1 Prophase. The chromatin is condensing. The nucleolus is beginning to disappear. Although not yet visible in the micrograph, the mitotic spindle is staring to from. Prometaphase. We now see discrete chromosomes; each consists of two identical sister chromatids. Later in prometaphase, the nuclear envelop will fragment. Metaphase. The spindle is complete, and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all at the metaphase plate. Anaphase. The chromatids of each chromosome have separated, and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the ends of cell as their kinetochore microtubles shorten. Telophase. Daughter nuclei are forming. Meanwhile, cytokinesis has started: The cell plate, which will divided the cytoplasm in two, is growing toward the perimeter of the parent cell. 2 3 4 5 Nucleus Nucleolus Chromosome Chromatin condensing
How do the structures of the male and female gametes aid in their functions?
A woman who is about 4 weeks pregnant suddenly begins to bleed and pass some tissue through her vagina. After a physician examines the material, he explains to her that a sperm fertilized a polar body instead of an ovum, and an embryo could not develop. What has happened? Why do you think a polar body cannot support the development of an embryo, whereas an ovum, which is genetically identical to it, can?
Errors in cell division chromosomal aberrations
Pairs of homologous chromosomes do not separate normally during meiosis
Gametes contain two copies or no copies of a particular chromosome
Meiosis I Nondisjunction Meiosis II Nondisjunction Gametes n + 1 n + 1 n 1 n – 1 n + 1 n – 1 n n Number of chromosomes Nondisjunction of homologous chromosomes in meiosis I Nondisjunction of sister chromatids in meiosis II (a) (b)