machine: The main parts of the dyeing machine are- 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Main tank Reserve tank/PT tank Additional/Mixing tank Main pump Heat exchanger Filter
  30. 30. The description of the main parts of the machine is as follows – Main tank: Main tank is the largest part of the dyeing machine. This is the main dye bath which contains the dye liquor & the fabric. The size of the tank depends on the capacity of the machine. Liquor & fabric circulates in the main tank during dyeing process. There may have different number of nozzle connected to main tank according to the machine capacity. Each nozzle may handle 300- 900m of fabric. Fig: Main Tank Reserve/PT tank: This tank is mainly used for storage of hot water that will be used for the dyeing of fabric. The temperature of water in the P.T. tank is maximum 800C. By using this hot water in the machine during dyeing there is a reduction of time for heating the water in the main tank which results in the reduction of total dyeing time.
  31. 31. Additional/Mixing tank: This tank is mainly used for storage of hot water that will be used for the dyeing of fabric. The temperature of water in the P.T. tank is maximum 800C. By using this hot water in the machine during dyeing there is a reduction of time for heating the water in the main tank which results in the reduction of total dyeing time. Fig: Mixing tank Main pump: This is one of the essential parts of the dyeing machine. This is used for displacing of dye bath liquor causing a flow from main tank to heat exchanger through filter. That means the pump ensures the liquor circulation throughout the dyeing process. Heat exchanger: During the different stage of dyeing (also pre-treatment, after-treatment), there is a need of increasing or decreasing the temperature of dye liquor gradually. We cannot use liquor of required final temperature directly because there may be possibilities of thermal shocking of the fabric. So, the temperature should be increased or decreased in a controlled manner. This controlling is done by heat exchanger. Actually it is an indirect heater. During the circulation of dye bath liquor, the liquor passes through the heat exchanger. Mechanism of Heat-exchanger: 1. Heat-exchanger consists of no. of tubes surrounded by a shell body. 2. Two fluids of different temperature flow through the heat exchanger. The fluids can be either gas or liquid on either the shell side or the tube side. 3. One flows through the tube other flows through the shell. 4. The temperature of the two fluids is different, so transfer of heat occurs from one fluid to another through shell.
  32. 32. Figure: Mechanism of Heat exchanger Figure: Heat exchanger 5. The fluids which flow through the tubes come in and pass out from the heat-exchanger on the same side. On the other hand the fluid used in shell comes in and pass out from the different side of the shell. Filter: During the treatment of fabric in the machine, lots of lose fiber is produced from the fabric. To eliminate these lose fibers, filter is used. It also reduces the lose fibers loads from the fabric. If the lose fibers are not eliminated, then the running of fabric is disturbed & entanglement can be occurred. Ways of Liquor Flow from Additional Tank: Liquor from additional tank flow to the main tank is mainly done in two ways. They are – 1. Inject: In this system, all amounts of liquor flows directly to the main tank at a time. This is done when the chemicals need to pass at short time. This system ensures high rate of flow of the liquid. 2. Dosing: In this system, the liquor does not pass to the main tank at a time. There are few chemicals which have very severe action to the fabric if it flows directly like sodium hydroxide (NaOH). These chemicals pass to the main tank in an increasing or decreasing way with time so that the harsh effect of these chemicals is minimized. There are three 3. types of dosing: - Linear Dosing - Progressive Dosing - Decreasive Dosing
  33. 33. Linear dosing Progressive dosing Decreasive dosing Liquor circulation system: During the treatment of fabric, the liquor is circulated throughout the machine. At first, the required amount of liquor is taken in the main tank. Then the liquor goes to the filter through pump and then it goes to the heat-exchanger. From the heat-exchanger, the liquor goes to the main tank through nozzle. The schematic diagram of liquor circulation system is given below- Figure: Liquor circulation system Types of machine according to temperature: x x Atmospheric machine High temperature machine
  34. 34. There are one atmospheric machine of Fong‘s brand in Viyellatex. Others are high temperature machine (both Fong‘s and Thies). Also there are special types of high temperature machine used in Viyellatex named as Fong‘s High Speed Jumbo (HSJ) Machine. Features of Fong‘s atmospheric machine: x x x x x x x The machine is designed for pre-treatment, dyeing & after-treatment under atmospheric condition. Nozzle is sized for smooth passing through by the fabric and extensive exchange with the liquid. Two standard nozzle sizes with sufficiently large diameter are available. Circulation pump is sized for heavy fabric Production capacity: 500 kg maximum per batch. Maximum temperature: 98o C. Maximum pressure: 1 atm. Figure: Fong‘s atmospheric machine Features of high temperature machine (Both Thies & Fong‘s): x x x x x x x x The machine is designed for the pretreatment, dyeing and after treatment which can provide temperature up to 1400C. Nozzle lead gets interlocked after temperature exceeds 800C. Loading per nozzle 250kg Design pressure: 350-550kpa Design Temp : 1400C Hydraulic Test Pressure: 585Kpa Manufacturer: Germany (Thies), China (Fong‘s) No of nozzles: 1-8.
  35. 35. Figure: High temperature machine Features of Fong‘s High Speed Jumbo (HSJ) machine: x x x x x x x x x Variable Loading (VL) storage chamber design gives extra capacity to carry loading up to 280 kg per tube Heat Exchanger of extreme efficiency gives the largest heating rate with minimum heat loss to the environment Multi Saving Rinsing System (MSR) shortens the dye cycle and reduces the water consumption Advanced Intelligent Rinsing System (MIR) controls the rinsing water consumption and shortens the rinsing process Highly optimized machine structure reaches the lowest possible liquor ratio of 1:4.5 to run the machine. Dissolution pumps for proper circulation of liquor. safety valve test:350kpa Maximum fabric speed: 400 m/min. Maximum working temperature: 140 °C Figure: Fong‘s high speed jumbo machine
  36. 36. Some additional features of Fong‘s HSJ machine: There are few additional features of Fong‘s HSJ machine which gives more productivity, better control and less stoppage times of the machine. These are – x x x x Dissolution Pump Variable Loading Chamber MIR Rinsing System MSR Rinsing System Dissolution pump: x x x x Dissolution pump makes the chemical concentration (salt, soda, dye, auxiliaries) low before passing it to the main tank from additional tank. This concentration is reduced in 1:4 ratios (liquor from additional tank: liquor from main tank). As a result rate of chemical dosing become slow which gives better fixation. Thus better color yield and even dyeing can obtain. Figure: Dissolution pump Variable Loading Chamber: This is one of the advanced techniques of space utilization of the round shaped dyeing machine. Experiment shows that the volume of the chamber can be increased per nozzle up to 30 Kg of fabric depending upon the linear density of the fabric. Few advantages of variable loading chamber are – x x x Better alignment of the fabric. More loading facility. Less entanglement of the fabric.
  37. 37. Linear Density Up to 350 g/m Up to 350-450 g/m Above 450 g/m Variable chamber setting 0% 50% 100% Figure: Schematic diagram of Variable Loading Chamber MIR Rinsing System: x x x x Multi-function intelligent rinsing system. If the temperature is below 80°C It is a Low Level Continuous Rinsing Shorten Rinsing time. Save Rinsing Water. Fill and Drain at the same time at low level. Figure: MIR Rinsing System
  38. 38. MSR Rinsing System: x x x x Multi- saving rinsing system. If the temperature above 80°C it is Combined cooling and Rinsing at high temperature. Save Steam in Hot Rinsing. Rinsing efficiency at higher temperature is faster, so rinsing time is shortened. Comparison between Fong‘s and Thies dyeing machine: Fong‘s Have heat-exchanger for preparation tank. Liquor pass through the filter & heat- exchanger Have dissolution pump for mixing chemical in 1:4 ratio. Horizontal heat-exchanger. Two additional tank. Variable loading chamber. Loading per nozzle 280 kg (HSJ). Winch speed can be above 450 m/min. Thies Such facilities are not present. Filter and heat-exchanger are separate. Not present. Vertical heat-exchanger. One additional tank. Not present. Loading per nozzle 250 kg Up to 350 m/min. Calculation of Winch Speed: Let, Fabric weight = 1000kg Per nozzle fabric weight =250kg Fabric Diameter (open) = 56 inch Cycle time or Dwell time = 2.5-3.0 m per minute G.S.M =180 We know, GSM = gram / meter2 = gram / (Length × Diameter) Or, Length = gram / (GSM × Diameter) = (250×1000×100) / (56×2.54×180) = 976 meters. So, Winch or Reel Speed = Per nozzle Fabric length / Cycle time = 976 / 3 meter/minute = 325 meter/minute. Calculation of Linear Density: Linear Density = (Diameter×GSM×2.54) / 100 gram/meter
  39. 39. Production planning and sequence of operation: Dyeing process flow chart: Grey fabric receive from knitting section ↓ Batching ↓ Turning of fabric (only for Single Jersey) ↓ Selection machine no ↓ Fabric loading ↓ Select production program ↓ Select recipe for dyeing ↓ Pretreatment ↓ Dyeing ↓ After treatment ↓ Fabric Unload Production Parameters: 1) PH - Scouring P – 12.5 - During H2O2 bleaching P 10.5-11 - Enzyme P – 4.5 - Before dyeing (Leveling) P – 6.5H H H H - Salt PH – 7-8 - During reactive dyeing PH 10.5-11.5 - During disperse dyeing PH 4.5-6.0 - Softener PH – 6.5 2) Temperature: -For cotton fabric scouring: 105ºC x During NaOH addition 65oC x During H2O2 addition 70oC x Peroxide killing at 80oC - Sequestering at 90oC - Bio-polishing at 55oC - For cotton dyeing: x Low brand – 45oC x Medium brand - 600C x Hot brand – 80oC - Migration for turquoise color at – 90oC - Optical brightening agent (OBA) at – 80oC - Polyester dying: 1000-1300C - Softener at – 45oC
  40. 40. 3) Time: - - - - For white fabric 4-5hrs For 100% cotton 8-10hrs For 100% polyester 5hrs CVC 2 parts 13-14 hrs. 4) M: L ratio: - For reactive dyeing M: L ratio maintained between 1:6 Pretreatment process: Typical recipe for scouring: (all in g/l) Felson NOF – 0.7 Kapazon H53 – 0.5 Caustic – 2 H2O2 – 2.5 Recorit wez/Peroxide killer – 0.75 Acetic acid – 0.8 Biopolish B-11 – 1.5 Securon 540 – 0.5 Pretreatment flow chart Fresh water and fabric Load at 45oC x Temperature raise to 60oC x Detergent, Peroxide Stabilizer inject x Run for 5 min x Inject Caustic and run 5 min x Raise temperature to 70oC x H2O2 inject and run 5 min x Temperature raise to 105oC x Run for 30 min x Lower the temperature to 80oC x Bath drain x Peroxide killer inject and run 10 min x Rinsing and unload the fabric.
  41. 41. Curve for scouring of fabric: Types of shade: x x x x Light Medium Dark White Dyeing process Isothermal dyeing Migration dyeing
  42. 42. Isothermal Dyeing evel in at 60 C ↓ Color dosing 60˚C x 35 ( linear dosing)ʹ ↓ Run time 60˚C x 15ʹ ↓ Salt dissolving 15 (recirculation process)ʹ ↓ Run 15ʹ ↓ Soda dosing for 50 ( 70% progressive)ʹ ↓ Check the sample after 10ʹ Migration Dyeing evel in at 60 C ↓ Color dosing for 35ʹ ↓ Run time 10ʹ ↓ Salt dissolving 15 min ↓ Run time 10ʹ ↓ Temperature rise at 80oC ↓ Run time 20 ʹ ↓ Temperature drop at 60oC Order of Color and Salt dissolving/dosing: x In case of 0-1.0 % (light) shade color is dosed first then salt dissolving is performed. x In case of 1-2.5% (medium) shade salt is dissolved at first then color is dosing. x In case of 3 & above % (dark) shade salt is dissolved at first then color is dosing. Dyeing procedure for dark shade: (Black) Typical recipe: (all in g/l) A41/Leveling agent – 0.5 RS Yell 3RFN – 0.424 % RS Red 3BFN – 0.21 % RS Black EDGH – 9.27 % Salt – 90 Soda ash – 5 Caustic – 1.75
  43. 43. Process Flow Chart Fresh Water taken at 60oC ↓ Inject Leveling agent and keep for 7 min ↓ Salt dosing 20 min & runtime 20 min ↓ Color dosing 35 min and run for 15 min ↓ Soda dosing for 30 min (70% progressive) and run 10 min ↓ Caustic dosing for 25 min and run 20 min ↓ Sample check after 10 min ↓ Wash and unload. Curve for black shade (dark) cotton dyeing Dyeing procedure for Light/Medium Shade: Typical recipe: SV/Sequestering agent – 1.5 g/l ADM/Leveling agent – 1 g/l R Yell RR – 0.106 % R BR Blue R (SPL) – 0.172 % Salt – 24 g/l Soda ash – 8 g/l
  44. 44. Flow Chart: Fabric load and then Water taken Rise temperature to 60oC PH control to 6.5 Inject leveling agent and run for 10 min Color dosing for 45 min + add ½ SV Run the bath 10 min Other ½ SV inject and run 20 min ½ Salt add and run 10 min Extra ½ Salt addition and run for 20 min Soda dosing for 60 min After 10 min Sample check Rinsing and unloading Curve for Cotton part Dyeing
  45. 45. Production flow chart for white shade: Typical recipe: (all measurement in g/l) Felson NOF – 0.5 Kapazon H53 – 0.5 Caustic – 2.5 H2O2 – 6 4BK/Whitening agent – 0.15 Acetic acid – 1 Biopolish B-11 – 1.5 Securon-540 – 0.5 FPG/Softener– 1.5 Process flow chart Detergent, Peroxide stabilizer added at 600C x Fabric load and run for 5 min x Caustic dosing for 5 min at 600C x Temperature rasied to 70oC x Peroxide added and raise temperature to 80oC x Optical brightening agrnt dosing for 10 min and temperature raise to 105oC x Run for 50 min and lower temperature to 80oC x Bath drain and water taken at 80oC x Rinsing for 10 min then bath drain x Fresh water taken and Acetic acid at 60oC x Run for 10 min then again drain the bath x oAcetic acid at 55 C and PH control to 4.5 x Enzyme is added and run for 50 min at 55oC x Bath drain and fresh water at 60oC x Inject Sequestering agent and temperature raise to 90oC x Run 10 min and add Softener, againg run 20 min x Fabric unload
  46. 46. Curve for White shade Dyeing of 100% Polyester Typical recipe : Antifoaming agent – 0.15 g/l T Yellow W-4G – 0.0012826 % DIA BR Red SF – 0.1333904 % T Blue WBLS – 0.00153912 % AB-45 – 0.5 g/l Process Flow Chart : Fabric Load x Water Level – As Required x Raise temp to 600C x Add Felson NOF x 0Raise 90 C & run time 10 min x Bath drain x Water in x Raise temperature to 450C x Add acetic acid & runtime 10 min x Bath drain x Water taking x Raise temperature to 450C x Dye dosing for 10 min
  47. 47. x Raise temperature to 1300C & run for 45 min x Drain x Water taking x 0Cooling at 70 C & sample cheek if shade ok then bath drop x Hydrose + Caustic at 800C for 20 min x Hot wash Curve for Polyester dyeing: Production flow chart for CVC: For CVC fabric dyeing, at first polyester part is dyed at 1300C according to dyeing procedure of 100% polyester dyeing. Then cotton part is first scoured & bleached. Then cotton part is dyed according to dyeing procedure of 100% cotton. Turquois color dyeing: Typical recipe: Kapavon CL/Anticreasing agent – 0.5 g/l SV/Sequestering agent – 1.5 g/l R BR Yell 3GL – 0.0814 % R Turq B1G – 3.4556 % R BR Blue RSPL – 3.14 % Salt – 90 g/l Soda – 5 g/l Caustic – 1.75 g/l
  48. 48. Flow chart of turquoise color dyeing: Water taken at 60oC and PH = 6.5 x Raise the temperature to 80oC x Ant creasing and Sequestering agent inject and run 10 min. x Color + ½ SV dosing for 50 min and run 10 min. x ½ SV inject and run for 10 min. x ½ Salt dosing for 10 min. then run 10 min. x Again ½ Salt dosing and run 10 min x Temperature to 90 C (1oC/min) and run 20 mino x Temperature reduce to 80oC x Soda dosing (70% progressive) for 40 min then run 10 min x Caustic dosing (70% Progressive) for 40 min then run 10 min x Sample check Curve for dyeing with turquoise color:
  49. 49. Washing of grey mélange fabric: Level in ↓ Wetting agent at 60ºC ↓ Bath Drain ↓ Level in ↓ PH 5.5 and temperature 55oC ↓ Enzyme ↓ Run time 60min ↓ Rise temperature to 80ºC ↓ MIR rinse for 15ʹ ↓ Level in ↓ Softener 45ºCx10' ↓ Bath Drain ↓ Cold rinse After treatment After treatment Process flow chart: Wash off at 95 C*15 (soaping agent 1-1.5 g/l) ↓ Overflow Rinse/MIR 50˚C x 15´ ↓ Acid 0.35 g/l ↓ Softening treatment 45 C x 20 at PH - 4.5~5 ↓ Rinse 15ʹʹ ↓ Unload After treatment process may vary according to byer requirement like whether softener, anticreasing or enzyme should be applied or not.
  50. 50. Process Loss: Fabric types Puma (CVC fleece) S.Oliver (s/j) G.Star (s/j) M&S (s/j) Espirit (s/j) Lycra (S/J) YID fabrics Grey mélange ( Puma & M&S) Grey mélange (G.Star) Loss of percentage 14% 13.5% 12% 10% 12% 14% 7% 10% 12% Common dyeing faults with their remedies: 1. Uneven dyeing: Causes: - Uneven pretreatment (uneven scouring & bleaching). - Rapid addition of Dyes and Chemicals. - Improper color dosing. - Using dyes of high fixation property. - Uneven heat-setting in case of synthetic fibers. - Lack of control on dyeing m/c Remedies: - By ensuring even pretreatment. - By ensuring even heat-setting in case of synthetic fibers. - Proper dosing of dyes and chemicals. - Proper controlling of dyeing m/c 2. Batch to Batch Shade variation: Causes: - Fluctuation of temperature. - Improper dosing time of dyes & chemicals. - Batch to batch weight variation of dyes and chemicals. - Dyes lot variation. - Improper reel speed, pump speed, liquor ratio. - Improper pretreatment. - Liquor ratio changed. - Different dyeing procedure for each batch.
  51. 51. Remedies: - Use standard dyes and chemicals. - Maintain the same liquor ratio. - Follow the standard pretreatment procedure. - Maintain the same dyeing cycle. - Identical dyeing procedure should be followed for the same depth of the Shade. - Make sure that the operators add the right bulk chemicals at the same time and temperature in the process. - The pH, hardness and sodium carbonate content of supply water should check daily. 2. Dye Spots: Causes: - - - Remedies: - - Not proper agitation of dyestuffs. Dye bath hardness. Operators ignorance about mixing and dissolving the dyestuffs and chemicals. Proper agitation of dyestuffs. Use adequate amount of sequestering agent to minimize hardness. Remarks: We have seen that in dyeing different production parameters like temperature, time, PH, M:L ratio etc. are strictly followed. Sometimes the original dyeing process may not be found according to dyeing curve as they produce some complicated shade. One thing is clearly noticeable that production manager and officers are committed to try their best for reducing production time.
  52. 52. Types of raw material: 1. 2. 3. 4. Yarn Fabric Dye stuff Chemical and auxiliaries List of Chemicals used in Viyellatex Serial No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Material Description Acetic Acid Caustic Soda Glauber Salt Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) Soda Ash Hydrose(BASF) Hydrose(China) Feloson -NOF Rucozen WBL INVADINE-LUN Nearpon BW-LF LUBRIMAX-TL Kappvon -CL BREVIOL PAM-N Kappazon -H-53 OXISTAB-C Invatex -PC Kappatex -PKS Rucorit WEZ Base Kilat Securon-540 GENENCOR BP NANO Genencor BF 1600L BIOPOLISH -B14 ALBAFLOW-JET PROFOAM-SLK Sarabid -LDR Kappquest -A41 OPTAVON SV CROSCOLOR ADM Rucozen -NZA DEKOL-SN Cycalonan -X-C-W ULYSIN S Protnin -FCE-375 Sapamine -CWS Nearsopht JS-100 KAPPASOFT-BD SAPAMINE-FPG Nearsopht -NI Rucofin -GWE Rucofin -HHS Agent Basic Chemicals Basic Chemicals Basic Chemicals Basic Chemicals Basic Chemicals Reduction Clearer M/C Wash Detergent Detergent Detergent Detergent Anti-creasing Anti-creasing Anti-creasing Stabilizer Stabilizer Peroxide Killer Peroxide Killer Peroxide Killer Sequestering Sequestering Enzyme Enzyme Enzyme Antifoam Antifoam Leveling Leveling Leveling Leveling Soaping Soaping Soaping Soaping Fixing Color Softener Color Softener Color Softener White Softener White Softener Silicon Softener Silicon Softener
  53. 53. 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 Syno White 4BK Uvitex -CB Uvitex -BAM Uvitex -BBT Uvitex -BHB ALVATEX-AB-45 ALBATEX-AR UNIVADINE-DIF Repellan SRF Repellan XL-E Adalin NI Foryl LN Common Salt Cogulant Lime BLUE J OCEAN MAGIC R AVOLAN IS Optical Brightener Optical Brightener Optical Brightener Optical Brightener Optical Brightener C.V.C Chemicals C.V.C Chemicals C.V.C Chemicals Stain release chemicals Stain release chemicals Stain release chemicals Stain release chemicals WTP Chemicals ETP Chemicals ETP Chemicals Washing Chemicals Washing Chemicals Dyes with Brand name Serial No. BEZEMA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Bezactive Yellow S-3R Bezaktive Red -S2B Bezaktive Red -S3B HUNTSMAN Cibacrone -Blue -FNR Cibacrone Yellow -F-4G Cibacrone Yellow -FN-2R NOVACRON BRILL BLUE H-GR NOVACRON BRILL. RED FN-3GL NOVACRON SCARLET FN-6G Terasil Black -WNS Terasil Navy -WRS Terasil Red -W-4BS Terasil Yellow -W4G TERASIL BLACK -SRL JIHUA Reactive Starfix Black-WM Reactive Starfix Red -3-BFN Reactive Starfix Red -EP REACTIVE STARFIX BLACK ED HG DYSTER Dianix Yellow -SEG Dianix Sport Red-SF DIANIX BRILL RED SF Remazol Blue-RGB
  54. 54. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Remazol Navy Blue-RGB Remazol Brill Red -F-3B Remazol Deep Black -RGB Remazol Red -RR Remazol Red-RGB Remazol Ultra Carmine -RGB Remazol Yellow -RR IMPOCOLOUE Imcozin Brill. Blue -VR Special Imcozin Golden Yellow -V-RNL Imcozin Red -E-3BF Imcozin Turquise -VG Imcozin Brill. Yellow -V-4GL SUNFIX Sunfix Red -MF-3BD Sunfix Red-SPD Sunfix Yellow -SPD Sunfix Navy Blue -MF-D Sunfix Navy Blue -SBF
  55. 55. Finishing Textile finishing, in a restricted sense, is the term used for a series of processes to which all bleached, dyed, printed & certain greige fabrics are subjected before they are put to market. It‘s one of the most important operations in knit processing. Objectives of Finishing: -Improving the appearance, luster, whiteness etc. -Improving the feel, this depends on the handle of the material & its softness, suppleness, fullness etc. -Wearing qualities, non- soiling, anticrease, antishrink comfort etc. -Special properties required for particular uses like water -proofing flame-proofing etc. -Covering of the faults in the original cloth. -Increasing the weight of the cloth. Effects of Finishing: -Easy care. -Crease recovery. -Dimensional stability. -Good abrasion resistance. -Improved tear strength. -Good sew ability. - Soft or stiff handle. -Shine or luster. Layout of Finishing Section:
  56. 56. Types of Finishing: x x Mechanical Finishing (Used to control dimension to improve appearance & handle) Chemical Finishing (Used to make glossy protection. To improve performance or serviceability) Finishing Process Knit fabrics require finishing process after dyeing. During dyeing all knit fabrics are dyed in tubular form. According to buyers requirement dyed fabrics are finished in either tubular form or Open-width form. Depending on which Finishing sections are separated into two sections – OPEN & TUBE section. 1. Tubular finish: Dewatering ↓ Dryer ↓ Tube Compactor 2. Open finish: Slitting ↓ Stenter ↓ Open Compactor 3. Special Finish (Raising & Sueding): Slitting ↓ Stenter ↓ Raising/Sueding ↓ Stenter ↓ Compacting No. of Machines of finishing section: Name of the m/c Dewatering Slitting Dryer Open compactor Tube compactor Rasing m/c Sueding m/c No. of the m/c 2 2 2 2 2 3 1
  57. 57. 1. Dewatering Machine Machine Specification: Brand - Heliot International Model – EXP 226 Origin – France Capacity – 3 tones/shift Function of Dewatering m/c: - - - - - Removal of excess water (70-75%) Removal of residual dirt De-twisting of the rope fabric Make the fabric Tubular from Rope form Improve the hand feel of the fabric by using softener Controlling points: - Width control (can be increased up to 3‘‘) - Pressure variation according to GSM (higher GSM-3-3.5bar, Lower GSM-2-2.5bar) - Fabric speed - 15m/min Checking points: x x x Hand feel Color spot Softener spot Fabric Path of Dewatering machine
  58. 58. 2. Slitting machine: Machine Specification: Brand - Corino Model - Strada Monticell 0.231 Origin - Italy Year - 2005 Capacity – 3 tones/shift Voltage – 400V Frequency – 50Hz Function: - Slit the fabric to make it into open form - Removal of excess amount of water - De-twisting of the tube fabric Fabric path of slitting machine Parameter: - Padder pressure (1-6 bar) - Fabric speed (200 m/min) - Maximum fabric width – 86‘‘-88‘‘ Checking points: - Needle mark - Dirty spot Power consumption: x Voltage: 400V x Frequency: 50Hz x Maximum power: 24kwatt
  59. 59. Dryer Machine: Two types of dryer machine: o Heliot dryer – for drying only tube fabric o Santex AG dryer – for drying both tube and open fabric Heliot Dryer: Specification– Brand – Heliot international Model – D700 HWT No of heating chamber – 3 No of burner – 3 No of nozzle - 35 Capacity – 8 tons/day Origin – France Fabric path of Heliot Dryer
  60. 60. Function: x x To dry the fabric To control the shrinkage Controlling points: x x x Overfeed Temperature (Maximum-1700C, Min- 900C) Fabric speed – Maximum 30m/min Checking Points: x Shade check x Fabric width Santex Dryer Specification: Brand: Santex AG Type: Santashink Year: 2008 No of chamber: 5 Capacity: 12 tones/day Origin: Switzerland Function: - To dry the fabric - To control fabric dia - To control Fabric shrinkage - To control the fabric GSM (can be increased 10-15 GSM) - To apply special chemical finish Fabric path of Santex AG dryer
  61. 61. Controlling points: x x x x x Overfeed (0 – 50%) Temperature (Maximum – 1800C) Vibration – 800 Fabric speed (Maximum 80m/min) Fabric width (open fabric Checking Points: x Shade check x Width check x GSM check Temperature: x White/light shade: 100-120`C x Medium shade; 110-130`C x Dark shade: 140-160`C Stenter Machine Two types of Stenter machine: 1. Bruckner Stenter machine 2. Sun Super Stenter machine Bruckner Stenter machine: Specification: Brand name: BRUCKNER Type/model no: 72276-0463 Country: Germany Total no of chamber: 5 Maximum temp.: 2500C Steam pressure: max. 2 bar Air pressure: max. 10 bar Capacity: 3 tones/shift Main parts of the machine: i) ii) iii) Feed zone - Centering device Chemical padding zone - Squeezing roller - Chemical tray Bowing control zone - Bowing roller (rubber roller, no of roller -2) - Sensor (no of sensor -6) - Uncurling roller Chain entry zone - Uncurling device (both side of the chain entry)iv)
  62. 62. v) vi) vii) - Sensor (both side of the chain entry) - Brush roller (for attaching the fabric with the pin of the chain, no of brush roller -4) - Selvedge gumming device with gum box under the chain entry Drying zone - Gas rotamatic burner (10) Cooling zone Delivery zone Function: x x x x x x x Drying GSM control Width control Shrinkage control Decrease spirality Decrease Bowing effect Heat setting for cotton lycra fabric Controlling points: - - - - x x x x Overfeed (45-60%) Temperature (max 2500C) Fabric Speed (18-28m/min) Padder pressure (1.5 – 2 bar) Checking points: Shade GSM Width Faults (Uneven, Color spot, Shrinkage, Hole, Needle mark etc.) Finishing parameters for different types of fabrics in BRUCKNER machine: Fabric type s/j s/j L.S/J L.S/J Pique Fleece/terry 1*1rib 2*2rib Interlock GSM 115-150 160-220 160-220 200-250 160-250 260-300 160-220 190-220 190-220 Dia 2''plus 2''plus 4''plus 4''plus 3''plus 4"plus 2"plus 2"plus 3"plus Temperature Overfeed 110-140ºC 120-170ºC 130-160ºC 140-160ºC 130-160ºC 140-170ºC 130-160ºC 140-160ºC 130-160ºC 45-55% 45-50% 60% 60% 50-55% 50-55% 50% 50% 50% Padder pressure 2 bar 2.5 bar 2 bar 2 bar 1.5-2bar 2 bar 2bar 2 bar 2 bar Speed 20-25 18-23 18-23 12-20 20-25 20-25 24-28 20-25 20-25 Blower RPM 60-70 65-75 60-70 65-75 70-80 70-80 70-80 60-70 70-80
  63. 63. Sunsuper Stenter Machine Specification: Brand name: SUN SUPER. Country: KOREA. Total no of chamber: 8 Capacity: 4 tones/shift Speed: Max. 110m/min Temperature: Max 2200C Steam pressure: 2 bar Air pressure: 10 bar Function: x x x x x x x x x To dry the fabric. Heat-set the synthetic fiber fabric. Controlling the width of fabric or maintain dimensional stability. Controlling the GSM of fabric. Skew ness & Bowing controlling of stripe fabric. Spirality & Twisting control. Fabric hand-feel modification-like-Softening or Hardening. Shade control. Gumming & Cutting. Controlling Points: x x x x Overfeed (0 – 50%) Temperature Speed Padder pressure Checking Points: x x x x Shade Width GSM Faults Finishing parameters for different types of fabrics in Sunsuper stenter: Fabric type s/j s/j L.s/j L.S/J GSM 115-150 160-220 160-220 200-250 Dia 2''plus 2''plus 4'plus 4'plus Temperature Overfeed 110-140ºC 120-170ºC 130-160ºC 140-160ºC 40-45% 40-45% 50% 50% Padder pressure 2 bar 2.5 bar 2 bar 2 bar Speed 30-35 25-30 25-30 24-28 Blower RPM 1100-1300 1200-1400 1200-1400 1200-1400
  64. 64. Pique Fleece/terry 1*1rib 2*2rib Interlock 160-200 260-300 160-220 190-220 190-220 3'plus 4"plus 2"plus 2"plus 3"plus 130-160ºC 140-170ºC 130-160ºC 140-160ºC 130-160ºC 40-45% 40-45% 45% 45% 50% 1.5-2bar 2 bar 2bar 2 bar 2 bar 25-30 20-25 24-28 20-25 20-25 1200-1400 1300-1400 1300-1400 1200-1400 1200-1400 Utility for stenter machines: x Gas x Electricity x Compressed air. Compacting machine: Two types of compacting machines are used in Viyellatex- 1. Open compacting machine 2. Tube compacting machine 1. Brand: FERRARO Type/model: COMPTEX-RE 2800 Country: ITALY Year: 2006 Capacity: 3.5 tons/shift 2. Brand: Heliot Overfeed: 50-60% Temperature: 90-1300C Teflon pressure: 16-18 PSI Origin: France Function: x x x x Fabric compaction Make glossy, luster effect To control the shrinkage To maintain proper width and GSM Controlling points: x x x Overfeed Temperature Speed
  65. 65. Checking Points: x Fabric Diameter x GSM x Shrinkage x Fabric faults Main parts of the machine: 1. Heating chamber 2. Blower (2, one at the entry chain zone for uncurling and another at the entry of compacting zone) 3. Synthetic blanket as a conveyor, 4. Folder 5. Exhaust fan 6. Unpinning cylinder 7. Belt cylinder 8. Uncurling device at entry of compacting zone. 9. sensor Finishing parameters for different types of fabrics in compactor (Ferraro, open width compactor): Fabric type s/j L.s/j Pique Color White color White color White color Speed 15-18 12-16 15-18 15-20 15-20 12-15 12-16 Overfeed 25-30 12-16 30-35 25-30 20-30 25-30 Full over feed Temperature 90-100ºC 90-100ºC 100-110ºC 100-110ºC 110-120ºC 100-110ºC 100-110ºC Blanket pressure 1.5-2(bar) 1.5-2(bar) 1.5-2(bar) 1.5-2(bar) 1.5-2(bar) 1.5-2(bar) 1.5-2(bar) Teflon pressure 33(P.S.I) 33(P.S.I) 33(P.S.I) 33(P.S.I) 33(P.S.I) 33(P.S.I) 33(P.S.I) Fleece/terry White color 1*1 rib 2*2 rib Interlock White color White color White color Tube compactor
  66. 66. Specification: x x x x x x x x x Brand name: HELIOT INTERNATIONAL Model: HC99PI Company: France. Capacity: 3 tones/shift To control the shrinkage To maintain proper width of fabric To control fabric GSM Overfeed Temperature Fabric Speed Checking points: x x x x Utility Fabric GSM Shrinkage Fabric diameter Crease mark Function: for Compacting machine: Controlling Points: x Steam x Electricity x Compressed Air x Special Finishing machine: 1. Sueding machine Specification: x x x x x x x x x x x Brand name: Lafer SPA Type/model no: GSI106 Company: Italy Year: 2002 Fabric speed: 110 m/min To make the fabric smooth(Face side of the fabric) To increase the handle property Improve heat insulation properties. Drum speed Fabric tension Plaiter tension Function: Controlling Points: Fabric path of sueding machine Rear Drag Roller Plaiter Front Drag Roller Taker in Drum Delivery Feed
  67. 67. Checking Points: x x x x Hole Improper Sueding Line mark Quality of Sueding 2. Raising machine: Specification: x x x x x x x x x x Brand name: Lafer SPA Type/model no: GRI 224A Country: Italy Year: 2003 Capacity: 3.5 tones/shift Fabric speed: 90rpm To produce pile on fabric surface To increase hand feel of the fabric To make the fabric soft Increase the warmth of the fabric. Controlling Points: x x x x x x x x Pile & Counter pile speed Drum speed Fabric tension Plaiter tension Hole Uneven raised Line mark Quality of raising Checking Points: Function: Fabric path of raising machine Inspection in Finishing Section Steps of Inspection: 1st step- Shade Check 2nd step- Running Shade Check 3rd Step- Dia Check 4th Step- Faults & G.S.M Check
  68. 68. Measurement of Fabric Faults: Four Point System: Defect LengthAssigned Point 0-3 1 point‖ 3.1-6 2 point‖ 6.1-9 3 point‖ >9.1 4 point‖ Calculation: Average points/100 yds. = total points /total inspected yds. * 100 Faults appeared in finishing Defects Hole Oil Stain Fly Yarn Barrie Mark Chemical Stain Dye Stain Patches Uneven Shade Crease Mark Neps Yarn Contamination Bowing Crumple Mark Source Knitting Knitting Knitting Knitting Dyeing Dyeing Dyeing Dyeing Dyeing + Knitting Fiber Problem Spinning Finishing Finishing
  69. 69. Working procedure of laboratory: Sample in (Fabrics) Check & note the Lot no, Style no, Item no & Collar Sample Preparation Run the test Physical test Color Fastness to wash Bursting strength Pilling Crocking Evaluate the sample Report Making Pass Deliver Fail Refinish Need to test again Wet lab Color Fastness to washing Pre-production Sample Test Prepared the report Pass Fail Go for the final Final sample Test prepared the report Pass Fail Refinish Need to test again Dimensional Stability. Prepare the sample Wash the sample according to buyer method. Tumble dry Keep the sample flat in the conditioned temperature At least four hours before, after measurement. Measure the sample Prepared the report Pass Ready to delivery Fail Refinish Need to test again
  70. 70. Machines used in Laboratory: 1. Digital button tester Imada, Japan 2. Apollo light & weather James H.heal & co. Ltd. Halifax, England. 3. Incubator Test name: Color fastness to water, sea water, perspiration &phenolic yellowing test Test method: ISO 105-E01, ISO 105-EO2, ISO 105-E04 etc. James H.Heal & Co ltd. Halifax, England. 4. Rubbing & Crocking tester Healink James H.Heal 5. Spray rating tester James H.Heal & Co ltd. 6. Pilling & Snagging tester M/c name: Orbitor pilling & snagging tester Test name: Pilling resistance test Test method: BSENISO 12945-1, B55811 James H.Heal & Co ltd. 7. Truburst Brusting strength tester James H.Heal & Co ltd. 8. Impulse Random tumble pilling tester James H.Heal & Co ltd. 9. Matendel abrasion tester James H.Heal & Co ltd. 10. Elmatear Digital tear tester (woven) James H.Heal & Co ltd. 11. Fastness tester (color fastness to wash) Graywash for 40ºC 12.Test name:Colour fastness to washing, dry cleaning M/C name: Rota wash Test method: ISO105-C06,ISO 105-D02 13. Washing machine Healink James H.Heal & Co ltd. Fig: Apollo Light & Weather Fig: Rubbing & crocking tester
  71. 71. 14. Lap dyeing m/c M/C name: Ahiba Nuance lab dyeing m/c James H.Heal & Co ltd. 15. Perspiration tester James H.Heal & Co ltd. 16. Digital PH tester 17. Lab rotator 18. Rotawash Test name: C/F to washing dry cleaning Test method: ISO 105-C06.ISO 105-DO2 Quality Assurance System: The quality assurance department is assigned to maintain consistency for uniform quality of the material in process & various stages of its manufacturing. Objects of quality control: x x x x x x Research Selection of raw material process control Process development Product testing Specification test Quality Control system mainly two types: 1. Online QC 2. Offline QC 1. Online QC Online quality control comprises with the raw material quality control and the process control. Raw material control: As the quality of product depends on the raw materials quality so we must provide the best quality raw material with an economical consideration. The fabric must be fault-free, with proper absorbency, whiteness as per requirement of the subsequent process. The Grey inspection report gives the condition of the raw fabric. Process control: The method chosen for the process must be provided with the necessary accurate parameters. Here the specific gravity, water level, residual hydrogen per oxide etc. at each stage is checked. Laboratory: Lab is the important part of a textile industry. Higher precision in a trial can aid easily to achieve the goal of the organization. Before bulk production a sample for the approval from industry is sent to the buyer. As per the requirement of the buyer the shade is prepared in a lab considering the economic aspects.
  72. 72. Lab line: 1. Standard sample: It is obtained from buyer. The sample is measured by the CCM to get the recipe. 2. Lab trial: Getting the recipe the lab officer produce lab trial and match with standard according to buyer requirement. Lab trial is made by the AHIBA dyeing machine. There are some programs for dyeing. The programs will be described later. 2. Offline QC Off-line tests: All the Offline tests for finished fabrics can be grouped as follows: A. Physical tests B. Chemical tests Physical Tests: x x x x x x x x x x GSM test Shrinkage test Spirality test Tensile strength Abrasion resistance Pilling resistance Button Strength Testing Crease resistance Dimensional stability Bursting strength test Chemical Tests: x x x x x x x x x x Color Fastness to washing. Color Fastness to light. Color Fastness to heat. Color Fastness to Chlorinated water. Color Fastness to water spotting. Color Fastness to perspiration. Color Fastness to Sea-water. Fiber analysis. PH test. Spray test (water repellency). Fabric Inspection: The fabric inspection is done for both grey and finished fabric. 1. Grey Fabric Inspection: Grey fabric inspection is performed according to 4-point system. 2. Finished Fabric Inspection: 4 point numbering system is followed for finished fabric inspection. Defects found in the final inspection: 1. Uneven shade 2. Oil spot 3. Neps 4. Crease mark 5. Machine Stoppage mark 6. Listing 7. Line mark 8. Pick missing 9. Double yarn 10. Dead cotton 11. Bowing 12. Fly yarn contamination
  73. 73. Procedure of the Different Tests: Physical test: 1. Measuring the Dimensional Stability (Shrinkage & Spirality): Sample: Two pieces of 50 cm x 50 cm fabric is taken for test. Procedure: a.Conditioning: Put the sample in table for 4 hrs. for conditioning before starting test. b.Cut the sample 50x50 cm & benchmark should be 35x35 cm. Stitch the sample (3 sides) by over lock sewing machine. c.Put sample in washing machine and run according to buyer‘s choice. d.Drying: All Buyers‘ requirement is tumble Dry except ECHO SCOURING is flat dry. 2. Pilling test: Procedure: Cut the fabric 12.5 x 12.5cm & balance mark should be 10cm by using template. Then sew the fabric so that it can be firmly fit in the tube molded polyurethane tubes. Then four tubes are placed in a box & start 60±2 rev/min for 5 hrs. or according to buyer requirement. Here mainly used 3hrs (1100 cycle). Then assess the pilling by putting tested specimen on the viewing cabinet & compare with standard photographs 3. PH Test: Procedure: Take 2gm sample fabrics and cut into small pieces. Then put it conical flax with 100cc water (M: L -1:50). Then shake it 15 min, then place it in a shaker m/c for 1 hour. Then check PH by PH meter. 4. GSM TEST: Procedure: GSM is the most important factor. There is a GSM cutter. The sample is cut by the GSM cutter is weighted in the electronic balance. The reading (in gm.) from the balance is multiplied by 100 to get the value of GSM. 5. Bursting Strength Test: x Cut sample of 250x250 mm2 shape and see how much air pressure is needed to tear apart. x 160-250 KPa is the allowable range for all. Chemical Test: 1. Color Fastness to Wash Test: Required materials: 1. Sample size 10cm x 4cm 2. Multi-fiber of 10cm x 4cm 3. ECE detergent (WOB) – 4g/L 4. Sodium Perborate (Na2BO3.H2O2.3H2O2-1g/L) - 1g/L 5. Distilled water 6. Normal cold water 7. Steel balls
  74. 74. Required instrument: 1. Rota Wash machine 2. Scissors 3. Stitch machine Procedure: 1. Cut sample & multi-fiber at 10cm x 4cm and then stitch. 2. 5g/l ECE detergent (WOB) & 1g/l ml Sodium per borate tetra hydrate is taken with the sample. For Marks & Spencer, the solution is taken by the following formula: 3. The sample is kept in 600C for 30 minutes in Rota Wash Machine. Weight this composite specimen to calculate the volume of wash liquor required to give a 1:50 liquor ratio. (i.e. 50 ml of liquor of 1gm of composite specimen.) 4. Rinse the sample twice with cold water. 5. Dry at 60°C by hanging or by Flat iron pressing but temperature should not be more than 150°C. Report: Dry the specimen and the change of shade & degree of staining is measured by Grey Scale & Staining Scale. 2. Color Fastness to Perspiration Test: Test specimen: x Sample fabric – 50 mm x 50 mm x Multifiber fabric 50 mm x 100 mm x Cut the multifiber into two pieces x Sandwich the test specimen between two pieces of multi-fiber. Testing Solution: 1. Alkaline Solution: Histadine monohydro chloride monohydrate (C6H10ClN3O2.H2O) – 5.00 g/L NaCl – 5.00 g/L Di sodium hydrogen orthophosphate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) – 2.5 g/L PH – 8 (Adjust by 0.1 N NaOH) 2. Acidic Solution: Histadine monohydro chloride monohydrate (C6H10ClN3O2.H2O)– 5.00 g/L NaCl – 5.00 g/L Sodium di-hydrogen orthophosphate (NaH2PO4.2H2O) – 2.5g/L PH – 5.5 (Adjust by 0.1 N NaOH) Method: - The composite specimen is put in a petri dish (2 specimen of a sample). - Solution (Alkaline & Acidic) is taken in the two petri dishes. Here, M:L is taken 1:20. - Bubble is made out from the specimen by tapping. - The specimen is kept for 30 minutes. - A glass plate is placed on the composite specimen for 15 minutes at room temperature. - Excess solution is poured off. - Petri dish with composite specimen & glass plate is placed into the incubator at (37x2) 0C for 4 hours. - The specimen is dried (temp x 600C)
  75. 75. Report: - Change of shade & degree of staining is measured by the Grey Scale & Staining Scale. 3. Color Fastness to Water Test: Test specimen: x Sample fabric – 50 mm x 50 mm x Multi fiber fabric – 50 mm x 100 mm x Cut the multi-fiber into two piece x Sandwich the test specimen between two pieces of multi-fiber. Testing Solution: x Water is taken as required Method: - - - - - - - - The composite specimen is put in a petri dish (2 specimen of a sample). Water is taken in the petri dish as required. Bubble is made out from the specimen by tapping. The specimen is kept for 30 minutes. A glass plate is placed on the composite specimen for 15 minutes at room temperature. Excess solution is poured off. Petri dish with composite specimen & glass plate is placed into the incubator at (37x2) 0C for 4 hours. The specimen is then dried (Temp x 600C) Report: - Change of shade & degree of staining is measured by the Grey Scale & Staining Scale. 4. Color the Fastness to Rubbing (Dry & Wet) Test: Sample: - - - - - Dyed fabric dimension of 15 cm x 5 cm White Test Cloth of 5 cm x 5 cm White test cloth is put on to the grating and stag by steel wire. The sample is run twenty times manually for ten seconds and the rubbing fastness of the sample cloth and degree of staining is accessed. For rubbing fastness (Wet), the rubbing cloth is placed in the water and socked and squeeze. The wet rubbing cloth is placed on to the grating and stag with stainless steel wire and run ten times manually. Then assess the staining on to the rubbing cloth and the rubbing fastness of the sample cloth is accessed. Change of shade of the sample is measured with grey scale and degree of staining of the white test cloth is measured by Staining Scale. Procedure: Report: - Shrinkage Test Calculation: Shrinkage % = (Before wash – After wash)/Before Wash*100
  76. 76. Spirality test calculation: S = (S1+S2) / 2 Spirality = (S+S x L)/100. Suppose, S1 = The right side distance of the specimen from the stitch line after wash. S2 = The left side distance of the specimen from the stitch line after wash. L = Length before wash Lab. Dip Dyeing Sample: - - - - - - - - - - - Weight – 5gm. At first the recipe for the sample is calculated according to the sample weight. The fabric is kept in the dyeing chamber. Then the dyes, chemicals, salt & required amount of water is taken in that dyeing chamber by digital pipetting on the basis of stock solution. Then the beaker is set into the lab. Dip. Dyeing machine for dyeing. The program for dyeing is started for 20 min at 400C. After 20 min soda is added by pipetting. Then the dyeing program is set for 60 min at 600C for normal colour,80ºC for turquois colour,130ºC for PET. When the dyeing time is finished the sample is taken out from the machine at 400C. Then the sample is washed off. At first cold wash & then hot wash is done. After it soaping is done. Then the sample is dried and compared with standard Procedure: Dyeing Curve: 600Cx60 ´ Dyes + Salt + Material+Water 400Cx20 ´ Wash off Soda Report: Dry the specimen and the change of shade & degree of staining is measured by Grey Scale & Staining Scale. Finished fabric Inspection: The final product should pass against the norms given by the buyer. The following tests are done-- -Shade check -GSM test -Width or diameter test -Shrinkage test
  77. 77. -Crocking test -Pilling resistance test -Color fastness to test -Color fastness to perspiration -Dimensional stability Quality Standard: Viyellatex Ltd. maintains the ISO: 9002 standard in case of quality. Therefore, four point system is followed to inspect the body & rib fabric. The defects found and points given against are recorded in the inspection sheet. Following table shows the four point grading system followed by inspection at Viyellatex Ltd. Four point grading system Size of defectsPenalty 3 inches or less1 point Over 3 inch but not over 6 inch2 point Over 6 inch but not over 9 inch3 point Over 9 inch4 point Following table shows common body and rib faults and response by inspection section at Viyellatex Ltd.:- Rejection criteria for body & ribs FaultsResponse Needle markMajor needle line is rejected StripeMajor needle line is rejected Barre markRejected Approved for color but for white Contamination & fly shed 1 point is assigned Slubs1 point Thick thin placeReject Birds eye1 point Pin holes1 point Wrong designReject Mixed yarnDiscuss with manager Sinker markMajor sinker mark is rejected. Missing yarnUse 4 point HolesDo Oil line/stainDo ChemicalDo Dirt stainDo Crease lineDo Uneven tensionDiscuss with manager No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.
  78. 78. Following table shows common collar and cuff fault and response taken by inspection section at Viyellatex Ltd:- Rejection criteria for collar & cuff No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Faults Wrong ply Hole Needle line Slubs Wrong design Wrong tripping Fly & contamination First round problem Uneven tension Missing yarn Crease line Rust line Oil stripe Thick-thin Wrong tube Response Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Acceptable for color but not for white Reject Discuss with manager Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Reject Remarks: Viyellatex have a well-equipped Testing laboratory for all kinds of Textile Testing. All of them are fully featured. The laboratory of Viyellatex is approved by world renowned buyers. Every kind of textile testing can be done with great accuracy and ease.
  79. 79. Production Capacity: Total line Total floor Total m/c Production/day 80 8 2600(approximately running) 60000 pcs/day (minimum) 2.5-3 Million pcs/month Input Process Flow Chart: Inform The Corresponding Officer about completion of garments production Target Corresponding Officer Forward a requisition form to the Planning Department Planning Department Gives a token Containing new style No . Showing the token collect fabric from Cutting & Accessories from Store Quality Check Ready for Sewing Sewing process flow Chart: Input Measurement Check Print & Embroidery Check Sewing Started Get Full garments as output Garments Inspection Forward it to the Finishing Section ist of M/c‘s: Machine Name 1-Needle lock Stitch (Auto thread Time) 4-Thread Overlock with electric chain cutter 2/3 Needle Covering stitch 1-Needle chain stitch(flatbed) 2-Needle Chain Stitch(flatbed) 2-Needle Piping(backtape) 2-Needle lock stitch Vertical Trimmer Multi Needle Chain Stitch(PMD) Brand Juki, Brothers Sunstar Juki, Kansai Pegasus Joje Kansai, Joje, Zusan Pegasus, Kansai Sunstar Juki, Sunstar
  80. 80. Bartack Machine(Computerized) Buttonhole(computerized) Button Sewing(Computerized) Zigzag Machine(Computerized) Smocking Machine(12 & 33 Needle) Shirring Machine(12 Needle elastic threads) Picoting Machine Shading Stitch Blind Stitch(Overlock) Rib Cutting Machine Heat Transfer Machine Hot Fixing Machine Snap Button Fusing Machine(Ranning) Fusing Machine(R Hat) Kansai Juki, Sunstar, Brothers Juki, Brothers Juki, Brothers Juki, Brothers Kansai Kansai Kansai Kansai Joje Lee Way, Loca Salli Nyoto, Uzu, Max Hashima Needle Used in different Machine & It‘s Sizes: Machine Name Plain Machine Overlock Machine Flatlock Machine 2-Needle Chain Stitch Machine 2-Needle Lock stitch Button Hole(Two Needle) Button Stitch Kansai Special(PSF) Saddle Stitch Vertical Trimmer Smocking Needle Group DB x1 DC x1 UY x128 UY x128 DP x5 DP x5 DP x7 UO x113 CP x12 DB x1 DV x57 Size 9,11,14 9,11 9,11 14 9,11 11,14 14 11 9,11 9,11 9,11
  81. 81. Garment finishing Process flowchart of garment finishing: Finishing input (style, color & size wise) x Ironing x Inspection x Hang tag x Get up change x Folding x Poly x Bar code (buyer wise sticker) x Metal check x Cartooning x Final inspection by buyer Remarks: We learned a lot from previous weeks visiting these sections of the garments. The Peoples around these sections are very helpful and willingly helped us in our work. This will help in our further visit to other sections also.
  82. 82. Printing Section: There are two floors in the printing section. Here are the details about the Gothic Printing- Gothic Printing Details 1. Tables 2. Auto Screen Printing m/c 3.Conveyer Dryer 4. Heat Press Quantity 24 pcs 4 pcs 4 pcs 3 pcs Development flow chart: Order received from customer Design Development Expose room Sample approval Send to production Sample make Different types of Printing: x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Pigment Print Rubber print High Density Print Plastisol Print Puff print Gliter print Rainbow print Pearl scent Radium print Foil print Jel print Metallic print Heat transfer (this system is not used) Flock Print (this system is not used) Discharge print
  83. 83. Sequence of printing: Garment parts count Screen preparation Printing paste preparation Applied garment part on the printing bed by (adhesive) gum in the marked portion Printing the garment part by using screen Drying the printed portion by hard dryer applying hot air flow Curing the printed portion by passing through the conveyor dryer at 1600 - 1800 c Inspection is done in qualify control department Screen Preparation: Mesh fabric tight with frame Applied chemical auto sol and potassium dichromate on the mesh & dried 8 min in air. Placed design paper under the mesh. Light passes through the design paper & mesh fabric for 3-4 min. Remove the colored TXR from the design area by water spraying.
  84. 84. Different types of print used in Viyellatex with their chemical name: 1. Pigment print: Print perfect 226 EC (ready paste)+color basic=various types of shade are produced. Supplier name: Dysin CHT Brand name: x CHT x Seikafix 2. Rubber: Supplier name: x x x x x Daysin White paste 101 Orient paste 251 Clear 594 Oxal Brand name of CHT: x x x x x x x x x x Red KGC Red HBB Violate FB Orange RG Yellow 3GT Yellow RR Violate KB Black BDC Turquoise GT Green GT Rubber paste of CHT: x Balance 600(white paste) x Laclf(matty type) x Mc 230(glossy type) x Oxal Brand name of seikafix: Seikafix red Seikafix yellow And so many color Dysin: PTSD (red,yellow,blue etc.) (Chemical group or brand name) SERICOL (red,yellow,blue etc.)(Chemical group or brand name) CHT: Printop (chemical group) Uniflux(chemical group) 3. High density & Plasticol: Shade can be produced to mix ready color and basic. If the density of the plastisol is high then it is called high density. 4. Puff: Dysin chemical: x x x x SP37(for puff) White paste 101 Orient paste 251 Clear 594
  85. 85. CHT chemical: x x x x PPEXTS-2(for puff) Balance 600(white paste) Laclf(matty type) Mc 230(glossy type) 8. Radium: Ready paste 9. Foil print: Foil paste (k-40) Dysin5. Gliter print: x x x x Daysin paste BF733/ST60(paste) CHT pasteGD200 Gliter Oxal 10. Jel paste: CHT (supplier) GD200 (gel paste) 6. Rainbow: x x x x Dysin paste BF733/ST60(paste) CHT pasteGD200 Rainbow Oxal 11. Metallic: Same as pearlscent 12. Discharge: Asuchem (supplier) Asurongent EB 7. Pearlscent: Ready paste & basic Paste type: Asuchem (supplier) x Asugold 80 (chemical type) x Asusilver 70(chemical type) Printing faults: 1. Print color shading 2. Print slarted 3. Color spot 4. Bleeding 5. Print wrong 6. Print burn 7. Air hole 8. Print bubble 9. Print missing 10. Wrong place 11. Not properly attached 12. Hand feels 13. Migration 14. Dirty mark 15. Uneven shade 16. Shade variation 17. Print sticky 18. Print not coverage 19. Print gap 20. Print over 21. Wrong side 22. Color wrong 23. Size mistake 24. Bundle card mistake 25.Fabric hole 26.Fabric shade 27.Crease mark 28. Oil spot 29. Fabric burn 30.Needle mark 31. Cutting problem 32. Sticker wrong 33. Dye migration 34.Yarn hole 35. Yarn contamination 36. Fly yarn.
  86. 86. Embroidery Section Embroidery machine specification: No. of machine: 08 (1) 7 M/C of 12 heads (2) 1 M/C of 8 heads. Electronic multi-head automatic Embroidery M/C Brand: Tajima Country: Japan Model: TFGn-920 No. of head: 20 No. of Needle per head: 9 M/c‘s computer: screen touch monitor Stitching types: Satin stitch Tatami stitch Eve design Run stitch Single run Double run Fly stitch Chain stitch x Motif run stitch x x x x x x x x Lining: o o o o Soft lining Discreet lining Fusing lining Hard lining Thread information: Threads brands Coats Bangladesh Madera Types Country Bangladesh Germany Korea Bangladesh Bangladesh Japan Korea Bangladesh Bangladesh Korea Thread contain m/cone 3000 2500-3000 5000 3000 3000-10000 3000 5000 5000 Silko (polyester 120/2) Rapose (polyester 120/2) (polyester 135/2) Super twist 135/2 (polyester 120/2) (polyester 120/2) (polyester 120/2) (polyester 120/2) (polyester 120/2) Polyester 120/2 Polyester 120/2 Airplane Well Metallic thread Pearl thread Basic thread Marathons Embroidery faults: x Stitch gap x Bobbin out x Oil spot x Miss thread x Measurement up-down x Needle hole
  87. 87. Washing
  88. 88. Washing Machine Layout: Table Entrance 11 20 21 Table 19 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 12 2 1 2-5 6-9 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Cosmotex sample dryer (70 0C) Cosmotex dryer (70 0C) Automatic steamer & dryer (100 0C) (Brand: Greenmac International Pte. Ltd. Country: Singapore) 10-11 Centrifugal extractors (Brand: Greenmac International Pte. Ltd. Country: Singapore) 12,14 Cosmotex sample garments dyeing & washing m/c (Capacity: 20 Kg) 13,15-21 Cosmotex garments dyeing & washing m/c (Capacity: 250 Kg)
  89. 89. Washing flow chart: Garments from store house ↓ Count ↓ Quality check ↓ Batch ↓ Washing ↓ Hydro extractor ↓ Drying ↓ Quality check ↓ Packing ↓ Delivery M/C brand and no of M/C 1. No of washing m/c: 4 2. No of garments dyeing m/c: 4 x Brand name: Cosmotex x Origin: Spain 3. Sample washing m/c: 2 x Brand name :Cosmotex x Origin: Spain 4. Hydro extractor: 2 x Brand :Green mac x Origin : China 5. Dryer: 8 x 4 Cosmotex x 4 Green mac 6. Sample dryer: 1 x Brand name: Compotex Types of wash: x x x x x x x Normal garments wash Vintage wash Enzyme wash Acid wash Super softener wash Spray wash Dip dyeing wash Recipe: 1. Normal garments wash: M:L Felosan nof Temperature Time Softener : 1:10 : 5g/l : 50-55ºC : 8 min : 1-2 g/l
  90. 90. 2. Vintage wash: x Applies heavy stonewashing or a cellulose enzyme wash, with or without bleach. x Gives an old and worn look. M:L:1:10 Felosen nof : 0.5g/l Soda: 3-4 g/l Caustic: 0.5g/l Temperature: 60ºC Time: 35-40´ Acetic acid : 1g/l Softener: 2g/l 3. Enzyme wash Enzyme: 0.5g/l Fesoson nof : 0.5g/l PH: 4.5 Time: 25´-30´ Temperature: 55ºC 4. Acid wash: It is done by tumbling the garments with pumice stones presoaked in a solution of sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate for localized bleaching resulting in a non-uniform sharp blue/white contrast. 5. Super softener wash: Silicon: 8g/l Softener: 2g/l Over dye: x Dyeing over the fabric or jeans to add another tone of color. x Also can be applied with spray gun or paintbrush for local coloring. A typical recipe of over dyeing method: Fabric weight Water NOF (Wetting agent) (After Normal wash) DBC (leveling agent) R.G. Yellow- RGB R.ul.Car-RGB R.Navy-RGB Salt Soda (After normal wash) R (soaping agent) Acetic acid E.C. (fixing agent) 0.368% 0.63% 1.48% 2 kg 16 liter 8 gm 8 gm 8 gm 12 gm 31 gm 960 gm 256 gm 1 g/l 1 g/l 1 g/l 16 gm 16 gm 16 gm 700C x5 min 600C x5 min 600C x (10+10) min 600C x (10+10) 600C x5 min Room temp. for 5 min 400C x5 min
  91. 91. Problems occur in washing: Before wash: x x x x x x x Dirty spot Dyeing/color spot. Needle damage. Fabric hole. Measurement problem. Shade variation. Printing problem. After wash: x x x x x Measurement problem. Shrinkage problem. Color bleeding. Needle line. Spirality problem REMARKS: We have learned a lot of from this section of washing. The employers and employee helped us so much during our working. This will help further visit to other sections also.
  92. 92. Maintenance of machinery is a very essential mechanical effort for achieving smooth running of different machines. Machines, buildings and other service facilities are subjected to deterioration due to their use and expose to industrial conditions. Maintenance is a procedure by which we can maintain active functioning in operation according to the behavior and utility of a particular element. In engineering, we use this terminology for maintaining smooth and uninterrupted performance of machines, tools and metallurgical characteristics in practical uses. Necessity of maintenance: x To keep the downtime of machines to the minimum thuds to have control over the production program. x To prolong the useful life of the factory plant and machine by retaining their acceptance level of accuracy of performance. x To keep the factory plants, equipment‘s, machine tools in an optimum working condition. x To ensure specified accuracy to product and time schedule of delivery to customer. x To keep the production cycle within the stipulated range. x To modify the machine tools to meet the need for production. Major Maintenance points for different machines: x x x x x x x Routes of different utilities like water, steam, gas, electricity, compressed air etc. Dyestuff & chemical dosing system. Drainage system of waste water, color & chemical. Driving arrangement of different machines. Power transmission to different machineries. Fabric guiding system through the machineries. Cleanliness of machine parts. Different types of Maintenance procedure: In Viyellatex, three types of maintenance procedure is performed – 1. 2. 3. Routine/Schedule Maintenance. Preventive Maintenance. Breakdown Maintenance. 1. Routine/Schedule Maintenance: After a particular period of operation, the machines are cleaned & reordered, that is routine or schedule maintenance. The maintenance department does it once in a month. Routine/Schedule maintenance varies, time in time & also depends on situation according to types of machines, because maintenance is directly related to production.
  93. 93. Maintenance schedule for dyeing & finishing section – S.N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Machine Dyeing m/c-1+sample-1 Dyeing m/c-2+ dyeing m/c-9 + sample m/c-5 Dyeing m/c-3+ dyeing m/c-10 Dyeing m/c-4+sample-2+dyeing/c-15 Dyeing m/c-5+sample-3 Dyeing m/c-6+ dyeing m/c-11 Dyeing m/c-7+ dyeing m/c -12+dyeing m/c-14 Dyeing m/c-8+ dyeing m/c-13 Open compacting m/c+tube -1 Open compacting m/c+tube -1 Dewatering m/c-1&2 Corino slitting m/c+Bianco slitting m/c Slitting m/c+sample dyeing m/c-4 Sueding m/c+ sample dyeing m/c-5 Raising m/c+ sample dyeing m/c-6 Dryer m/c+sample dyeing m/c-7 Santex dryer Stenter m/c(bruckner) Stenter m/c(sun super) Schedule 10th day of the month 11th day of the month 12th day of the month 13th day of the month 14th day of the month 15th day of the month 16th day of the month 17th day of the month 1st &18th day of the month 2nd &19th day of the month 3rd&20th day of the month 4th & 21st day of the month 5th &22nd day of the month 6th &23rd day of the month 7th & 24th day of the month 8th & 25th day of the month 9th & 26th day of the month Friday every week Friday every week Maintenance schedule for utility section: S.N. 1 2 Boiler Substation Machine Schedule last Friday of month 1st Friday of month 2. Preventive Maintenance: This type of maintenance is performed periodically (or continuously) prior to functional failure to achieve the desired level of safety and reliability for an item. These actions are performed to prevent or reduce consequences of failures. Maintenance schedule for dyeing & finishing section – S.N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Machine Open compacting m/c-1+tube -1 Open compacting m/c+tube -1 Dewatering m/c-1&2 Slitting m/c 1&2 Slitting m/c 03+sample dyeing m/c-4 Sueding m/c+ sample dyeing m/c-5 Raising m/c-1, 2, 3 Dryer m/c-1+sample dyeing m/c-6 Schedule 1st &19th day of the month 2nd &20th day of the month 3rd&21th day of the month 4th &22nd day of the month 5th &23nd day of the month 6th &24rd day of the month 7th & 25th day of the month 8th & 26th day of the month
  94. 94. 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 11 19 19 Dryer m/c-2+sample dyeing m/c-7 Dyeing m/c-1+sample-1 Dyeing m/c-2&9 Dyeing m/c-3&10 Dyeing m/c-4+sample-2 Dyeing m/c-5+sample-3 Dyeing m/c-6&11 Dyeing m/c-7&12 Dyeing m/c-8&13 Dyeing m/c-14&15 Stenter m/c-1&2 9th & 27th day of the month 10th day of the month 11th day of the month 12th day of the month 13th day of the month 14th day of the month 15th day of the month 16th day of the month 17th day of the month 18th day of the month every Friday Maintenance schedule for utility section: S.N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Boiler-1 +sub station Boiler-2&3 WTP 1&2 ETP Gen unit -1 Gen unit -2 Compressor unit -1&2 LAB Machine Schedule 2nd Friday of the month last Friday of the month 2nd Friday of the month 1st Friday of the month 1st Friday of the month 3rd Friday of the month 1st Friday of the month 1st Friday of the month Maintenance schedule for Kntting section: S.N. 1 2 3 Machine Circular knitting m/c (01-36) Circular knitting m/c (37-72) Flat knitting m/c (01-25) & Cooling unit st Schedule 1 Friday of month 2nd Friday of month 3rd Friday of month 3. Breakdown Maintenance: In breakdown maintenance, defects are rectified only when the machine cannot perform its function any longer and the production department is compiled to call the maintenance department for repairing the machine. After repairing the defect the maintenance engineer do not attend the machine any longer until another failure occurs. Breakdown of a machine occurs due to the followings two reasons – x Due to unpredictable failure of components. x Due to gradual wear & tear of the parts.
  95. 95. Maintenance Tools, Equipment‘s & their functions: Name of Tools Hammer Slide Wrench Spanner Pliers Hacksaw Pipe Wrench Chisel File Clamp Tester Name of Equipment’s Grinding m/c Cutting m/c Drill m/c Shaping m/c Lathe m/c Bending m/c Function To give shape Tightening and opening bolt Tightening and opening bolt Cutting, Holding, Joining, wire, Gripping Cutting Tightening, opening, gripping pipe Shaping, Cutting Shaping Gripping To test electric circuit Function Grinding Cutting Drilling Shaping To make something Bending Maintenance of different machines: Maintenance – Mechanical Machine – Dyeing machine S.N. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Items needed to be checked and serviced Greasing of the winch bearing Complete cleaning of machine Cleaning of drain valves, replace seals if required Checking of air supply filter, regulators, and auto drain seals Cleaning of filter elements Greasing of unloading roller bearings Checking and cleaning (if required) of addition tank level indicator Checking the oil level of pump bearing and refill if required Checking the function of heat and cool modulating valves Checking of all belts and belt tension Check circulation, reel and other pumps Checking of all door seals
  96. 96. Maintenance – Mechanical Machine – Stenter machine S.N.Items needed to be checked and serviced 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Removal of gas burnt deposits from chains Checking of gas burners Cleaning of softener application unit Checking and cleaning of steam pipe lines Checking and cleaning of gas pipe lines Grinding of fabric gripping pins Cleaning of ventilation duct Cleaning of m/c cabinet Checking of motors Maintenance – Mechanical Machine – Dryer S.N. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Items needed to be checked and serviced Checking of gas pipe lines Checking of gas burners Checking of belt conveyor system Checking of plaiting device Checking of speed regulating unit Cleaning of ventilation duct Cleaning of m/c cabinet Maintenance – Mechanical Machine – Compactor machine Items needed to be checked and servicedS.N. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Checking of Steam pipe lines Checking of pneumatic pressure valves Checking of belt conveyor system Checking of plaiting device Checking of speed regulating unit Checking and replacement (if necessary) of compacting shoe Cleaning of compacting shoe Maintenance – Mechanical Machine – Raising machine S.N. 1. 2. 3. 4. Items needed to be checked and serviced Checking of Gearing system and replacement of faulty gears Cleaning of fiber deposits from the pile and counter pile rollers Grinding of pins of pile and counter pile rollers Lubrication of gearing system