Flipped Learning is a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter”. This study has the purpose to examine and help resolve the challenges that students with disabilities face when using online course materials.
Running Head: Flipped Classroom
How to Make Flipped Classroom Accessible
Technology has created a great revolution in possibilities for disabled learners. The
rapid development and application of computer based technology has ending the isolation and
limited opportunities disabled learner have long faced (Andrian 2012). Today students with
disabilities have a lot of chances throughout E-learning. At the same time they still face some
challenges. The accessibility is a big challenge, to explore the content and get more access to
different resources it is most important in learning. The issue of accessible eLearning can be
divide by two main sides: technical side which mainly focus on establishing strong E-learning
platform and other side is pedagogical accessibility mainly focus on design and develop
curriculum content. Recently, flipped classroom as a new tool can assist in this way. According
to Flipped Learning network(FLN) 2014 “ Flipped Learning is a pedagogical approach in which
direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the
resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the
educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter”.
This study has the purpose to examine and help resolve the challenges that students with
disabilities face when using online course materials.
Overview of setting
This study took place at Ontario public schools during the fall semester of 2015. The
study focus on filliped classroom in elementary and secondary school which they have great
experiences in this field. According to the published report titled by “Digital learning in Ontario
Schools” 2014: “In 99% of Ontario elementary and secondary schools student have access to
computers in schools” In same report demonstrate that “ Principals in 80% of Ontario elementary
schools report students start using computer as an integrated part of their learning in
According to the report about the situation in Ontario schools indicate that the technology is
widely used in diverse modalities, supporting distance learning courses and academic programs.
Context of the problem
Students with disabilities require a variety of support services and program modifications
to be able to pursue successfully a postsecondary education (Hill, 1991; Marion & Iovacchini,
1983; Michael, Salend, Bennett & Harris, 1988; Sergent et al., 1987). Regrading to Statistics
Canada, in 2006 reported “4.4 million Canadians, or 1 in 7 of the population, having a disability.
The report suggests that the substantial increase in reporting (21%) is in large part due to
society’s changing perception of disability. That mean there will be more challenges in
In the traditional education environment, students sometimes miss significant points while
teacher going on lecturing. Today the new technology provide variety types of tools, using video
and different pre-recorded media enable students to control and fellow the lessons. Student can
watch, rewind and fast forward as needed. Lessons can be stored and viewed later many times.
At the same time this technology assist limited English proficiency, experiencing visual or
hearing impairments, being blind or deaf and all other disabilities.
Nwosisi (2016) in his study mentioned that “flipping also change the allocation of teacher
time. He said that “traditionally teacher engage with student who ask questions but those who do
not ask tend to need the most attention.”
Furthermore according to section 300.172 of individuals with disabilities education Act
(IDEA) 2004, “provide assurance of education regarding the timely of provision of accessible,
alternate format materials for student with identified print disabilities”. So providing equal
access for student with disabilities is major issue in this study want to explore and try to propose
The literature of the flipped classroom directed to answer the following question:
What the flipped classroom mean in education field? What are the pros and cons of flipping
classroom and how can benefit student with disabilities? Is there any models explain how
teachers flipped classroom? Is there any studies about flipped classroom? How to make flipped
In 1980 Ron Mace (Center for Universal Design) coined the term of Universal design which
it mean deliberating design of instruction to meet all learners’ need by incorporating multiple
means of imparting information and flexible methods of assessing learning.
In a review of flipped classroom research, practice and technologies, Michael and his
partner (2014) state some new strategies and tools for flipping by using a three stage frame work
for instructional design. Throughout this review authors looking for three goals: serve higher
education instructors to maximum the learning experience, make data derive decision and
effectively shift accountability for learning in ways that improve learners outcomes . To going on
these goals, the authors provided a review of literature and related research and they introduce
practical strategies for effective implementation.
Kovach (2014) in his article (Leadership in Classroom) said that in flipped classroom students
are able to view pre-recorded lessons before coming to class and reserve class time or face to
face time, for learning experiences that require higher cognitive thinking skills based on bloom
In (2014) Sang H et al. draw description about flipped classroom. The authors suggested that
flipped learning should have a flexible learning environment and need a change in learning
culture. Furthermore, they also advised that flipped classroom need specific learning strategies
such needs intentional content.
Based on the recent studies on the effectiveness of flipped classrooms there are some
indications that students become able to go far and work hard and yield better result. Ann and
Reigeluth (2012) emphasis that research show how student can get higher intrinsic motivation
when they involved in a learner-centered classroom.
To get answer for question about what tools can teachers employee to flipping their
classrooms, Ben Smith and Jared Mader (2015) answer this question in their article : (Flipping
tools for the sciences classroom). They counted many flipping tools could enable teachers to
implement in their sciences classroom. Such as screen casting, Podcasting and many free online
resources. Also they listed many websites and tools can be use by teacher to flipping their
To conclude, the literature provided answered: what the flipped classroom mean in
education field? What are the pros and cons of flipping classroom and how can benefit student
with disabilities? Is there any models explain how teachers flipped classroom? Is there any
studies about flipped classroom?
Why flipped classroom?
According to Flipped Learning Network (2012) : “In one survey of 453 teachers who
flipped their classrooms, 67 percent reported increased test scores, with particular benefits for
students in advanced placement classes and students with special needs; 80 percent reported
improved student attitudes; and 99 percent said they would flip their classrooms again next year”
(Flipped Learning Network, (2012). Deslauriers al et (2011) ensure that Flipped classrooms,
enable teacher to engage with students in class by assigning lectures and other passive learning
activities as homework and using in-class time for more active learning activities. Studies have
shown that flipped classrooms and blended learning environments can significantly improve
educational outcomes when compared to traditional classrooms.
How to Make Flipped Classroom Accessible?
The issue of accessibility is major issue face flipped room model. The vital role of flipped
classroom is to develop and enhance student learning skills and achievement via renewing and
reversing the old model of classroom. To play this role, teachers and instructors should post
lessons online in different meaning. By making all materials available online, student (and with
disabilities) everywhere could catch up these materials.
As stated in literature review about Ron Mace coined (UDL) Universal Design for learning.
He aim to provide variety of presentation formats, provide wide accessibility to instructional
materials and aim to respond to unique and individual need.
Fichent (2009) in her study on disabilities and E-learning, she suggested some solutions. Fichent
mentioned that training staff on how to use and make e-learning materials accessible is helpful.
She said offering more training opportunities to students with disabilities will fill their lack on
how to use and access easily to online courses “Developing a module, as a start, on how to make
e-learning accessible, and integrating this into existing training, would, at a minimum, begin
sensitizing faculty and staff on the issues.”. In the same study Fichent (2009) advised to place
guidelines and instructions to illustrate how to access and use online Martials “having such
guidelines in place would help resolve problems with inaccessible websites and other e-learning
tools and materials, and would inform those making purchasing decisions about the need to
select the most accessible product.” also she recommended that when testing and selecting a new
software or eLearning tool it is advisable to share ideas with student with disabilities and focus
on the accessibility issues.
In the same study Fichent(2009) draws couple of suggested solutions:
• Should delivering learning contents in a variety of formats.
• Should integrating accessibility features.
• Should providing information about the accessibility of the system and course syllabus.
• Should delivering Tutorials for prerequisite knowledge.
Challenges and implications of implementation
According to (SKCPIC, 2000): “Learning disabilities are generally thought to be caused
by a dysfunction in the central nervous system, and people who have learning disabilities are
considered to possess average or above-average intelligence”. So, the first thing always to
remember is that there are many reasons people have difficulty succeeding academically. Little is
known about how these disabilities affect the adult learner of English as a second language
(ESL). Learners may show learning disabilities in a second language when they do not in their
first. According to (Ganschow & Sparks, 1993) in the new languages there is no way to use some
strategies which may be use in first language as getting understand via whole context. Also (D.
Shewcraft, personal communication, June 2000) said “a learning disability does not t manifest
itself in the learner's first language "because of the systematic structure or transparent nature of
his native language versus English”
To fill the lack on how well student with disabilities get full access, more studies should be
held. Recent studies appear that some schools delivered good special education for student with
disabilities. At the same time additional researches should continue to translate lessons learned
from successful inclusive schools to newer start-ups, ensuring that special education is built in
from the earliest design phases. On the other hands, schools must ensure that they develop fair
equitable policies regrading to the admission of student with disabilities. Also schools should
provide designated persons within schools to help students with disabilities. Schools have to be
committed to develop the student by providing them with challenge learning opportunities
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