Leptospira  G.HARIPRASAD M.Sc.,(Med micro),M.phil., Lecturer in Microbiology  Department of Microbiology  Thoothukudi Govt...
<ul><li>Spirochaetes possess numerous closely wound spirals with characteristic hooked ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively mo...
Classification   <ul><li>Non-pathogen–  </li></ul><ul><li>L.biflexa  –found in waters. </li></ul><ul><li>Human Pathogen-  ...
<ul><li>L.interrogans has  26 serogroups   </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.  -  Icterohaemorrhagiae </li></ul><ul><li>- Canicola </l...
Leptospira interrogans-Pathogenicity <ul><li>Infection with leptospira – Leptospirosis  </li></ul>The primary reservoir is...
<ul><li>Humans gets infection by drinking water contaminated with Leptospira…. </li></ul><ul><li>Leptospires can also ente...
<ul><li>Leptospires enters blood & multiply for 1 wk  </li></ul><ul><li>Then disappear from the blood and enters into the ...
WEIL’S DISEASE <ul><li>Severe form of leptospirosis </li></ul><ul><li>Fever, conjunctivitis, albuminurea, jaundice and hae...
Clinical symptoms
Laboratory diagnosis  <ul><li>Specimens: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Blood – in initial stage  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Urine – in la...
DARK-GROUND MICROSCOPY Gold standard method for detection of spirochetes including Leptospira
FONTANA’S STAIN
CULTURE  <ul><li>Modified Korthof’s medium </li></ul><ul><li>Fletcher’s semisolid medium </li></ul><ul><li>Incubated at 28...
ANIMAL INOCULATION <ul><li>Intraperitoneal inoculation into young guinea pigs </li></ul><ul><li>On third day, the peritone...
SEROLOGICAL TESTS <ul><li>Useful method of diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies begin to appear at the end of first week...
SCREENING TEST  <ul><li>Identify genus i.e.Leptospira????? </li></ul><ul><li>Using antigen:   L.biflexa (non-pathogen) </l...
Serotype specific tests  <ul><li>Identify exact serotypes  </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic agglutination test </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>TREATMENT: </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillin  </li></ul><ul><li>Tetracycline </li></ul><ul><li>Erythromycin </li></ul>P...
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Leptospira

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Leptospira

  1. 1. Leptospira G.HARIPRASAD M.Sc.,(Med micro),M.phil., Lecturer in Microbiology Department of Microbiology Thoothukudi Govt. Medical College Thoothukudi LEPTOSPIRA
  2. 2. <ul><li>Spirochaetes possess numerous closely wound spirals with characteristic hooked ends. </li></ul><ul><li>Actively motile </li></ul>
  3. 3. Classification <ul><li>Non-pathogen– </li></ul><ul><li>L.biflexa –found in waters. </li></ul><ul><li>Human Pathogen- </li></ul><ul><li>L. interrogans </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>L.interrogans has 26 serogroups </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. - Icterohaemorrhagiae </li></ul><ul><li>- Canicola </li></ul><ul><li>- Australis </li></ul><ul><li>- Hebdomadis </li></ul><ul><li>- Andamana </li></ul>
  5. 5. Leptospira interrogans-Pathogenicity <ul><li>Infection with leptospira – Leptospirosis </li></ul>The primary reservoir is rodents because, once infected, they shed the organisms for life. ANIMAL RESERVOIR FOR LEPTOSPIRA RODENT
  6. 6. <ul><li>Humans gets infection by drinking water contaminated with Leptospira…. </li></ul><ul><li>Leptospires can also enter thro’ abraded skin….. </li></ul><ul><li>Incubation period – 6-8 days </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Leptospires enters blood & multiply for 1 wk </li></ul><ul><li>Then disappear from the blood and enters into the liver, Kidney, spleen and meninges. </li></ul><ul><li>Persist mainly in kidney and excreted in urine in later stages </li></ul>
  8. 8. WEIL’S DISEASE <ul><li>Severe form of leptospirosis </li></ul><ul><li>Fever, conjunctivitis, albuminurea, jaundice and haemorrhage </li></ul><ul><li>Implicated group: </li></ul><ul><li>L.icterrohaemorrhagiae </li></ul>
  9. 9. Clinical symptoms
  10. 10. Laboratory diagnosis <ul><li>Specimens: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Blood – in initial stage </li></ul><ul><li>2. Urine – in later stage </li></ul><ul><li>Blood should be examined during the first week of illness thereafter urine is examined. </li></ul>
  11. 11. DARK-GROUND MICROSCOPY Gold standard method for detection of spirochetes including Leptospira
  12. 12. FONTANA’S STAIN
  13. 13. CULTURE <ul><li>Modified Korthof’s medium </li></ul><ul><li>Fletcher’s semisolid medium </li></ul><ul><li>Incubated at 28-32 0 C aerobically </li></ul><ul><li>Examined every 3 rd day upto 6 weeks before discarding it as negative </li></ul>
  14. 14. ANIMAL INOCULATION <ul><li>Intraperitoneal inoculation into young guinea pigs </li></ul><ul><li>On third day, the peritoneal fluid is examined daily by dark ground illumination. </li></ul>
  15. 15. SEROLOGICAL TESTS <ul><li>Useful method of diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies begin to appear at the end of first week and continue to rise till the fourth week and then begin to decline. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul><ul><li>Screening tests </li></ul><ul><li>Serotype specific tests </li></ul>
  16. 16. SCREENING TEST <ul><li>Identify genus i.e.Leptospira????? </li></ul><ul><li>Using antigen: L.biflexa (non-pathogen) </li></ul><ul><li>Test used: </li></ul><ul><li>Complement-fixation test </li></ul><ul><li>Haemagglutination test </li></ul><ul><li>ELISA </li></ul><ul><li>Agglutination </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect immunofluorescence </li></ul>
  17. 17. Serotype specific tests <ul><li>Identify exact serotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic agglutination test </li></ul><ul><li>Macroscopic agglutination test </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>TREATMENT: </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillin </li></ul><ul><li>Tetracycline </li></ul><ul><li>Erythromycin </li></ul>PROPHYLAXIS: Rodent control Disinfection of water Wearing of protective clothes No vaccines!!!! Natural immunity develops after infection with corresponding serotype
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