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The Flipped Classroom

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  • 1. The Flipped Classroom Research Synthesis EDET 755 Sarah Tolson _______________________________________________________ Introduction Flipped instruction is a method of instruction where students utilize web-based learning as their “homework.” Students watch videos, explore readings, participate in discussions, complete pre-lab activities, and accomplish module activities to learn content independently. The teacher basically designs lessons that are instructed while students are at home through the use of technology, including videos, podcasts, readings, and websites. Students have access to these materials as frequently as they need, and may also explore these activities at their own pace, as opposed to teacher- led instruction in the classroom at a teacher-designated pace. Once students have knowledge of the content from their at-home assignments, they return to school where they can be involved in student-centered activities to reinforce the same concepts they learned for homework. By devoting more time to the student-centered aspects, learning can be differentiated to meet the needs of all students. Students are engaged in hands-on activities, applications, connections, and projects, achieving a deeper understanding of content. This method allows teachers to actively provide more feedback and support for students immediately. _______________________________________________________ Benefits of Flipped Instruction Bergmann, J. & Sams, A. (2012). Chapter 2: The Flipped Classroom. Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day. International Society for Technology in Education. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic1362359.files/Bergmann-2012-Ch2- The%20Flipped%20Classroom.pdf. Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day’s Chapter 2, The Flipped Classroom, emphasizes the key benefit of flipped instruction—more time in class to enforce concepts. Bergmann and Sams point out that a typical classroom spends about half of a period lecturing new content and only has about twenty to thirty- five minutes of independent practice and interactive activities. However, in a flipped classroom, seventy-five minutes can be directed to these same activities to reinforce concepts—an increase from 22%-38% of student-centered activity time in a tradition setting to 83% student-centered activity time in a flipped setting. Bergmann and Sams
  • 2. have vast experience with flipped instruction, as they pioneered the field with screencasting. This book is intended for educators who are interested in flipping their classrooms. Bishop, J. L. & Verleger, M. A. (2013). The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research. 120th American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition Atlanta. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://www.studiesuccesho.nl/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/flipped-classroom- artikel.pdf. The Flipped Classroom: A Survey of the Research explores a variety of case studies and reviews other literature on flipped instruction. Bishop and Verleger look for similarities and differences in the case studies presented and point out benefits of the flipped classroom as well as research on flipped classroom—it is very cost-effective to design and develop instructional videos. The authors both have backgrounds in engineering, as well as personal interests in online learning and flipped classrooms. Their survey of the research was presented to an audience of mostly engineers, including engineering professors. Fulton, K. (2012). Upside Down and Inside Out: Flip Your Classroom to Improve Student Learning. International Society for Technology in Education. Learning and Leading with Technology, 39(8) 13-17. ERIC. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ982840.pdf. Upside Down and Inside Out: Flip Your Classroom to Improve Student Learning provides a brief overview of what flipped instruction is and then provides examples of flipped classrooms from around the United States. Fulton explores benefits of flipped classrooms—from teachers collaborating during professional learning community time to saving money by creating videos and making reusable resources as opposed to buying expensive textbooks or one-time use workbooks. She continues to discuss the positive results and successes of flipped instruction, as well as parent and student reactions. The author is an independent consultant with a variety of experience with web-based education and technology assessment. Her audience for this piece was mainly educators and administrators. O’Neil, K., Kelly, T., & Bone, S. (2012). We Turned Learning On Its Ear: Flipping the Developmental Classroom. EDMEDIA: Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia, and Telecommunications 2012. 2752- 2756. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://www.aace.org/conf/site/submission//uploads/SITE2013/paper_3053_38715 .doc.
  • 3. We Turned Learning On Its Ear: Flipping the Developmental Classroom explores flipped instruction and its benefits for both instructors and students. O’Neil, Kelly, and Bone emphasize how flipped instruction builds great community among faculty members as they provide feedback for one another and develop and refine courses and instructional materials. The authors also point out that faculty has greater buy-in as they must be greatly involved in the flipped classroom model and student achievement. The authors have a background in writing and teach at Kaplan University. Although they aim their research for educators, there is no evidence of their experience with flipped instruction. Talbert, R. (2012). Inverted Classroom. Colleagues, 9(1) Article 7. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1183&context=colleagu es&sei- redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fscholar.google.com%2Fscholar%3Fstart%3D4 0%26q%3Dflipped%2Bclassroom%26hl%3Den%26as_sdt%3D0%2C41%26as_i s%3D1#search=%22flipped%20classroom%22. Inverted Classroom explains the benefits of flipped instruction through the examples of three university studies. These findings emphasize how easy it is to implement a flipped classroom, due to cheap, accessible, and simple technology for recording and sharing video and instructional methods. Talbert is a math instructor at the university level and has a personal interest in screencasting, which directly relates to flipped instruction. His intended audience is other professors and educators. Tucker, B. (2012). The Flipped Classroom: Online Instruction at Home Frees Class Time for Learning. Education Next, 12(1) 82-83. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://educationnext.org/files/ednext_20121_BTucker.pdf. The Flipped Classroom: Online Instruction at Home Frees Class Time for Learning emphasizes the benefits of flipped instruction. Tucker explores some of the “inventors” of flipped instruction and the importance of videos to teach content. Instructors emphasize the importance of creating videos to “explain a concept in a clear, concise, bite-sized chunk.” Instructors are forced to consider the pace of content, visual representations, and align assessments. Students, as well as instructors, benefit from having concise instructional videos to explain procedures as well as conceptual ideas. The article highlights how online tools, instructional videos, and interactive simulation are rapidly increasing as flipped instruction increases in popularity. The author of this piece does not have an apparent background in technology or education, nor does he cite his references. His article is geared toward educators at any grade level, mainly those who want an introduction to the flipped classroom design.
  • 4. Drawbacks of Flipped Instruction Herreid, C. F., & Schiller, N. A. (2013). Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom. Journal of College Science Teaching, 42(5), 62-66. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from https://aacu- secure.nisgroup.com/pkal/regionalnetworks/documents/CRWG-SPEE-REF- 01.pdf. Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom discusses the negatives and positives of a flipped classroom. Herreid and Schiller’s research identifies two major drawbacks: students are hesitant to work from home on outside reading and videos and instructors must devote an immense amount of time to tailor the instructional homework, readings, and videos for students. The studies reviewed suggest instructors build a library of videos available for flipped learning instruction to engage students in student-centered learning. The authors each have a background in technology and teaching and direct this article toward college science professors. Horn, M. (2013). The Transformational Potential of Flipped Classrooms: Different Strokes for Different Folks. Education Next, 13(3) 78-79. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://educationnext.org/files/ednext_XIII_3_whatnext.pdf. The Transformational Potential of Flipped Classrooms: Different Strokes for Different Folks examines the reality of the flipped classroom. Horn emphasizes that very few flipped classrooms truly address the limitations of “brick-and-mortar schools.” In an ideal flipped classroom setting, students could move at their own pace and view the lessons at home to meet their own needs. However, many flipped classrooms are not to this point yet and flipped instruction is directed toward the whole class. Although flipped classrooms may show motivation with some students, Horn is quick to point out that the lack of motivation still exists among many low-achieving students. Another drawback that Horn points out is that many impoverished districts and low-income students may lack the amount of technology needed to flip a classroom, although they can work to overcome this issue. The reader is not provided a background on the author of this article, which is geared toward all educators. Student Perspectives and Engagement Butt, A. (2014) Student Views on the Use of a Flipped Classroom Approach: Evidence from Australia. Business Education and Accreditation, 6(1) 33-43. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://www.theibfr.com/ARCHIVE/BEA-V6N1-2014- revised.pdf#page=35.
  • 5. Student Views on the Use of a Flipped Classroom Approach: Evidence from Australia describes what a flipped classroom is, reviews literature, and studies students’ perspectives from the beginning of a course and the end of a course. Overall, seventy- five percent of students had a positive view of flipped instruction, especially due to the availability and low-cost of materials. The study delves into students’ opinions of lectures in class, as opposed to content being delivered outside of the classroom setting. The author of this study is a lecturer, but we are uncertain of his background with technology integration and web-based instruction. The audience for this research study is mainly business educators and other higher-level educators. Educause (2012) 7 Things You Should Know About Flipped Classrooms. Educause Learning Initiative, 47(1). Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI7081.pdf. 7 Things You Should Know About Flipped Classrooms is a brief article that discusses a variety of aspects of flipped classrooms, including positive and negative points. This piece places an emphasis on the students’ responsibility for learning and take a more active role in the classroom. Students, in turn, show more willingness to experiment and take risks with their education. This quick read can be directed toward anyone from educators to parents. Missildine, K., Fountain, R., Summers, L., & Gosselin, K. (2013). Flipping the Classroom to Improve Student Performance and Satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(10) 597-599. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://www.anselm.edu/Documents/Academics/Departments/Nursing%20Continu ing%20Education/Session%20F%20Handout%202%20Pre%20Read%20Please %20Research%20FlippedClass.pdf. Flipping the Classroom to Improve Student Performance and Satisfaction is a research brief about the benefits of flipped instruction on student achievement. Students who received aspects of a flipped classroom received higher scores on their assessments, but the data on student satisfaction lacked validity, so further research is needed. The authors of this study are nursing professors who were interested in implementing flipped instruction into their nursing programs. This article is aimed toward other educators, especially those in the nursing field. Roehl, A., Reddy, S. L., & Shannon, G. J. (2013). The Flipped Classroom: An Opportunity to Engage Millennial Students Through Active Learning Strategies. Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 105(2) 44-49. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://www.gaylajettshannon.com/uploads/2/4/6/7/24670334/engaging_millennial s_jcsa.pdf.
  • 6. The Flipped Classroom: An Opportunity to Engage Millennial Students Through Active Learning Strategies defines millennial students or “digital natives,” students who have grown up around technology and have great access to a breadth of information and technology. Roehl, Reddy, and Shannon continue to describe how these digital natives are used to continuous access to technology and benefit from active learning strategies, hence the focus on the flipped classroom. They continue to emphasize how students are more aware of their learning processes and can be actively engaged through freedom to interact with the content and other students. Students are also taking more responsibility in their education. The authors also explain the challenges of flipped instruction. The authors of the study have backgrounds in interior design and fashion merchandising, and do not appear to have any background with flipped classrooms or web-based learning. The intended audience for this article is instructors and the family and consumer science sector. Stone, B. B. (2012). Flip Your Classroom to Increase Active Learning and Student Engagement. 28th Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://www.uwex.edu/disted/conference/Resource_library/proceedings/56511_20 12.pdf. Flip Your Classroom to Increase Active Learning and Student Engagement is a research study that explored the impact flipped instruction has on student learning, attendance, and attitude toward teaching strategies. This specific study showed greater student achievement in the small classroom, but no significant impact on student achievement in a larger classroom setting. Stone has experience teaching online and flipped classes. This research study is geared toward other instructors and educators interested in flipping. Instructional Modules for Flipping Adam, M., Boneh, D., Fisher, D., Klemmer, S., McFarland, D., Noor, M., Rixner, S., Warren, J., Sainani, K., Williams, A., Zelikow, P., Everett, S., Diamond, L., Booske, J., Campbell, J., & Moses, G. (2013). Flipped Classroom Field Guide. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://www.cvm.umn.edu/facstaff/prod/groups/cvm/@pub/@cvm/@facstaff/docu ments/content/cvm_content_454476.pdf. Flipped Classroom Field Guide is a guide to flipping your classroom. It is an in-depth resource to flipping, especially integrating active learning activities for student-centered learning emphasis in the classroom, including applications, extensions, discussions, packets of problems, classroom assessment techniques, and collaborative learning
  • 7. activities. It also explains how to collect and use data in the flipped classroom setting. This guide is a collaborative piece by many professors and a combination of their research studies. Demski, J. (2013). 6 Expert Tips for Flipping the Classroom. Campus Technology, 26(5) 32-37. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://online.qmags.com/CPT0113?pg=14&mode=1#pg37&mode1. 6 Expert Tips for Flipping the Classroom explores methods to effectively flip a classroom—use existing technology, be up front with expectations, let students learn from one another, assess students’ pre-class assignment understanding, set a specific target, and build assessments to complement the flipped model. Demski has many published sources for web-based instruction and educational technology. The intended audience for this article includes educators—mainly college professors, but can be adjusted to fit any developmental level. Flumerfelt, S. & Green, G. (2012). Using Lean in the Flipped Classroom for At Risk Students. Educational Technology and Society, 16(1), 356-366. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://ifets.info/journals/16_1/31.pdf. Using Lean in the Flipped Classroom for At Risk Students suggests that many schools are slow to adapt for “digital natives,” integrating technology and student-centered active learning. Lean is a way to adjust to meet these needs. Lean is defined as “an approach that requires the commitment of the technical, social and human capital of an organization to continuous improvement for the purpose of identifying distinct ways to create value as determined by the customer and to eliminate waste based on thoughtful examination of its root causes.” By using the lean approach, teachers can effectively flip their classrooms to spend more time focusing on student achievement and knowledge. This research study and article was written by two educators and aimed toward other educators. Jamaludin, R. & Osman, S. Z. (2014). The Use of a Flipped Classroom to Enhance Engagement and Promote Active Learning. Journal of Education and Practice, 5(2) 124-131. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JEP/article/view/10648/10875. The Use of a Flipped Classroom to Enhance Engagement and Promote Active Learning is a study that investigates the behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and agentic engagement of students in a flipped classroom. The findings of this study emphasize that students are more behaviorally, emotionally, cognitively, and agentically engaged in the flipped classroom setting. Jamaludin and Osman are instructors of instructional technology and this research study is aimed toward other educators.
  • 8. Maher, M. L., Lipford, H., & Singh, V. (2012) Flipped Classroom Strategies Using Online Videos. University of North Carolina Charlotte, 1-6 . Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from http://cei.uncc.edu/sites/default/files/CEI%20Tech%20Report%203.pdf. Flipped Classroom Strategies Using Online Videos is a study of flipping a web development course at the college level. The study collected and critiqued online videos. Students provided feedback on videos weekly. Students enjoyed being able to move through content at their own pace, but some were frustrated when they were familiar with concepts and had to review the videos at a slower pace than they preferred. The study found that some complicated concepts are difficult to learn through video instruction. Overall, the study showed that learning through online videos was effective and helpful for students. This study was conducted by professors of software and information, suggesting they have a background with educational technology. The study is intended for educators who would like to implement online videos into their instruction. Shimamoto, D. N. (2012). Implementing a Flipped Classroom: An Instructional Module. Web. 24 June 24 2014. Retrieved from http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/22527/ETEC690- FinalPaper.pdf?sequence=1. Implementing a Flipped Classroom: An Instructional Module is a case study using a designed instructional module (http://www.kokuamai.com/test/flipped) for flipped classrooms. This instructional module was implemented in seventh to twelfth grades and results show that the instructional module was useful for a majority of the participants. Shimamoto has a background in Educational Technology and is familiar with web-based learning and the flipped classroom module. His intended audience for this piece is probably higher-level educators and other educational technology professionals. Sullivan, S. (2013). Adapting the Flipped Classroom for At-Risk Science Students through Learning-Centered Design. SUNY Institute of Technology, Information Design and Technology, 1-55. Web. 24 June 2014. Retrieved from https://pldochst001.sunyit.edu/dsweb/Get/Rendition- 282667/Sara%20Sullivan_ThesisProject2014TOC.docx%E2%80%9D.pdf. Adapting the Flipped Classroom for At-Risk Science Students through Learning- Centered Design presents guidelines for developing effective videos. This paper suggests using learning-centered design and explains how to adapt the flipped classroom to meet the needs of all students. The author of this piece has a background in information design and technology. This project is intended for anyone who wants to incorporate videos into their instruction, flip their class, or use alternative education aspects.
  • 9. Tan, E. & Pearce, N. (2011). Open Education Videos in the Classroom: Exploring the Opportunities and Barriers to the Use of YouTube in Teaching Introductory Sociology. Research in Learning Technology: The Journal of the Association for Learning Technology, 19(1) 125-133. Retrieved from http://www.researchinlearningtechnology.net/index.php/rlt/article/download/7783/ 10460. Open Education Videos in the Classroom: Exploring the Opportunities and Barriers to the Use of YouTube in Teaching Introductory Sociology delves into the use of videos in the classroom, as well as what qualities videos should have—from the ability to promote class discussion to how videos engage social media to promote student collaboration. This study focuses on the importance of social connections and sharing among students. There is no biography for the authors. This research study would be beneficial to educators wanting to flip their classrooms, as well as anyone who wants to incorporate videos and social aspects into their classroom. _______________________________________________________ Conclusion The flipped classroom model is fairly new and more research and data on flipped instruction is collected continuously. Even though there is data and many instructional models for flipping a classroom, many of these sources suggest flipping a classroom will look different depending on the development of the students, subject-matter that is covered, and diversity of the students, among other factors. Flipped instruction, as well as all other forms of distant-learning, is continually developing as more technology becomes available. As flipped instruction becomes more popular and wide-spread, more resources are available through flipped classroom data bases, such as Flipped Classroom (http://www.flippedclassroom.com/), Flipped Learning (http://www.flippedlearning.org/domain/36), Flip’in Utah (http://www.uen.org/flipped/), Jim Warford (http://jimwarford.com/classroom-resources/), and more instructional videos are constantly being uploaded to YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/). Building databases to support flipped instruction makes it easier for instructors to flip their classrooms in the best interest of their students.