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Knit dyeing faults and remedies

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Knit dyeing faults and remedies

  1. 1. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 1 KNIT DYEING FAULTS AND REMEDIES Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 1 KNIT DYEING FAULTS AND REMEDIES Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 1 KNIT DYEING FAULTS AND REMEDIES
  2. 2. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 2 Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 2 Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 2
  3. 3. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 3 Letter of Transmittal To Rajib Shaha Assistant Professor Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University Subject: submission of Project Report on “Knit dyeing faults & remedies”. Sir, With due respect & humble, we are the students of Department of Textile Engineering, Southeast University have been successfully concluded our project. In this stage we are submitting our Project Report on “Knit dyeing faults & remedies” as a part of our B.Sc. in Textile Engineering requirement that bears three (03) credit hours under your supervision. We therefore request and expect that, you will appreciate us with any sort of recommendations and valued suggestions & will cordially receive this Project Report for your kind assessment. Sincerely Yours, Ariful Islam ID: 2010000400005 Mazadul Hasan ID: 2010000400008 Major : Wet Processing Technology Batch: 13th Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 3 Letter of Transmittal To Rajib Shaha Assistant Professor Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University Subject: submission of Project Report on “Knit dyeing faults & remedies”. Sir, With due respect & humble, we are the students of Department of Textile Engineering, Southeast University have been successfully concluded our project. In this stage we are submitting our Project Report on “Knit dyeing faults & remedies” as a part of our B.Sc. in Textile Engineering requirement that bears three (03) credit hours under your supervision. We therefore request and expect that, you will appreciate us with any sort of recommendations and valued suggestions & will cordially receive this Project Report for your kind assessment. Sincerely Yours, Ariful Islam ID: 2010000400005 Mazadul Hasan ID: 2010000400008 Major : Wet Processing Technology Batch: 13th Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 3 Letter of Transmittal To Rajib Shaha Assistant Professor Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University Subject: submission of Project Report on “Knit dyeing faults & remedies”. Sir, With due respect & humble, we are the students of Department of Textile Engineering, Southeast University have been successfully concluded our project. In this stage we are submitting our Project Report on “Knit dyeing faults & remedies” as a part of our B.Sc. in Textile Engineering requirement that bears three (03) credit hours under your supervision. We therefore request and expect that, you will appreciate us with any sort of recommendations and valued suggestions & will cordially receive this Project Report for your kind assessment. Sincerely Yours, Ariful Islam ID: 2010000400005 Mazadul Hasan ID: 2010000400008 Major : Wet Processing Technology Batch: 13th Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University
  4. 4. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 4 Supervising Faculty’s Approval SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Department of Textile Engineering ……………………………………………………………… Rajib Shaha Assistant Professor Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University I/A 251, 252 Tejgaon, Dhaka Cell No.: 01726419580 Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 4 Supervising Faculty’s Approval SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Department of Textile Engineering ……………………………………………………………… Rajib Shaha Assistant Professor Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University I/A 251, 252 Tejgaon, Dhaka Cell No.: 01726419580 Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 4 Supervising Faculty’s Approval SOUTHEAST UNIVERSITY Department of Textile Engineering ……………………………………………………………… Rajib Shaha Assistant Professor Department of Textile Engineering Southeast University I/A 251, 252 Tejgaon, Dhaka Cell No.: 01726419580
  5. 5. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At first my gratefulness goes to Almighty Allah to give me strength and ability to complete the industrial training and this report. May your name be exalted, honored and glorified. Industrial Attachment Course is an academic function of the College of Textile Technology. We are highly delighted to express our regards & gratitude to honorable Principal Prof. Syed Fakhrul Hassan.for providing us the chance to complete our Industrial Attachment with Knit Concern Ltd. Special thanks to our supervising teacher, Rajib Shaha to whom I am extremely indebted for his tremendous support and guidance throughout my training period, without whose help it would not have been possible to complete the training successfully. We also take the opportunity to express our sincerest gratitude to the management, administration & personnel of Knit Concern Ltd. for their kind assistance. Heartfelt thanks goes to Engr. A. K. M Mohsin Ahmed, General Manager, Knit Dyeing, Knit Concern Ltd. and Mr. Khalid Masud, CEO & GM, Yarn dyeing, Knit Concern ltd. for their permission & excellent cooperation during the period of our training. We would also like to thank Mr. Touhidul Islam Kakon (Dyeing Manager, Knit) & Mr. Zahid Arman (Dyeing Manager, Yarn) for their sincere support. The generous support is greatly appreciated. I would also like to thank Production Officers, Senior Production Officer and other officials of Knit Concern Ltd. for helping me to complete industrial training successfully. our gratitude also goes to all the employees of Knit Concern Ltd. for their sincere co- operation, support and valuable advices. Above all, we would like to acknowledge our deep debt to all teachers of our college & particularly of Wet Processing Department for their kind inspiration & help, which remain as the backdrop of all our efforts. Finally, we would like to acknowledge that we remain responsible for the inadequacies & errors, which doubtless remain in the following report. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At first my gratefulness goes to Almighty Allah to give me strength and ability to complete the industrial training and this report. May your name be exalted, honored and glorified. Industrial Attachment Course is an academic function of the College of Textile Technology. We are highly delighted to express our regards & gratitude to honorable Principal Prof. Syed Fakhrul Hassan.for providing us the chance to complete our Industrial Attachment with Knit Concern Ltd. Special thanks to our supervising teacher, Rajib Shaha to whom I am extremely indebted for his tremendous support and guidance throughout my training period, without whose help it would not have been possible to complete the training successfully. We also take the opportunity to express our sincerest gratitude to the management, administration & personnel of Knit Concern Ltd. for their kind assistance. Heartfelt thanks goes to Engr. A. K. M Mohsin Ahmed, General Manager, Knit Dyeing, Knit Concern Ltd. and Mr. Khalid Masud, CEO & GM, Yarn dyeing, Knit Concern ltd. for their permission & excellent cooperation during the period of our training. We would also like to thank Mr. Touhidul Islam Kakon (Dyeing Manager, Knit) & Mr. Zahid Arman (Dyeing Manager, Yarn) for their sincere support. The generous support is greatly appreciated. I would also like to thank Production Officers, Senior Production Officer and other officials of Knit Concern Ltd. for helping me to complete industrial training successfully. our gratitude also goes to all the employees of Knit Concern Ltd. for their sincere co- operation, support and valuable advices. Above all, we would like to acknowledge our deep debt to all teachers of our college & particularly of Wet Processing Department for their kind inspiration & help, which remain as the backdrop of all our efforts. Finally, we would like to acknowledge that we remain responsible for the inadequacies & errors, which doubtless remain in the following report. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT At first my gratefulness goes to Almighty Allah to give me strength and ability to complete the industrial training and this report. May your name be exalted, honored and glorified. Industrial Attachment Course is an academic function of the College of Textile Technology. We are highly delighted to express our regards & gratitude to honorable Principal Prof. Syed Fakhrul Hassan.for providing us the chance to complete our Industrial Attachment with Knit Concern Ltd. Special thanks to our supervising teacher, Rajib Shaha to whom I am extremely indebted for his tremendous support and guidance throughout my training period, without whose help it would not have been possible to complete the training successfully. We also take the opportunity to express our sincerest gratitude to the management, administration & personnel of Knit Concern Ltd. for their kind assistance. Heartfelt thanks goes to Engr. A. K. M Mohsin Ahmed, General Manager, Knit Dyeing, Knit Concern Ltd. and Mr. Khalid Masud, CEO & GM, Yarn dyeing, Knit Concern ltd. for their permission & excellent cooperation during the period of our training. We would also like to thank Mr. Touhidul Islam Kakon (Dyeing Manager, Knit) & Mr. Zahid Arman (Dyeing Manager, Yarn) for their sincere support. The generous support is greatly appreciated. I would also like to thank Production Officers, Senior Production Officer and other officials of Knit Concern Ltd. for helping me to complete industrial training successfully. our gratitude also goes to all the employees of Knit Concern Ltd. for their sincere co- operation, support and valuable advices. Above all, we would like to acknowledge our deep debt to all teachers of our college & particularly of Wet Processing Department for their kind inspiration & help, which remain as the backdrop of all our efforts. Finally, we would like to acknowledge that we remain responsible for the inadequacies & errors, which doubtless remain in the following report.
  6. 6. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 6 Abstract As a part of the B. Sc. in Textile Engineering, we have completed our Project titled “Knit Dyeing faults and Remedies ”. We try to focus on the different types of knit Dyeing Faults. We divided it into the pre treatment faults, Dyeing faults, Finishing Faults. In our literature review We show the dyeing process Finishing Process and We show the all parameters of dyeing and finishing like Pressure , Temperature ,time etc . We Discuss all Process and Parameters, done in the Knit Concern group . We collect all physical sample of fault. We have studied the effect of Knit Dyeing faults any Find out the Remedies of all faults . The art of processing of textiles is not new aspect. As the time passes new processes, methods and machines have been in use to improve the productivity and quality of the processed fabric. In the era of energy and water saving and eco-friendly processing, to maintain the quality and cost has become tough task. It is always found that 70% problems of dyeing are attributed to poor treatment of the fabric. Hence it becomes necessary to give emphasis right from pretreatment to ultimate dyeing steps to achieve best quality dyed goods. "RIGHT FIRST TIME AND ALL THE TIME RIGHT" dyeing quality can be easily achieved by strictly adhering to process control parameters of each and every step of fabric processing. [1] In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the various problems encountered due to men, machine and other factors of processing for damage about the possible causes and remedies of these dyeing problems helps the processes as a ready recockener for avoiding these problems. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 6 Abstract As a part of the B. Sc. in Textile Engineering, we have completed our Project titled “Knit Dyeing faults and Remedies ”. We try to focus on the different types of knit Dyeing Faults. We divided it into the pre treatment faults, Dyeing faults, Finishing Faults. In our literature review We show the dyeing process Finishing Process and We show the all parameters of dyeing and finishing like Pressure , Temperature ,time etc . We Discuss all Process and Parameters, done in the Knit Concern group . We collect all physical sample of fault. We have studied the effect of Knit Dyeing faults any Find out the Remedies of all faults . The art of processing of textiles is not new aspect. As the time passes new processes, methods and machines have been in use to improve the productivity and quality of the processed fabric. In the era of energy and water saving and eco-friendly processing, to maintain the quality and cost has become tough task. It is always found that 70% problems of dyeing are attributed to poor treatment of the fabric. Hence it becomes necessary to give emphasis right from pretreatment to ultimate dyeing steps to achieve best quality dyed goods. "RIGHT FIRST TIME AND ALL THE TIME RIGHT" dyeing quality can be easily achieved by strictly adhering to process control parameters of each and every step of fabric processing. [1] In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the various problems encountered due to men, machine and other factors of processing for damage about the possible causes and remedies of these dyeing problems helps the processes as a ready recockener for avoiding these problems. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 6 Abstract As a part of the B. Sc. in Textile Engineering, we have completed our Project titled “Knit Dyeing faults and Remedies ”. We try to focus on the different types of knit Dyeing Faults. We divided it into the pre treatment faults, Dyeing faults, Finishing Faults. In our literature review We show the dyeing process Finishing Process and We show the all parameters of dyeing and finishing like Pressure , Temperature ,time etc . We Discuss all Process and Parameters, done in the Knit Concern group . We collect all physical sample of fault. We have studied the effect of Knit Dyeing faults any Find out the Remedies of all faults . The art of processing of textiles is not new aspect. As the time passes new processes, methods and machines have been in use to improve the productivity and quality of the processed fabric. In the era of energy and water saving and eco-friendly processing, to maintain the quality and cost has become tough task. It is always found that 70% problems of dyeing are attributed to poor treatment of the fabric. Hence it becomes necessary to give emphasis right from pretreatment to ultimate dyeing steps to achieve best quality dyed goods. "RIGHT FIRST TIME AND ALL THE TIME RIGHT" dyeing quality can be easily achieved by strictly adhering to process control parameters of each and every step of fabric processing. [1] In this paper an attempt has been made to highlight the various problems encountered due to men, machine and other factors of processing for damage about the possible causes and remedies of these dyeing problems helps the processes as a ready recockener for avoiding these problems.
  7. 7. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 7 Project Description: The study was intended on the topic, ‘Knit dyeing Faults and Remedies’ which carry out a great importance on the textile sector. Textile and confection sector is one of the leading fields of socio- economical activity, regarding its technological state, economical efficiency and social interaction. Marketing conditions became harder within the recent years of 2000, urging this crucial sector for the economy to aim taking new and radical measures and bounding it to determine the quality. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 7 Project Description: The study was intended on the topic, ‘Knit dyeing Faults and Remedies’ which carry out a great importance on the textile sector. Textile and confection sector is one of the leading fields of socio- economical activity, regarding its technological state, economical efficiency and social interaction. Marketing conditions became harder within the recent years of 2000, urging this crucial sector for the economy to aim taking new and radical measures and bounding it to determine the quality. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 7 Project Description: The study was intended on the topic, ‘Knit dyeing Faults and Remedies’ which carry out a great importance on the textile sector. Textile and confection sector is one of the leading fields of socio- economical activity, regarding its technological state, economical efficiency and social interaction. Marketing conditions became harder within the recent years of 2000, urging this crucial sector for the economy to aim taking new and radical measures and bounding it to determine the quality.
  8. 8. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 8 Origin of the report Name of the factory: KNIT CONCERN LIMITED Type : 100 % Export Oriented Composite knitwear Industry Year of Establishment : 1998 Status ( Legal Structure ) : Private Limited Company Annual Production capacity : 10000 ton of knit fabric ( Open & tubular form ) Total Manpower: Around 8000 Address : 62 ,Water Works Road, Godnail.Narayanganj, Bangladesh. Telephone Number : +88 – 02 - 7641086 Fax Number : + 88 – 02 – 7641087 URL : http://www.knitconcern.com location of KCL: Knit Concern Limited is located at Godnail , in Narayanganj about 18 km from the EPZ. Knit Dyeing Section: It has two section of knit dyeing floor – KCL (Old floor) & KCA (New floor). Each contains around 100 thousands square ft area. Production capacity: approximately 50 ton/day Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 8 Origin of the report Name of the factory: KNIT CONCERN LIMITED Type : 100 % Export Oriented Composite knitwear Industry Year of Establishment : 1998 Status ( Legal Structure ) : Private Limited Company Annual Production capacity : 10000 ton of knit fabric ( Open & tubular form ) Total Manpower: Around 8000 Address : 62 ,Water Works Road, Godnail.Narayanganj, Bangladesh. Telephone Number : +88 – 02 - 7641086 Fax Number : + 88 – 02 – 7641087 URL : http://www.knitconcern.com location of KCL: Knit Concern Limited is located at Godnail , in Narayanganj about 18 km from the EPZ. Knit Dyeing Section: It has two section of knit dyeing floor – KCL (Old floor) & KCA (New floor). Each contains around 100 thousands square ft area. Production capacity: approximately 50 ton/day Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 8 Origin of the report Name of the factory: KNIT CONCERN LIMITED Type : 100 % Export Oriented Composite knitwear Industry Year of Establishment : 1998 Status ( Legal Structure ) : Private Limited Company Annual Production capacity : 10000 ton of knit fabric ( Open & tubular form ) Total Manpower: Around 8000 Address : 62 ,Water Works Road, Godnail.Narayanganj, Bangladesh. Telephone Number : +88 – 02 - 7641086 Fax Number : + 88 – 02 – 7641087 URL : http://www.knitconcern.com location of KCL: Knit Concern Limited is located at Godnail , in Narayanganj about 18 km from the EPZ. Knit Dyeing Section: It has two section of knit dyeing floor – KCL (Old floor) & KCA (New floor). Each contains around 100 thousands square ft area. Production capacity: approximately 50 ton/day
  9. 9. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 9 CONTENTS Page No. Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………........................................3 Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4 Project Description…………………………………………………………………………………………………….5 Origin of the report……………………………………………………………………………………………………6 1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………..8 2. PROJECT OBJECTIVE ……………………………………………………………………………………………9 3. LITURATURE REVIEW: 3.1. Dyeing Flow Chart ………………………………………………………........................................11 3.2 SCOURING PROCESS….............................................................................................12 3.3 Special Process: Deminelilazation Hot ...…………………………………………………………….13 3.4 Dyeing : ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14 3.5 Finishing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14 3.7 DEFECT …………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………..13-15 3.7.1 Defination Of Fault ……………………………………………………………………………….15-16 3.7.4 Dyeing Faults…………………………………………………………………………………………17 3.7.4 Types of Dyeing Faults ……………………………………………………………………….. 18-19 4 . EXPERIMANTAL DATA 4.6 Yarn …………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………..20 4.7 Grey Fabrics …………..……………………………………………………………………………………………20 4.8 Chemical list …………..……………………………………………………………………………………………21 4.9 Dyes list…………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………..22-23 4.4 Knit Dyeing Operation process : ……………………………………………………………………………24 4.6 Inspection of Grey Fabric from knitting section to Dyeing: ……………………………………24-25 4.5 Production parameters: …………………………………………………………………………………………25 4.7Parameters of dyeing & Finishing M/C: …………………………………………………………………25-29 5. ANALYSIS DATA 5.1 Grey Fabric faults ………………………………………………………………………………………………..31-34 5.2 Pre Treatment faults ……………………………………………………………………………………………35-39 5.3 Optical brightener fault…………………………………………………………………………………………40-42 5.3 Finishing Faults ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..43-49 5.4 Dyeing Faults………………………………………………………………………………………………………….50-63 6.RESULT & DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………66-74 CONCLUTION REFIRANCE THANKS Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 9 CONTENTS Page No. Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………........................................3 Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4 Project Description…………………………………………………………………………………………………….5 Origin of the report……………………………………………………………………………………………………6 1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………..8 2. PROJECT OBJECTIVE ……………………………………………………………………………………………9 3. LITURATURE REVIEW: 3.1. Dyeing Flow Chart ………………………………………………………........................................11 3.2 SCOURING PROCESS….............................................................................................12 3.3 Special Process: Deminelilazation Hot ...…………………………………………………………….13 3.4 Dyeing : ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14 3.5 Finishing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14 3.7 DEFECT …………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………..13-15 3.7.1 Defination Of Fault ……………………………………………………………………………….15-16 3.7.4 Dyeing Faults…………………………………………………………………………………………17 3.7.4 Types of Dyeing Faults ……………………………………………………………………….. 18-19 4 . EXPERIMANTAL DATA 4.6 Yarn …………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………..20 4.7 Grey Fabrics …………..……………………………………………………………………………………………20 4.8 Chemical list …………..……………………………………………………………………………………………21 4.9 Dyes list…………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………..22-23 4.4 Knit Dyeing Operation process : ……………………………………………………………………………24 4.6 Inspection of Grey Fabric from knitting section to Dyeing: ……………………………………24-25 4.5 Production parameters: …………………………………………………………………………………………25 4.7Parameters of dyeing & Finishing M/C: …………………………………………………………………25-29 5. ANALYSIS DATA 5.1 Grey Fabric faults ………………………………………………………………………………………………..31-34 5.2 Pre Treatment faults ……………………………………………………………………………………………35-39 5.3 Optical brightener fault…………………………………………………………………………………………40-42 5.3 Finishing Faults ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..43-49 5.4 Dyeing Faults………………………………………………………………………………………………………….50-63 6.RESULT & DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………66-74 CONCLUTION REFIRANCE THANKS Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 9 CONTENTS Page No. Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………........................................3 Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4 Project Description…………………………………………………………………………………………………….5 Origin of the report……………………………………………………………………………………………………6 1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………..8 2. PROJECT OBJECTIVE ……………………………………………………………………………………………9 3. LITURATURE REVIEW: 3.1. Dyeing Flow Chart ………………………………………………………........................................11 3.2 SCOURING PROCESS….............................................................................................12 3.3 Special Process: Deminelilazation Hot ...…………………………………………………………….13 3.4 Dyeing : ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14 3.5 Finishing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14 3.7 DEFECT …………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………..13-15 3.7.1 Defination Of Fault ……………………………………………………………………………….15-16 3.7.4 Dyeing Faults…………………………………………………………………………………………17 3.7.4 Types of Dyeing Faults ……………………………………………………………………….. 18-19 4 . EXPERIMANTAL DATA 4.6 Yarn …………..………………………………………………………………………………………………………..20 4.7 Grey Fabrics …………..……………………………………………………………………………………………20 4.8 Chemical list …………..……………………………………………………………………………………………21 4.9 Dyes list…………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………..22-23 4.4 Knit Dyeing Operation process : ……………………………………………………………………………24 4.6 Inspection of Grey Fabric from knitting section to Dyeing: ……………………………………24-25 4.5 Production parameters: …………………………………………………………………………………………25 4.7Parameters of dyeing & Finishing M/C: …………………………………………………………………25-29 5. ANALYSIS DATA 5.1 Grey Fabric faults ………………………………………………………………………………………………..31-34 5.2 Pre Treatment faults ……………………………………………………………………………………………35-39 5.3 Optical brightener fault…………………………………………………………………………………………40-42 5.3 Finishing Faults ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..43-49 5.4 Dyeing Faults………………………………………………………………………………………………………….50-63 6.RESULT & DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………………………………………66-74 CONCLUTION REFIRANCE THANKS
  10. 10. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 10 Introduction: The art of processing of textiles today is well known to all processors. In the past the organized sector dominated the textile scene; whereas today the decentralized process houses are predominant. There is a shift in emphasis from the requirements related to finished products to environment related requirements. Requirements related to the finished product fastness & other properties of dyestuffs & chemicals, processing etc. shift of emphasis environment related requirements, cost reduction, security, energy & water saving, toxicology, hygiene legal regulations, and competitiveness. Reduction in costs and utilities are achieved by the trend to telescope processes. In order to be competitive processors would have to give equal if not better quality then the existing material at the same price. Considering the energy and labour costs, the only means of maintaining a competitive edge is to lay emphasis on 'Quality'. Good quality does not necessarily mean increased prices, but in fact would mean "Doing it right the first time" thereby reduce the costs. Thus with this theme in mind of "Doing it right the first time" we would have to first understand the problems in the process of dyeing. So, this paper mainly discusses "Problems in Dyeing & its remedies". The ultimate law of accuracy states, "when working towards a solution of a problem, it always helps if you know the answer provided, of course you know there is problem". Every manufacturing unit has a number of problems, however problem solving cannot be considered to be astrology or palmistry, but it needs the fullest knowledge of basic facts. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 10 Introduction: The art of processing of textiles today is well known to all processors. In the past the organized sector dominated the textile scene; whereas today the decentralized process houses are predominant. There is a shift in emphasis from the requirements related to finished products to environment related requirements. Requirements related to the finished product fastness & other properties of dyestuffs & chemicals, processing etc. shift of emphasis environment related requirements, cost reduction, security, energy & water saving, toxicology, hygiene legal regulations, and competitiveness. Reduction in costs and utilities are achieved by the trend to telescope processes. In order to be competitive processors would have to give equal if not better quality then the existing material at the same price. Considering the energy and labour costs, the only means of maintaining a competitive edge is to lay emphasis on 'Quality'. Good quality does not necessarily mean increased prices, but in fact would mean "Doing it right the first time" thereby reduce the costs. Thus with this theme in mind of "Doing it right the first time" we would have to first understand the problems in the process of dyeing. So, this paper mainly discusses "Problems in Dyeing & its remedies". The ultimate law of accuracy states, "when working towards a solution of a problem, it always helps if you know the answer provided, of course you know there is problem". Every manufacturing unit has a number of problems, however problem solving cannot be considered to be astrology or palmistry, but it needs the fullest knowledge of basic facts. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 10 Introduction: The art of processing of textiles today is well known to all processors. In the past the organized sector dominated the textile scene; whereas today the decentralized process houses are predominant. There is a shift in emphasis from the requirements related to finished products to environment related requirements. Requirements related to the finished product fastness & other properties of dyestuffs & chemicals, processing etc. shift of emphasis environment related requirements, cost reduction, security, energy & water saving, toxicology, hygiene legal regulations, and competitiveness. Reduction in costs and utilities are achieved by the trend to telescope processes. In order to be competitive processors would have to give equal if not better quality then the existing material at the same price. Considering the energy and labour costs, the only means of maintaining a competitive edge is to lay emphasis on 'Quality'. Good quality does not necessarily mean increased prices, but in fact would mean "Doing it right the first time" thereby reduce the costs. Thus with this theme in mind of "Doing it right the first time" we would have to first understand the problems in the process of dyeing. So, this paper mainly discusses "Problems in Dyeing & its remedies". The ultimate law of accuracy states, "when working towards a solution of a problem, it always helps if you know the answer provided, of course you know there is problem". Every manufacturing unit has a number of problems, however problem solving cannot be considered to be astrology or palmistry, but it needs the fullest knowledge of basic facts.
  11. 11. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 11 Project Object: 1. Research. 2. Analysis various Fault in different process of wet processing and find out the remedial measure. 3. Remedies of these faults. 4. Selection of raw materials. 5. Product testing. 6. Product Quality improvement. 7. Reduce wastage. 8. To improve the appearance of the fabric, that is, make it more attractive or lustrous by operations like calendaring, optical whitening, etc. 9. To improve the feel of the fabric by softening, stiffening, etc. 10. To cover faults in the original fabric. 11. To improve wearing qualities of cloth by making it shrink resistant, crease resistant or free from pills and soiling. 12. To make garments hold their shape and enable them to be worn without ironing. 13. To set the texture of certain fabrics and make others dimensionally stable. 14. To produce stronger and more durable fabrics. 15. To maximize the production. 16. To minimize the production cost. 17. To find out the wasting time during a product making and to minimize the wasting time. 18. Find out the problem restricting the production, generating proper solutions and implement them in a proper way. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 11 Project Object: 1. Research. 2. Analysis various Fault in different process of wet processing and find out the remedial measure. 3. Remedies of these faults. 4. Selection of raw materials. 5. Product testing. 6. Product Quality improvement. 7. Reduce wastage. 8. To improve the appearance of the fabric, that is, make it more attractive or lustrous by operations like calendaring, optical whitening, etc. 9. To improve the feel of the fabric by softening, stiffening, etc. 10. To cover faults in the original fabric. 11. To improve wearing qualities of cloth by making it shrink resistant, crease resistant or free from pills and soiling. 12. To make garments hold their shape and enable them to be worn without ironing. 13. To set the texture of certain fabrics and make others dimensionally stable. 14. To produce stronger and more durable fabrics. 15. To maximize the production. 16. To minimize the production cost. 17. To find out the wasting time during a product making and to minimize the wasting time. 18. Find out the problem restricting the production, generating proper solutions and implement them in a proper way. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 11 Project Object: 1. Research. 2. Analysis various Fault in different process of wet processing and find out the remedial measure. 3. Remedies of these faults. 4. Selection of raw materials. 5. Product testing. 6. Product Quality improvement. 7. Reduce wastage. 8. To improve the appearance of the fabric, that is, make it more attractive or lustrous by operations like calendaring, optical whitening, etc. 9. To improve the feel of the fabric by softening, stiffening, etc. 10. To cover faults in the original fabric. 11. To improve wearing qualities of cloth by making it shrink resistant, crease resistant or free from pills and soiling. 12. To make garments hold their shape and enable them to be worn without ironing. 13. To set the texture of certain fabrics and make others dimensionally stable. 14. To produce stronger and more durable fabrics. 15. To maximize the production. 16. To minimize the production cost. 17. To find out the wasting time during a product making and to minimize the wasting time. 18. Find out the problem restricting the production, generating proper solutions and implement them in a proper way.
  12. 12. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 12 CHAPTER - 3 LITURATURE REVIEW Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 12 CHAPTER - 3 LITURATURE REVIEW Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 12 CHAPTER - 3 LITURATURE REVIEW
  13. 13. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 13 3.1. Dyeing Flow Chart: Stantoring Open Compacting Delivery Inspection Dryer Tube compacting Inspection Delivery Calendaring Slitting Fastness Improvement TtyuuTTreatment Tube Finish Gray Fabric Inspection Diminalilazation Enzyme Wash Open Finish Dyeing Finishing Senging Softening Sqizer / Padder Scouring Bleaching Special Finish 1) Sueding 2) Brushing 3) Creeping Note: Red Marked area have chance to make fabric Fault Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 13 3.1. Dyeing Flow Chart: Stantoring Open Compacting Delivery Inspection Dryer Tube compacting Inspection Delivery Calendaring Slitting Fastness Improvement TtyuuTTreatment Tube Finish Gray Fabric Inspection Diminalilazation Enzyme Wash Open Finish Dyeing Finishing Senging Softening Sqizer / Padder Scouring Bleaching Special Finish 1) Sueding 2) Brushing 3) Creeping Note: Red Marked area have chance to make fabric Fault Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 13 3.1. Dyeing Flow Chart: Stantoring Open Compacting Delivery Inspection Dryer Tube compacting Inspection Delivery Calendaring Slitting Fastness Improvement TtyuuTTreatment Tube Finish Gray Fabric Inspection Diminalilazation Enzyme Wash Open Finish Dyeing Finishing Senging Softening Sqizer / Padder Scouring Bleaching Special Finish 1) Sueding 2) Brushing 3) Creeping Note: Red Marked area have chance to make fabric Fault
  14. 14. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 14 3.2 SCOURING PROCESS: The tern scouring applies to the removal of impurities such as oil, wax gum, soluble impurities and solid dirt commonly found in textile material. The process consists essentially of treatment with alkali, a good supply of water is essential. Bleaching. Bleaching is destruction of natural coloring matter to produce white fabrics and must be accomplished with a minimum damage to the cotton being bleached. Bleaching is not a cleaning process in the sense of scouring. This process does not remove dirt. Recipe for scouring/ Bleaching : -[9] Sequestering Agent (Celion BDW) :0.6 gm/L Wetting Agent ( KappaWet BOSS): 0.7 gm/L Antifoam (AF 2000) : 0.2 gm/L Ant crease (Kappavon FCB): 0.8 gm/l Stabilizer ( Equasec STA ) : 0.1 gm/L Caustic soda (NaOH): 1 gm/L (scouring Chemical) H2O2 0.6 gm/L (Bleaching Chemical ) M: L: 1:6 or 1:8 Temperature(▫C): 98 c Time: 60' PH = 11.5-12 3.3 Special Process: Deminelilazation Hot For Lycra Fabrics : To Remove The lubrication so that it don’t effect on White or light s hade and don’t create Yellowness on the Fabrics Recipe : Ant crease (Kappavon FCB): 0.2 gm/l Basic Chemical (Kappa R 98) : 0.5 gm/l Wetting Agent ( KappaWet BOSS): 0.2 gm/L Parameter: 800 c /20 min For Slub Fabrics : To Remove the Ferrous (Ca,Mg ,Fe) Salt fron the Thin portion of the Slub yarn So that it don’t broke during the SCOURING PROCESS react With NaOH and make Hole On the Fabrics Ant crease (Kappavon FCB): 0.3 gm/l Acid (Oxalic Acid –Core neutralizer ) : 0.5 gm/l Sequestering Agent (Celion BDW) : 0.3 gm/L Parameter: 600 c /20 min Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 14 3.2 SCOURING PROCESS: The tern scouring applies to the removal of impurities such as oil, wax gum, soluble impurities and solid dirt commonly found in textile material. The process consists essentially of treatment with alkali, a good supply of water is essential. Bleaching. Bleaching is destruction of natural coloring matter to produce white fabrics and must be accomplished with a minimum damage to the cotton being bleached. Bleaching is not a cleaning process in the sense of scouring. This process does not remove dirt. Recipe for scouring/ Bleaching : -[9] Sequestering Agent (Celion BDW) :0.6 gm/L Wetting Agent ( KappaWet BOSS): 0.7 gm/L Antifoam (AF 2000) : 0.2 gm/L Ant crease (Kappavon FCB): 0.8 gm/l Stabilizer ( Equasec STA ) : 0.1 gm/L Caustic soda (NaOH): 1 gm/L (scouring Chemical) H2O2 0.6 gm/L (Bleaching Chemical ) M: L: 1:6 or 1:8 Temperature(▫C): 98 c Time: 60' PH = 11.5-12 3.3 Special Process: Deminelilazation Hot For Lycra Fabrics : To Remove The lubrication so that it don’t effect on White or light s hade and don’t create Yellowness on the Fabrics Recipe : Ant crease (Kappavon FCB): 0.2 gm/l Basic Chemical (Kappa R 98) : 0.5 gm/l Wetting Agent ( KappaWet BOSS): 0.2 gm/L Parameter: 800 c /20 min For Slub Fabrics : To Remove the Ferrous (Ca,Mg ,Fe) Salt fron the Thin portion of the Slub yarn So that it don’t broke during the SCOURING PROCESS react With NaOH and make Hole On the Fabrics Ant crease (Kappavon FCB): 0.3 gm/l Acid (Oxalic Acid –Core neutralizer ) : 0.5 gm/l Sequestering Agent (Celion BDW) : 0.3 gm/L Parameter: 600 c /20 min Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 14 3.2 SCOURING PROCESS: The tern scouring applies to the removal of impurities such as oil, wax gum, soluble impurities and solid dirt commonly found in textile material. The process consists essentially of treatment with alkali, a good supply of water is essential. Bleaching. Bleaching is destruction of natural coloring matter to produce white fabrics and must be accomplished with a minimum damage to the cotton being bleached. Bleaching is not a cleaning process in the sense of scouring. This process does not remove dirt. Recipe for scouring/ Bleaching : -[9] Sequestering Agent (Celion BDW) :0.6 gm/L Wetting Agent ( KappaWet BOSS): 0.7 gm/L Antifoam (AF 2000) : 0.2 gm/L Ant crease (Kappavon FCB): 0.8 gm/l Stabilizer ( Equasec STA ) : 0.1 gm/L Caustic soda (NaOH): 1 gm/L (scouring Chemical) H2O2 0.6 gm/L (Bleaching Chemical ) M: L: 1:6 or 1:8 Temperature(▫C): 98 c Time: 60' PH = 11.5-12 3.3 Special Process: Deminelilazation Hot For Lycra Fabrics : To Remove The lubrication so that it don’t effect on White or light s hade and don’t create Yellowness on the Fabrics Recipe : Ant crease (Kappavon FCB): 0.2 gm/l Basic Chemical (Kappa R 98) : 0.5 gm/l Wetting Agent ( KappaWet BOSS): 0.2 gm/L Parameter: 800 c /20 min For Slub Fabrics : To Remove the Ferrous (Ca,Mg ,Fe) Salt fron the Thin portion of the Slub yarn So that it don’t broke during the SCOURING PROCESS react With NaOH and make Hole On the Fabrics Ant crease (Kappavon FCB): 0.3 gm/l Acid (Oxalic Acid –Core neutralizer ) : 0.5 gm/l Sequestering Agent (Celion BDW) : 0.3 gm/L Parameter: 600 c /20 min
  15. 15. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 15 3.4 Dyeing : The dyeing aim is to colour the textile material in a uniform way. These two stages of the process are performed more often on Woven fabric or knit, however those can be also performed on fibre, thread or on some clothing. Types of dyeing e work for 1. Knit Dyeing 2. Yarn Dyeing 3.5 Finishing: Textile finishing, in a restricted sense, is the term used for a series of processes to which all bleached, dyed, printed & certain greige fabrics are subjected before they are put to market. It’s one of the most important operation in knit processing. DEFINITION OF DEFECT: The length of the defect is used to determine the penalty points. Only major defects are considered. A major defect is any defect, if found on a finished product, would classify the product as a B- grade. Any defect of a continuous nature shall be assigned four points for each meter in which it occurs. Severe defects are assigned the maximum four points for each meter in which they occur. Example: Regardless of size, a hole would be penalized four points. Continuing conditions such as barre, side center side shading, roll to roll shading, narrow or irregular width, creasing, uneven finish shall be counted four points for every meter within the shipment that is found to contain these conditions, provided that the article that is to be made from this fabric is classified B-grade due to this fault. The maximum penalty for any one-meter shall not be more than four points. A minor defect is any defect that does not classify the product as B-grade because of either severity or location. When inspecting fabric before cutting, it is necessary to rate questionable defects as major, since the inspector will not know where the defect may occur on the item. RUNNING DEFECTS: Any major defect found to repeat and / or run in a continuous manner will constitute a running defect. All major running defects must be assigned four penalty points to every meter in the roll where it occurs. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 15 3.4 Dyeing : The dyeing aim is to colour the textile material in a uniform way. These two stages of the process are performed more often on Woven fabric or knit, however those can be also performed on fibre, thread or on some clothing. Types of dyeing e work for 1. Knit Dyeing 2. Yarn Dyeing 3.5 Finishing: Textile finishing, in a restricted sense, is the term used for a series of processes to which all bleached, dyed, printed & certain greige fabrics are subjected before they are put to market. It’s one of the most important operation in knit processing. DEFINITION OF DEFECT: The length of the defect is used to determine the penalty points. Only major defects are considered. A major defect is any defect, if found on a finished product, would classify the product as a B- grade. Any defect of a continuous nature shall be assigned four points for each meter in which it occurs. Severe defects are assigned the maximum four points for each meter in which they occur. Example: Regardless of size, a hole would be penalized four points. Continuing conditions such as barre, side center side shading, roll to roll shading, narrow or irregular width, creasing, uneven finish shall be counted four points for every meter within the shipment that is found to contain these conditions, provided that the article that is to be made from this fabric is classified B-grade due to this fault. The maximum penalty for any one-meter shall not be more than four points. A minor defect is any defect that does not classify the product as B-grade because of either severity or location. When inspecting fabric before cutting, it is necessary to rate questionable defects as major, since the inspector will not know where the defect may occur on the item. RUNNING DEFECTS: Any major defect found to repeat and / or run in a continuous manner will constitute a running defect. All major running defects must be assigned four penalty points to every meter in the roll where it occurs. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 15 3.4 Dyeing : The dyeing aim is to colour the textile material in a uniform way. These two stages of the process are performed more often on Woven fabric or knit, however those can be also performed on fibre, thread or on some clothing. Types of dyeing e work for 1. Knit Dyeing 2. Yarn Dyeing 3.5 Finishing: Textile finishing, in a restricted sense, is the term used for a series of processes to which all bleached, dyed, printed & certain greige fabrics are subjected before they are put to market. It’s one of the most important operation in knit processing. DEFINITION OF DEFECT: The length of the defect is used to determine the penalty points. Only major defects are considered. A major defect is any defect, if found on a finished product, would classify the product as a B- grade. Any defect of a continuous nature shall be assigned four points for each meter in which it occurs. Severe defects are assigned the maximum four points for each meter in which they occur. Example: Regardless of size, a hole would be penalized four points. Continuing conditions such as barre, side center side shading, roll to roll shading, narrow or irregular width, creasing, uneven finish shall be counted four points for every meter within the shipment that is found to contain these conditions, provided that the article that is to be made from this fabric is classified B-grade due to this fault. The maximum penalty for any one-meter shall not be more than four points. A minor defect is any defect that does not classify the product as B-grade because of either severity or location. When inspecting fabric before cutting, it is necessary to rate questionable defects as major, since the inspector will not know where the defect may occur on the item. RUNNING DEFECTS: Any major defect found to repeat and / or run in a continuous manner will constitute a running defect. All major running defects must be assigned four penalty points to every meter in the roll where it occurs.
  16. 16. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 16 FULL WIDTH DEFECTS: A full width major defect would cause that meter of fabric to be assigned four penalty points. FABRIC WIDTH: Fabric width will be checked minimum of three times during the inspection of a roll (beginning, middle and end of the roll).Rolls having width less than the specified are potential problems. In such cases width deviation of more than 1% would constitute a major fault. Overall, fabric width is measured from out side of the selvage to the outside of the opposite selvage. ROLL LENGTH: Rolls having meters less than that stated on the packing are a problem. Any roll having more than 1% lesser fabric than that specified is rejected. The entire shipment shall be rejected if the total measured meters in the sample audit are more than 1% short that what is declared on the packing. SPLICES: Rolls can be composed of several spliced parts. No roll shall be accepted that contains a splice less than twenty five ( 25 ) meters in length unless otherwise expressly accepted. Ensure that the 95% of the shipment contains 100 meter plus fabric length if the fabric is being used for made - ups. In case of piece goods, the fabric length and the number of splices / roll are strictly followed as per the requirement of the customer. BOW & SKEW: No roll shall be accepted as first quality that exhibit bow or skew more than: Fabric Width Maximum Bow or Skew Design Print/dyes Deviation Up to 45 inches 2.0% 2.0% 60 inches 2.0% 2.0% 90 inches and above 2.0% 2.0% The above is subject to change if buyer requires a tighter tolerance / nature of design / end use of the fabric. Tolerance for bowed condition not affecting the full width will be fractionalized part of the maximums as stated above according to the area affected by the bow. Penalty points will not be assigned for fabrics found to have conditions of bowing in excess of the above stated tolerances but shall be noted in the inspection report. And if any fabric exhibits bow or skew where its end use becomes doubtful, then that fabric will be rejected. FABRIC ODORS: No roll shall be accepted that exhibits objectionable odors. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 16 FULL WIDTH DEFECTS: A full width major defect would cause that meter of fabric to be assigned four penalty points. FABRIC WIDTH: Fabric width will be checked minimum of three times during the inspection of a roll (beginning, middle and end of the roll).Rolls having width less than the specified are potential problems. In such cases width deviation of more than 1% would constitute a major fault. Overall, fabric width is measured from out side of the selvage to the outside of the opposite selvage. ROLL LENGTH: Rolls having meters less than that stated on the packing are a problem. Any roll having more than 1% lesser fabric than that specified is rejected. The entire shipment shall be rejected if the total measured meters in the sample audit are more than 1% short that what is declared on the packing. SPLICES: Rolls can be composed of several spliced parts. No roll shall be accepted that contains a splice less than twenty five ( 25 ) meters in length unless otherwise expressly accepted. Ensure that the 95% of the shipment contains 100 meter plus fabric length if the fabric is being used for made - ups. In case of piece goods, the fabric length and the number of splices / roll are strictly followed as per the requirement of the customer. BOW & SKEW: No roll shall be accepted as first quality that exhibit bow or skew more than: Fabric Width Maximum Bow or Skew Design Print/dyes Deviation Up to 45 inches 2.0% 2.0% 60 inches 2.0% 2.0% 90 inches and above 2.0% 2.0% The above is subject to change if buyer requires a tighter tolerance / nature of design / end use of the fabric. Tolerance for bowed condition not affecting the full width will be fractionalized part of the maximums as stated above according to the area affected by the bow. Penalty points will not be assigned for fabrics found to have conditions of bowing in excess of the above stated tolerances but shall be noted in the inspection report. And if any fabric exhibits bow or skew where its end use becomes doubtful, then that fabric will be rejected. FABRIC ODORS: No roll shall be accepted that exhibits objectionable odors. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 16 FULL WIDTH DEFECTS: A full width major defect would cause that meter of fabric to be assigned four penalty points. FABRIC WIDTH: Fabric width will be checked minimum of three times during the inspection of a roll (beginning, middle and end of the roll).Rolls having width less than the specified are potential problems. In such cases width deviation of more than 1% would constitute a major fault. Overall, fabric width is measured from out side of the selvage to the outside of the opposite selvage. ROLL LENGTH: Rolls having meters less than that stated on the packing are a problem. Any roll having more than 1% lesser fabric than that specified is rejected. The entire shipment shall be rejected if the total measured meters in the sample audit are more than 1% short that what is declared on the packing. SPLICES: Rolls can be composed of several spliced parts. No roll shall be accepted that contains a splice less than twenty five ( 25 ) meters in length unless otherwise expressly accepted. Ensure that the 95% of the shipment contains 100 meter plus fabric length if the fabric is being used for made - ups. In case of piece goods, the fabric length and the number of splices / roll are strictly followed as per the requirement of the customer. BOW & SKEW: No roll shall be accepted as first quality that exhibit bow or skew more than: Fabric Width Maximum Bow or Skew Design Print/dyes Deviation Up to 45 inches 2.0% 2.0% 60 inches 2.0% 2.0% 90 inches and above 2.0% 2.0% The above is subject to change if buyer requires a tighter tolerance / nature of design / end use of the fabric. Tolerance for bowed condition not affecting the full width will be fractionalized part of the maximums as stated above according to the area affected by the bow. Penalty points will not be assigned for fabrics found to have conditions of bowing in excess of the above stated tolerances but shall be noted in the inspection report. And if any fabric exhibits bow or skew where its end use becomes doubtful, then that fabric will be rejected. FABRIC ODORS: No roll shall be accepted that exhibits objectionable odors.
  17. 17. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 17 HOLES: All defects that break the fabric, regardless of size, shall be penalized a maximum of four points. A hole consists of two or more broken yarns. DYEING FAULTS: The faults which are visible after dyeing are called Dyeing faults . These faults descries the quality of the fabrics . So to overcome from this faults we have to know the causes and the remedies of these dyeing faults . TYPES OF FAULTS Dyeing faults can be described on the following basic things 1. Unlevelness ( due to dyeing conditions ) i. Ending problems ii. Cloudy dyeing iii. Pale areas 2. Unlevelness ( due to material ) i. Barriness 3. Unlevelness ( due to other reasons ) i. Skitterness ii. Listing iii. Pale areas after dyeing 4. Reproducibility i. Deviation of shade ii. Dyeing too pale iii. Precipitates in the dyebath iv. Change of shade 5. Fastness properties i. Unexpectedly poor light fastness ii. Unexpectedly poor wet and rub fastness 6. Spots, marks i. Precipitates in the dyebath ii. Singeing droplets iii. Change of shade (e.g. blue spots in brilliant red shades) iv. Dark spots v. Specks vi. Dirt spots 7. Appearance of the goods Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 17 HOLES: All defects that break the fabric, regardless of size, shall be penalized a maximum of four points. A hole consists of two or more broken yarns. DYEING FAULTS: The faults which are visible after dyeing are called Dyeing faults . These faults descries the quality of the fabrics . So to overcome from this faults we have to know the causes and the remedies of these dyeing faults . TYPES OF FAULTS Dyeing faults can be described on the following basic things 1. Unlevelness ( due to dyeing conditions ) i. Ending problems ii. Cloudy dyeing iii. Pale areas 2. Unlevelness ( due to material ) i. Barriness 3. Unlevelness ( due to other reasons ) i. Skitterness ii. Listing iii. Pale areas after dyeing 4. Reproducibility i. Deviation of shade ii. Dyeing too pale iii. Precipitates in the dyebath iv. Change of shade 5. Fastness properties i. Unexpectedly poor light fastness ii. Unexpectedly poor wet and rub fastness 6. Spots, marks i. Precipitates in the dyebath ii. Singeing droplets iii. Change of shade (e.g. blue spots in brilliant red shades) iv. Dark spots v. Specks vi. Dirt spots 7. Appearance of the goods Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 17 HOLES: All defects that break the fabric, regardless of size, shall be penalized a maximum of four points. A hole consists of two or more broken yarns. DYEING FAULTS: The faults which are visible after dyeing are called Dyeing faults . These faults descries the quality of the fabrics . So to overcome from this faults we have to know the causes and the remedies of these dyeing faults . TYPES OF FAULTS Dyeing faults can be described on the following basic things 1. Unlevelness ( due to dyeing conditions ) i. Ending problems ii. Cloudy dyeing iii. Pale areas 2. Unlevelness ( due to material ) i. Barriness 3. Unlevelness ( due to other reasons ) i. Skitterness ii. Listing iii. Pale areas after dyeing 4. Reproducibility i. Deviation of shade ii. Dyeing too pale iii. Precipitates in the dyebath iv. Change of shade 5. Fastness properties i. Unexpectedly poor light fastness ii. Unexpectedly poor wet and rub fastness 6. Spots, marks i. Precipitates in the dyebath ii. Singeing droplets iii. Change of shade (e.g. blue spots in brilliant red shades) iv. Dark spots v. Specks vi. Dirt spots 7. Appearance of the goods
  18. 18. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 18 i. Dimensional stability (shrinkage) ii. Creasing iii. Chafe marks iv. Stitch distortion (knits) v. Moire effects (on beam) vi. Lustre vii. Handle viii. Pilling (staple fibres) 8. Other problems i. Difficulty with heavy shades on fine denier yarn ii. Soiling of machine iii. Frosting on goods iv. Poor running of material in subsequent processing Some definition Wet processing fault: Crease mark: Uneven heat control during process. Unevenness: If dyestuffs are not fixed with fabric uniformly causes this problem. Patches: This problem causes due to different color on some portion of fabric. Crumple mark: This problem is as like crease mark but looks meeting effect over PC fabric. Dye stain: Marks of color on fabric surface cause this problem. Dirty mark: This mark can appear anywhere in fabric. Rub mark: Caused by friction with metallic component of m/c: Water sports: One to accumulation of water. Back Fabric Seam Impression : Backing fabric is often used to cushion fabric being printed. If there is a joining seam in the backing fabric, an impression will result on printed fabric. Broken Color Pattern: Usually caused by colored yarn out of place on frame. Color Out: Color out is the result of color running low in reservoir on printing machine Color Smears: Color Smears are the result of color being smeared during printing. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 18 i. Dimensional stability (shrinkage) ii. Creasing iii. Chafe marks iv. Stitch distortion (knits) v. Moire effects (on beam) vi. Lustre vii. Handle viii. Pilling (staple fibres) 8. Other problems i. Difficulty with heavy shades on fine denier yarn ii. Soiling of machine iii. Frosting on goods iv. Poor running of material in subsequent processing Some definition Wet processing fault: Crease mark: Uneven heat control during process. Unevenness: If dyestuffs are not fixed with fabric uniformly causes this problem. Patches: This problem causes due to different color on some portion of fabric. Crumple mark: This problem is as like crease mark but looks meeting effect over PC fabric. Dye stain: Marks of color on fabric surface cause this problem. Dirty mark: This mark can appear anywhere in fabric. Rub mark: Caused by friction with metallic component of m/c: Water sports: One to accumulation of water. Back Fabric Seam Impression : Backing fabric is often used to cushion fabric being printed. If there is a joining seam in the backing fabric, an impression will result on printed fabric. Broken Color Pattern: Usually caused by colored yarn out of place on frame. Color Out: Color out is the result of color running low in reservoir on printing machine Color Smears: Color Smears are the result of color being smeared during printing. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 18 i. Dimensional stability (shrinkage) ii. Creasing iii. Chafe marks iv. Stitch distortion (knits) v. Moire effects (on beam) vi. Lustre vii. Handle viii. Pilling (staple fibres) 8. Other problems i. Difficulty with heavy shades on fine denier yarn ii. Soiling of machine iii. Frosting on goods iv. Poor running of material in subsequent processing Some definition Wet processing fault: Crease mark: Uneven heat control during process. Unevenness: If dyestuffs are not fixed with fabric uniformly causes this problem. Patches: This problem causes due to different color on some portion of fabric. Crumple mark: This problem is as like crease mark but looks meeting effect over PC fabric. Dye stain: Marks of color on fabric surface cause this problem. Dirty mark: This mark can appear anywhere in fabric. Rub mark: Caused by friction with metallic component of m/c: Water sports: One to accumulation of water. Back Fabric Seam Impression : Backing fabric is often used to cushion fabric being printed. If there is a joining seam in the backing fabric, an impression will result on printed fabric. Broken Color Pattern: Usually caused by colored yarn out of place on frame. Color Out: Color out is the result of color running low in reservoir on printing machine Color Smears: Color Smears are the result of color being smeared during printing.
  19. 19. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 19 Crease Mark : Differs from crease streak in that streak will probably appear for an entire roll. Crease mark appears when creases are caused by fabric folds in the finishing process. Often discoloration is a problem. Drop Stitching : Drop stitching is resulted from malfunctioning needle or jack appearing as holes or missing stitches. Dye Streak in Printing : Drop stitching is resulted from malfunctioning needle or jack appearing as holes or missing stitches. Dye Streak in Printing : Results from a damaged doctor blade or a blade not cleaned properly. Usually a long streak until the operator notices the problem. Mottled : Mottles occurs when colors applied unevenly during printing. Needle Line : Needle Line is caused by bent needle forming distorted stitches in a vertical line. Pin Holes : Pin holes along selvage caused by pins holding fabric while it processes through tender frame. Printing Machine Stop Mark : Dye or ink smudged along width of fabric as a result of the printing machine stopping. Print Out of Repair : Caused by print rollers not being synchronized properly. This results in various colors of the design not being printed in the proper position. Puckered Selvage : Usually caused by selvage being stretched in finishing or by uneven wetting out in sanforization process. Scrimp: Scrip is the result of fabric being folded or creased when passing through tender frames. Water Spots : Water spots are usually caused by wet fabric being allowed to remain too long before drying, Color migrates leaving blotchy spots. Pilling : Pilling refers to the forming of little matted balls on the surface of knitted fabrics. Pilling occurs when soft yarn rubs against itself, resulting in tangled fibers and produces an uneven and worn look. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 19 Crease Mark : Differs from crease streak in that streak will probably appear for an entire roll. Crease mark appears when creases are caused by fabric folds in the finishing process. Often discoloration is a problem. Drop Stitching : Drop stitching is resulted from malfunctioning needle or jack appearing as holes or missing stitches. Dye Streak in Printing : Drop stitching is resulted from malfunctioning needle or jack appearing as holes or missing stitches. Dye Streak in Printing : Results from a damaged doctor blade or a blade not cleaned properly. Usually a long streak until the operator notices the problem. Mottled : Mottles occurs when colors applied unevenly during printing. Needle Line : Needle Line is caused by bent needle forming distorted stitches in a vertical line. Pin Holes : Pin holes along selvage caused by pins holding fabric while it processes through tender frame. Printing Machine Stop Mark : Dye or ink smudged along width of fabric as a result of the printing machine stopping. Print Out of Repair : Caused by print rollers not being synchronized properly. This results in various colors of the design not being printed in the proper position. Puckered Selvage : Usually caused by selvage being stretched in finishing or by uneven wetting out in sanforization process. Scrimp: Scrip is the result of fabric being folded or creased when passing through tender frames. Water Spots : Water spots are usually caused by wet fabric being allowed to remain too long before drying, Color migrates leaving blotchy spots. Pilling : Pilling refers to the forming of little matted balls on the surface of knitted fabrics. Pilling occurs when soft yarn rubs against itself, resulting in tangled fibers and produces an uneven and worn look. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 19 Crease Mark : Differs from crease streak in that streak will probably appear for an entire roll. Crease mark appears when creases are caused by fabric folds in the finishing process. Often discoloration is a problem. Drop Stitching : Drop stitching is resulted from malfunctioning needle or jack appearing as holes or missing stitches. Dye Streak in Printing : Drop stitching is resulted from malfunctioning needle or jack appearing as holes or missing stitches. Dye Streak in Printing : Results from a damaged doctor blade or a blade not cleaned properly. Usually a long streak until the operator notices the problem. Mottled : Mottles occurs when colors applied unevenly during printing. Needle Line : Needle Line is caused by bent needle forming distorted stitches in a vertical line. Pin Holes : Pin holes along selvage caused by pins holding fabric while it processes through tender frame. Printing Machine Stop Mark : Dye or ink smudged along width of fabric as a result of the printing machine stopping. Print Out of Repair : Caused by print rollers not being synchronized properly. This results in various colors of the design not being printed in the proper position. Puckered Selvage : Usually caused by selvage being stretched in finishing or by uneven wetting out in sanforization process. Scrimp: Scrip is the result of fabric being folded or creased when passing through tender frames. Water Spots : Water spots are usually caused by wet fabric being allowed to remain too long before drying, Color migrates leaving blotchy spots. Pilling : Pilling refers to the forming of little matted balls on the surface of knitted fabrics. Pilling occurs when soft yarn rubs against itself, resulting in tangled fibers and produces an uneven and worn look.
  20. 20. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 20 CHAPTER – 4 Experimental Data Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 20 CHAPTER – 4 Experimental Data Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 20 CHAPTER – 4 Experimental Data
  21. 21. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 21 Raw Materials KNIT CONCERN GROUP Type Of Yarn used in knit Concern: Generally used yarn and their count: Cotton 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S , 32S , 34S , 40S Polyester 75D, 100D Spandex yarn 20D,40D, 70D Grey Mélange (C-85% V-15%) 24S , 26S Ecru Mélange (C-85% V-1%) 24S , 26S , 28S PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S CVC 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S Grey Fabrics: Following types of gray fabrics are dyed: 1. Single jersey (All Over print) 2. Single jersey (with Lycra & without Lycra) 3. Polo pique 4. Single lacoste 5. Fleece 6. Interlock (with Lycra & without Lycra) 7. Rib (with Lycra & without Lycra) 8. Different types of collar & cuff Twill tape 9. Terry / Fleece 10. Pointal Rib CHEMICAL LIST Name Of Chemical No Name of Item Usage % Name of Company Antifoam 1 Kappasol AF-2000 0.2 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 2 AlbafloW FFC 0.2 g/l Huntsman Singapore Anti Crease 3 Kappavon FCB 0.8 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 4 Argalube NF 0.8 g/l sHanghai xietong (Argus) Ditergent/ Wetting Agent 5 Kapp Wet BOS 0.7 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 6 Argarep LFD 0.7 g/l Shanghai Xietong (Argus) 7 Fabrevol KNN Conc 0.7 g/l Denimist Oil Remover 8 Mescour OSRN 0.35 g/l Matex International 9 Gresaw Turbo 0.35 g/l 10 Lanaryl RK 0.35 g/l Benevolent Textile service Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 21 Raw Materials KNIT CONCERN GROUP Type Of Yarn used in knit Concern: Generally used yarn and their count: Cotton 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S , 32S , 34S , 40S Polyester 75D, 100D Spandex yarn 20D,40D, 70D Grey Mélange (C-85% V-15%) 24S , 26S Ecru Mélange (C-85% V-1%) 24S , 26S , 28S PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S CVC 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S Grey Fabrics: Following types of gray fabrics are dyed: 1. Single jersey (All Over print) 2. Single jersey (with Lycra & without Lycra) 3. Polo pique 4. Single lacoste 5. Fleece 6. Interlock (with Lycra & without Lycra) 7. Rib (with Lycra & without Lycra) 8. Different types of collar & cuff Twill tape 9. Terry / Fleece 10. Pointal Rib CHEMICAL LIST Name Of Chemical No Name of Item Usage % Name of Company Antifoam 1 Kappasol AF-2000 0.2 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 2 AlbafloW FFC 0.2 g/l Huntsman Singapore Anti Crease 3 Kappavon FCB 0.8 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 4 Argalube NF 0.8 g/l sHanghai xietong (Argus) Ditergent/ Wetting Agent 5 Kapp Wet BOS 0.7 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 6 Argarep LFD 0.7 g/l Shanghai Xietong (Argus) 7 Fabrevol KNN Conc 0.7 g/l Denimist Oil Remover 8 Mescour OSRN 0.35 g/l Matex International 9 Gresaw Turbo 0.35 g/l 10 Lanaryl RK 0.35 g/l Benevolent Textile service Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 21 Raw Materials KNIT CONCERN GROUP Type Of Yarn used in knit Concern: Generally used yarn and their count: Cotton 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S , 32S , 34S , 40S Polyester 75D, 100D Spandex yarn 20D,40D, 70D Grey Mélange (C-85% V-15%) 24S , 26S Ecru Mélange (C-85% V-1%) 24S , 26S , 28S PC (65%Polyester & 35% cotton) 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S CVC 24S , 26S , 28S , 30S Grey Fabrics: Following types of gray fabrics are dyed: 1. Single jersey (All Over print) 2. Single jersey (with Lycra & without Lycra) 3. Polo pique 4. Single lacoste 5. Fleece 6. Interlock (with Lycra & without Lycra) 7. Rib (with Lycra & without Lycra) 8. Different types of collar & cuff Twill tape 9. Terry / Fleece 10. Pointal Rib CHEMICAL LIST Name Of Chemical No Name of Item Usage % Name of Company Antifoam 1 Kappasol AF-2000 0.2 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 2 AlbafloW FFC 0.2 g/l Huntsman Singapore Anti Crease 3 Kappavon FCB 0.8 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 4 Argalube NF 0.8 g/l sHanghai xietong (Argus) Ditergent/ Wetting Agent 5 Kapp Wet BOS 0.7 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 6 Argarep LFD 0.7 g/l Shanghai Xietong (Argus) 7 Fabrevol KNN Conc 0.7 g/l Denimist Oil Remover 8 Mescour OSRN 0.35 g/l Matex International 9 Gresaw Turbo 0.35 g/l 10 Lanaryl RK 0.35 g/l Benevolent Textile service
  22. 22. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 22 Sequestering Agent 11 Argaquist ARSK 0.6 g/l sHanghai xietong (Argus) 12 Starquist SD-97 0.6 g/l Startech Chemical 13 Chelion BD W 0.6 g/l Veskim Kimyeve Stabilizer 14 Argarep CBS 0.1 g/l sHanghai xietong (Argus) 15 StarStab Ex-3 0.1 g/l Startech Chemical 16 Equa Sec STA 0.1 g/l Veskim Kimyeve Enzyme 17 Unizyme 1000L 0.40 g/l Shanghai Youtell 18 MegaPK (CR9) 0.40 g/l Peli-Bio Chem Technology Per Oxide Killer 19 Oxilost P 0.3 g/l Veskim Kimyeve Leveling 20 Albatex –DBC 0.8 g/l Huntsman Singapore Soaping Agent 21 Kappkom E-12 0.5 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 22 Argacel S W 0.5 g/l Shanghai xietong (Argus) 23 Exhaclean BLC 0.5 g/l Denimist Fixing Agent 24 Albafix ECO Huntsman Singapore 25 Albafix FRD Huntsman Singapore Cationic Softener 26 MeSoft CCS Flacks Matex International 27 Softner AWs –P Taiwan surfactant Non ionic Softener 28 Softner E31 0.5 g/l Taiwan surfactant silicon Softener 29 KappaSoft-SM Kapp Chemie GMBH 30 wiSifact MCH VeSkim Kimyeve 31 wiSifact MIC H VeSkim Kimyeve Core Neutralizer 32 Invatex 0.5 g/l Huntsman Singapore Fixing Remover 33 Invalon DAM Huntsman Singapore Special Chemical 34 Alpclean (Viscose ) VeSkim Kimyeve 36 Invatex CRA (Black) Huntsman Singapore 37 Albatex CO (Special Levelling) Huntsman Singapore 38 Rokgent T (M/C waSh ) 39 DEfaten FX (Hit SeT) Denge Kimya TeStile Basic Chemical 40 Gluber Salt 10-80 g/l Treadasia International 41 Caustic Soda 1.5-2 g/l Gojrat 42 SOda ASh 5-17 g/l Hunan Chembrid Indust 43 Oxalic Acid 1 g/l Mollah Enterprise 44 Formic Acid 1 g/l BASF 45 KappaTex R98 (Hydroze) 2-4 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 46 Acetic Acid OCI Corporation Disperse Chemical 47 Albatex AB 45 (Buffer) 2.3g/l Huntsman Singapore 48 Albatex-AR Huntsman Singapore 49 Eripon OS 1 g/l Huntsman Singapore 50 Ultrafil HSD Huntsman Singapore 51 Univadine DIF 1 g/l Huntsman Singapore 52 Univadine DP 1 g/l Huntsman Singapore Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 22 Sequestering Agent 11 Argaquist ARSK 0.6 g/l sHanghai xietong (Argus) 12 Starquist SD-97 0.6 g/l Startech Chemical 13 Chelion BD W 0.6 g/l Veskim Kimyeve Stabilizer 14 Argarep CBS 0.1 g/l sHanghai xietong (Argus) 15 StarStab Ex-3 0.1 g/l Startech Chemical 16 Equa Sec STA 0.1 g/l Veskim Kimyeve Enzyme 17 Unizyme 1000L 0.40 g/l Shanghai Youtell 18 MegaPK (CR9) 0.40 g/l Peli-Bio Chem Technology Per Oxide Killer 19 Oxilost P 0.3 g/l Veskim Kimyeve Leveling 20 Albatex –DBC 0.8 g/l Huntsman Singapore Soaping Agent 21 Kappkom E-12 0.5 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 22 Argacel S W 0.5 g/l Shanghai xietong (Argus) 23 Exhaclean BLC 0.5 g/l Denimist Fixing Agent 24 Albafix ECO Huntsman Singapore 25 Albafix FRD Huntsman Singapore Cationic Softener 26 MeSoft CCS Flacks Matex International 27 Softner AWs –P Taiwan surfactant Non ionic Softener 28 Softner E31 0.5 g/l Taiwan surfactant silicon Softener 29 KappaSoft-SM Kapp Chemie GMBH 30 wiSifact MCH VeSkim Kimyeve 31 wiSifact MIC H VeSkim Kimyeve Core Neutralizer 32 Invatex 0.5 g/l Huntsman Singapore Fixing Remover 33 Invalon DAM Huntsman Singapore Special Chemical 34 Alpclean (Viscose ) VeSkim Kimyeve 36 Invatex CRA (Black) Huntsman Singapore 37 Albatex CO (Special Levelling) Huntsman Singapore 38 Rokgent T (M/C waSh ) 39 DEfaten FX (Hit SeT) Denge Kimya TeStile Basic Chemical 40 Gluber Salt 10-80 g/l Treadasia International 41 Caustic Soda 1.5-2 g/l Gojrat 42 SOda ASh 5-17 g/l Hunan Chembrid Indust 43 Oxalic Acid 1 g/l Mollah Enterprise 44 Formic Acid 1 g/l BASF 45 KappaTex R98 (Hydroze) 2-4 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 46 Acetic Acid OCI Corporation Disperse Chemical 47 Albatex AB 45 (Buffer) 2.3g/l Huntsman Singapore 48 Albatex-AR Huntsman Singapore 49 Eripon OS 1 g/l Huntsman Singapore 50 Ultrafil HSD Huntsman Singapore 51 Univadine DIF 1 g/l Huntsman Singapore 52 Univadine DP 1 g/l Huntsman Singapore Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 22 Sequestering Agent 11 Argaquist ARSK 0.6 g/l sHanghai xietong (Argus) 12 Starquist SD-97 0.6 g/l Startech Chemical 13 Chelion BD W 0.6 g/l Veskim Kimyeve Stabilizer 14 Argarep CBS 0.1 g/l sHanghai xietong (Argus) 15 StarStab Ex-3 0.1 g/l Startech Chemical 16 Equa Sec STA 0.1 g/l Veskim Kimyeve Enzyme 17 Unizyme 1000L 0.40 g/l Shanghai Youtell 18 MegaPK (CR9) 0.40 g/l Peli-Bio Chem Technology Per Oxide Killer 19 Oxilost P 0.3 g/l Veskim Kimyeve Leveling 20 Albatex –DBC 0.8 g/l Huntsman Singapore Soaping Agent 21 Kappkom E-12 0.5 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 22 Argacel S W 0.5 g/l Shanghai xietong (Argus) 23 Exhaclean BLC 0.5 g/l Denimist Fixing Agent 24 Albafix ECO Huntsman Singapore 25 Albafix FRD Huntsman Singapore Cationic Softener 26 MeSoft CCS Flacks Matex International 27 Softner AWs –P Taiwan surfactant Non ionic Softener 28 Softner E31 0.5 g/l Taiwan surfactant silicon Softener 29 KappaSoft-SM Kapp Chemie GMBH 30 wiSifact MCH VeSkim Kimyeve 31 wiSifact MIC H VeSkim Kimyeve Core Neutralizer 32 Invatex 0.5 g/l Huntsman Singapore Fixing Remover 33 Invalon DAM Huntsman Singapore Special Chemical 34 Alpclean (Viscose ) VeSkim Kimyeve 36 Invatex CRA (Black) Huntsman Singapore 37 Albatex CO (Special Levelling) Huntsman Singapore 38 Rokgent T (M/C waSh ) 39 DEfaten FX (Hit SeT) Denge Kimya TeStile Basic Chemical 40 Gluber Salt 10-80 g/l Treadasia International 41 Caustic Soda 1.5-2 g/l Gojrat 42 SOda ASh 5-17 g/l Hunan Chembrid Indust 43 Oxalic Acid 1 g/l Mollah Enterprise 44 Formic Acid 1 g/l BASF 45 KappaTex R98 (Hydroze) 2-4 g/l Kapp Chemie GMBH 46 Acetic Acid OCI Corporation Disperse Chemical 47 Albatex AB 45 (Buffer) 2.3g/l Huntsman Singapore 48 Albatex-AR Huntsman Singapore 49 Eripon OS 1 g/l Huntsman Singapore 50 Ultrafil HSD Huntsman Singapore 51 Univadine DIF 1 g/l Huntsman Singapore 52 Univadine DP 1 g/l Huntsman Singapore
  23. 23. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 23 List Of Dyestuff Used for dyeing at knit concern: Type Of Dye Number Name Of Dyestuff Name Of Company Disperse 1 Teracil Red WW-CBS Huntsman 2 Teracil Red WW-3BS Huntsman 3 Teracil Black WNS Huntsman 4 Teracil Red WWFS Huntsman 5 Teracil HF2F WBLS Huntsman 6 Teracil Navy W-RS Huntsman 7 Teracil Navy GRLC Huntsman 8 Teracil Red W4BS Huntsman 9 Teracil Yellow W6BS Huntsman Reactive 10 Synozol Navy Blue HB Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 11 Synozol Deep Red HB Kyug -In synthetic Corporation 12 Synozol Yellow HB Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 13 Synozol Blue K-BR Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 14 Synozol Turq Blue HF-G 266% Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 15 Synozol Brill Blue RSCL 150% Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 16 Amron Navy HR 2D Amtex Dyechem 17 Amron Yellow HR 2D Amtex Dyechem 18 Amron Yellow HF2GL Amtex Dyechem 19 Amron Brill Red HF2R Amtex Dyechem 20 Amron Red HF2F Amtex Dyechem 21 Amron Red HF4BL Amtex Dyechem 22 Amron Blue HR 2D Amtex Dyechem 23 Amtex Yellow 3R- XF Amtex Dyechem 24 Amtex Red 3B- XF Amtex Dyechem 25 Amron Ultra Red HR2D Amtex Dyechem 26 Drimarine Violet K-2RL Clarient 27 Drimarine Yellow K-2R Clarient OBA 28 HQ4BK Clarient Reactive 29 Remazol Blue -RR DyeStar 30 Remazol Yellow -RR DyeStar 31 Remazol Navy-RR DyeStar 32 Remazol Ultra Red RGB DyeStar 33 Remazol Ultra Yellow RGB DyeStar 34 Reactive Starfix Black –B 150% DyeStar 35 Reactive Starfix Yellow 3RFN Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 36 Reactive Starfix Red ED Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 37 Reactive Starfix Yellow Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 38 Reactive Starfix 3RFN Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 39 Reactive Starfix Black ED-HG Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 40 Reactive Starfix Brill Blue KNR Hangzhu jihua Import& Export Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 23 List Of Dyestuff Used for dyeing at knit concern: Type Of Dye Number Name Of Dyestuff Name Of Company Disperse 1 Teracil Red WW-CBS Huntsman 2 Teracil Red WW-3BS Huntsman 3 Teracil Black WNS Huntsman 4 Teracil Red WWFS Huntsman 5 Teracil HF2F WBLS Huntsman 6 Teracil Navy W-RS Huntsman 7 Teracil Navy GRLC Huntsman 8 Teracil Red W4BS Huntsman 9 Teracil Yellow W6BS Huntsman Reactive 10 Synozol Navy Blue HB Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 11 Synozol Deep Red HB Kyug -In synthetic Corporation 12 Synozol Yellow HB Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 13 Synozol Blue K-BR Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 14 Synozol Turq Blue HF-G 266% Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 15 Synozol Brill Blue RSCL 150% Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 16 Amron Navy HR 2D Amtex Dyechem 17 Amron Yellow HR 2D Amtex Dyechem 18 Amron Yellow HF2GL Amtex Dyechem 19 Amron Brill Red HF2R Amtex Dyechem 20 Amron Red HF2F Amtex Dyechem 21 Amron Red HF4BL Amtex Dyechem 22 Amron Blue HR 2D Amtex Dyechem 23 Amtex Yellow 3R- XF Amtex Dyechem 24 Amtex Red 3B- XF Amtex Dyechem 25 Amron Ultra Red HR2D Amtex Dyechem 26 Drimarine Violet K-2RL Clarient 27 Drimarine Yellow K-2R Clarient OBA 28 HQ4BK Clarient Reactive 29 Remazol Blue -RR DyeStar 30 Remazol Yellow -RR DyeStar 31 Remazol Navy-RR DyeStar 32 Remazol Ultra Red RGB DyeStar 33 Remazol Ultra Yellow RGB DyeStar 34 Reactive Starfix Black –B 150% DyeStar 35 Reactive Starfix Yellow 3RFN Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 36 Reactive Starfix Red ED Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 37 Reactive Starfix Yellow Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 38 Reactive Starfix 3RFN Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 39 Reactive Starfix Black ED-HG Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 40 Reactive Starfix Brill Blue KNR Hangzhu jihua Import& Export Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 23 List Of Dyestuff Used for dyeing at knit concern: Type Of Dye Number Name Of Dyestuff Name Of Company Disperse 1 Teracil Red WW-CBS Huntsman 2 Teracil Red WW-3BS Huntsman 3 Teracil Black WNS Huntsman 4 Teracil Red WWFS Huntsman 5 Teracil HF2F WBLS Huntsman 6 Teracil Navy W-RS Huntsman 7 Teracil Navy GRLC Huntsman 8 Teracil Red W4BS Huntsman 9 Teracil Yellow W6BS Huntsman Reactive 10 Synozol Navy Blue HB Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 11 Synozol Deep Red HB Kyug -In synthetic Corporation 12 Synozol Yellow HB Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 13 Synozol Blue K-BR Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 14 Synozol Turq Blue HF-G 266% Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 15 Synozol Brill Blue RSCL 150% Kyug-In synthetic Corporation 16 Amron Navy HR 2D Amtex Dyechem 17 Amron Yellow HR 2D Amtex Dyechem 18 Amron Yellow HF2GL Amtex Dyechem 19 Amron Brill Red HF2R Amtex Dyechem 20 Amron Red HF2F Amtex Dyechem 21 Amron Red HF4BL Amtex Dyechem 22 Amron Blue HR 2D Amtex Dyechem 23 Amtex Yellow 3R- XF Amtex Dyechem 24 Amtex Red 3B- XF Amtex Dyechem 25 Amron Ultra Red HR2D Amtex Dyechem 26 Drimarine Violet K-2RL Clarient 27 Drimarine Yellow K-2R Clarient OBA 28 HQ4BK Clarient Reactive 29 Remazol Blue -RR DyeStar 30 Remazol Yellow -RR DyeStar 31 Remazol Navy-RR DyeStar 32 Remazol Ultra Red RGB DyeStar 33 Remazol Ultra Yellow RGB DyeStar 34 Reactive Starfix Black –B 150% DyeStar 35 Reactive Starfix Yellow 3RFN Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 36 Reactive Starfix Red ED Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 37 Reactive Starfix Yellow Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 38 Reactive Starfix 3RFN Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 39 Reactive Starfix Black ED-HG Hangzhu jihua Import& Export 40 Reactive Starfix Brill Blue KNR Hangzhu jihua Import& Export
  24. 24. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 24 Inspection of Grey Fabric from knitting section to Dyeing:  Checking flow-chart – Knitted fabric (checked in knitting section) Grey fabric inspection section for checking by dyeing dept. Checking Ok Not ok To storage/ batch section Recheck Dyeing If not ok, Rejection Checking Standard: Varies depending on buyers’ requirements. For H&M – 4 point system is followed. For others – 10 point system is followed. Frequently found faults: Loop, Hole, Set-up, Needle, brokenYarn-out, Patty , Patta , Contamination, Lycra-out ,Sinker-mark ,Star-mark ,Wheel-mark, Oil-mark, Groove-mark, Needle-mark, Thick-Thin stripe, Wavy Stripe Knit Dyeing Operation process : General process for Dyeing  Auxiliaries are added at 50° C  Salt added by dosing system ( time : 10-20')  pH maintained at 6.5-7  Color dosing at 6O° C for 20' Exhaustion & Fixation :  After 30' soda ash added by dosing for 30-35'  pH checked & maintained at 10.5  Dye bath is kept at 60° C for 40-60'  After every 10' the sample is checked fixation occurs during this time.  Rinse for 10' & the bath is drained. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 24 Inspection of Grey Fabric from knitting section to Dyeing:  Checking flow-chart – Knitted fabric (checked in knitting section) Grey fabric inspection section for checking by dyeing dept. Checking Ok Not ok To storage/ batch section Recheck Dyeing If not ok, Rejection Checking Standard: Varies depending on buyers’ requirements. For H&M – 4 point system is followed. For others – 10 point system is followed. Frequently found faults: Loop, Hole, Set-up, Needle, brokenYarn-out, Patty , Patta , Contamination, Lycra-out ,Sinker-mark ,Star-mark ,Wheel-mark, Oil-mark, Groove-mark, Needle-mark, Thick-Thin stripe, Wavy Stripe Knit Dyeing Operation process : General process for Dyeing  Auxiliaries are added at 50° C  Salt added by dosing system ( time : 10-20')  pH maintained at 6.5-7  Color dosing at 6O° C for 20' Exhaustion & Fixation :  After 30' soda ash added by dosing for 30-35'  pH checked & maintained at 10.5  Dye bath is kept at 60° C for 40-60'  After every 10' the sample is checked fixation occurs during this time.  Rinse for 10' & the bath is drained. Southeast University Department of Textile Industry : Knit Concern Group | Project : Knit Dyeing Faults and Remedies 24 Inspection of Grey Fabric from knitting section to Dyeing:  Checking flow-chart – Knitted fabric (checked in knitting section) Grey fabric inspection section for checking by dyeing dept. Checking Ok Not ok To storage/ batch section Recheck Dyeing If not ok, Rejection Checking Standard: Varies depending on buyers’ requirements. For H&M – 4 point system is followed. For others – 10 point system is followed. Frequently found faults: Loop, Hole, Set-up, Needle, brokenYarn-out, Patty , Patta , Contamination, Lycra-out ,Sinker-mark ,Star-mark ,Wheel-mark, Oil-mark, Groove-mark, Needle-mark, Thick-Thin stripe, Wavy Stripe Knit Dyeing Operation process : General process for Dyeing  Auxiliaries are added at 50° C  Salt added by dosing system ( time : 10-20')  pH maintained at 6.5-7  Color dosing at 6O° C for 20' Exhaustion & Fixation :  After 30' soda ash added by dosing for 30-35'  pH checked & maintained at 10.5  Dye bath is kept at 60° C for 40-60'  After every 10' the sample is checked fixation occurs during this time.  Rinse for 10' & the bath is drained.

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