Leptospira
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Leptospira Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Leptospira G.HARIPRASAD M.Sc.,(Med micro),M.phil., Lecturer in Microbiology Department of Microbiology Thoothukudi Govt. Medical College Thoothukudi LEPTOSPIRA
  • 2.
    • Spirochaetes possess numerous closely wound spirals with characteristic hooked ends.
    • Actively motile
  • 3. Classification
    • Non-pathogen–
    • L.biflexa –found in waters.
    • Human Pathogen-
    • L. interrogans
  • 4.
    • L.interrogans has 26 serogroups
    • e.g. - Icterohaemorrhagiae
    • - Canicola
    • - Australis
    • - Hebdomadis
    • - Andamana
  • 5. Leptospira interrogans-Pathogenicity
    • Infection with leptospira – Leptospirosis
    The primary reservoir is rodents because, once infected, they shed the organisms for life. ANIMAL RESERVOIR FOR LEPTOSPIRA RODENT
  • 6.
    • Humans gets infection by drinking water contaminated with Leptospira….
    • Leptospires can also enter thro’ abraded skin…..
    • Incubation period – 6-8 days
  • 7.
    • Leptospires enters blood & multiply for 1 wk
    • Then disappear from the blood and enters into the liver, Kidney, spleen and meninges.
    • Persist mainly in kidney and excreted in urine in later stages
  • 8. WEIL’S DISEASE
    • Severe form of leptospirosis
    • Fever, conjunctivitis, albuminurea, jaundice and haemorrhage
    • Implicated group:
    • L.icterrohaemorrhagiae
  • 9. Clinical symptoms
  • 10. Laboratory diagnosis
    • Specimens:
    • 1. Blood – in initial stage
    • 2. Urine – in later stage
    • Blood should be examined during the first week of illness thereafter urine is examined.
  • 11. DARK-GROUND MICROSCOPY Gold standard method for detection of spirochetes including Leptospira
  • 12. FONTANA’S STAIN
  • 13. CULTURE
    • Modified Korthof’s medium
    • Fletcher’s semisolid medium
    • Incubated at 28-32 0 C aerobically
    • Examined every 3 rd day upto 6 weeks before discarding it as negative
  • 14. ANIMAL INOCULATION
    • Intraperitoneal inoculation into young guinea pigs
    • On third day, the peritoneal fluid is examined daily by dark ground illumination.
  • 15. SEROLOGICAL TESTS
    • Useful method of diagnosis
    • Antibodies begin to appear at the end of first week and continue to rise till the fourth week and then begin to decline.
    • Two types
    • Screening tests
    • Serotype specific tests
  • 16. SCREENING TEST
    • Identify genus i.e.Leptospira?????
    • Using antigen: L.biflexa (non-pathogen)
    • Test used:
    • Complement-fixation test
    • Haemagglutination test
    • ELISA
    • Agglutination
    • Indirect immunofluorescence
  • 17. Serotype specific tests
    • Identify exact serotypes
    • Microscopic agglutination test
    • Macroscopic agglutination test
  • 18.
    • TREATMENT:
    • Penicillin
    • Tetracycline
    • Erythromycin
    PROPHYLAXIS: Rodent control Disinfection of water Wearing of protective clothes No vaccines!!!! Natural immunity develops after infection with corresponding serotype