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How to make flipped classroom accessible

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Flipped Learning is a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter”. This study has the purpose to examine and help resolve the challenges that students with disabilities face when using online course materials.

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How to make flipped classroom accessible

  1. 1. Flipped Classroom1 Running Head: Flipped Classroom How to Make Flipped Classroom Accessible Sabri Elamin Memorial University
  2. 2. Flipped Classroom2 Technology has created a great revolution in possibilities for disabled learners. The rapid development and application of computer based technology has ending the isolation and limited opportunities disabled learner have long faced (Andrian 2012). Today students with disabilities have a lot of chances throughout E-learning. At the same time they still face some challenges. The accessibility is a big challenge, to explore the content and get more access to different resources it is most important in learning. The issue of accessible eLearning can be divide by two main sides: technical side which mainly focus on establishing strong E-learning platform and other side is pedagogical accessibility mainly focus on design and develop curriculum content. Recently, flipped classroom as a new tool can assist in this way. According to Flipped Learning network(FLN) 2014 “ Flipped Learning is a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter”. This study has the purpose to examine and help resolve the challenges that students with disabilities face when using online course materials. Overview of setting This study took place at Ontario public schools during the fall semester of 2015. The study focus on filliped classroom in elementary and secondary school which they have great experiences in this field. According to the published report titled by “Digital learning in Ontario Schools” 2014: “In 99% of Ontario elementary and secondary schools student have access to
  3. 3. Flipped Classroom3 computers in schools” In same report demonstrate that “ Principals in 80% of Ontario elementary schools report students start using computer as an integrated part of their learning in Kindergarten”. According to the report about the situation in Ontario schools indicate that the technology is widely used in diverse modalities, supporting distance learning courses and academic programs. Context of the problem Students with disabilities require a variety of support services and program modifications to be able to pursue successfully a postsecondary education (Hill, 1991; Marion & Iovacchini, 1983; Michael, Salend, Bennett & Harris, 1988; Sergent et al., 1987). Regrading to Statistics Canada, in 2006 reported “4.4 million Canadians, or 1 in 7 of the population, having a disability. The report suggests that the substantial increase in reporting (21%) is in large part due to society’s changing perception of disability. That mean there will be more challenges in accessibility. In the traditional education environment, students sometimes miss significant points while teacher going on lecturing. Today the new technology provide variety types of tools, using video and different pre-recorded media enable students to control and fellow the lessons. Student can watch, rewind and fast forward as needed. Lessons can be stored and viewed later many times. At the same time this technology assist limited English proficiency, experiencing visual or hearing impairments, being blind or deaf and all other disabilities. Nwosisi (2016) in his study mentioned that “flipping also change the allocation of teacher time. He said that “traditionally teacher engage with student who ask questions but those who do not ask tend to need the most attention.”
  4. 4. Flipped Classroom4 Furthermore according to section 300.172 of individuals with disabilities education Act (IDEA) 2004, “provide assurance of education regarding the timely of provision of accessible, alternate format materials for student with identified print disabilities”. So providing equal access for student with disabilities is major issue in this study want to explore and try to propose some solutions. Literature review The literature of the flipped classroom directed to answer the following question: What the flipped classroom mean in education field? What are the pros and cons of flipping classroom and how can benefit student with disabilities? Is there any models explain how teachers flipped classroom? Is there any studies about flipped classroom? How to make flipped classroom accessible? In 1980 Ron Mace (Center for Universal Design) coined the term of Universal design which it mean deliberating design of instruction to meet all learners’ need by incorporating multiple means of imparting information and flexible methods of assessing learning. In a review of flipped classroom research, practice and technologies, Michael and his partner (2014) state some new strategies and tools for flipping by using a three stage frame work for instructional design. Throughout this review authors looking for three goals: serve higher education instructors to maximum the learning experience, make data derive decision and effectively shift accountability for learning in ways that improve learners outcomes . To going on these goals, the authors provided a review of literature and related research and they introduce practical strategies for effective implementation. Kovach (2014) in his article (Leadership in Classroom) said that in flipped classroom students are able to view pre-recorded lessons before coming to class and reserve class time or face to
  5. 5. Flipped Classroom5 face time, for learning experiences that require higher cognitive thinking skills based on bloom taxonomy. In (2014) Sang H et al. draw description about flipped classroom. The authors suggested that flipped learning should have a flexible learning environment and need a change in learning culture. Furthermore, they also advised that flipped classroom need specific learning strategies such needs intentional content. Based on the recent studies on the effectiveness of flipped classrooms there are some indications that students become able to go far and work hard and yield better result. Ann and Reigeluth (2012) emphasis that research show how student can get higher intrinsic motivation when they involved in a learner-centered classroom. To get answer for question about what tools can teachers employee to flipping their classrooms, Ben Smith and Jared Mader (2015) answer this question in their article : (Flipping tools for the sciences classroom). They counted many flipping tools could enable teachers to implement in their sciences classroom. Such as screen casting, Podcasting and many free online resources. Also they listed many websites and tools can be use by teacher to flipping their classroom. To conclude, the literature provided answered: what the flipped classroom mean in education field? What are the pros and cons of flipping classroom and how can benefit student with disabilities? Is there any models explain how teachers flipped classroom? Is there any studies about flipped classroom?
  6. 6. Flipped Classroom6 Why flipped classroom? According to Flipped Learning Network (2012) : “In one survey of 453 teachers who flipped their classrooms, 67 percent reported increased test scores, with particular benefits for students in advanced placement classes and students with special needs; 80 percent reported improved student attitudes; and 99 percent said they would flip their classrooms again next year” (Flipped Learning Network, (2012). Deslauriers al et (2011) ensure that Flipped classrooms, enable teacher to engage with students in class by assigning lectures and other passive learning activities as homework and using in-class time for more active learning activities. Studies have shown that flipped classrooms and blended learning environments can significantly improve educational outcomes when compared to traditional classrooms. How to Make Flipped Classroom Accessible? The issue of accessibility is major issue face flipped room model. The vital role of flipped classroom is to develop and enhance student learning skills and achievement via renewing and reversing the old model of classroom. To play this role, teachers and instructors should post lessons online in different meaning. By making all materials available online, student (and with disabilities) everywhere could catch up these materials. As stated in literature review about Ron Mace coined (UDL) Universal Design for learning. He aim to provide variety of presentation formats, provide wide accessibility to instructional materials and aim to respond to unique and individual need.
  7. 7. Flipped Classroom7 Fichent (2009) in her study on disabilities and E-learning, she suggested some solutions. Fichent mentioned that training staff on how to use and make e-learning materials accessible is helpful. She said offering more training opportunities to students with disabilities will fill their lack on how to use and access easily to online courses “Developing a module, as a start, on how to make e-learning accessible, and integrating this into existing training, would, at a minimum, begin sensitizing faculty and staff on the issues.”. In the same study Fichent (2009) advised to place guidelines and instructions to illustrate how to access and use online Martials “having such guidelines in place would help resolve problems with inaccessible websites and other e-learning tools and materials, and would inform those making purchasing decisions about the need to select the most accessible product.” also she recommended that when testing and selecting a new software or eLearning tool it is advisable to share ideas with student with disabilities and focus on the accessibility issues. In the same study Fichent(2009) draws couple of suggested solutions: • Should delivering learning contents in a variety of formats. • Should integrating accessibility features. • Should providing information about the accessibility of the system and course syllabus. • Should delivering Tutorials for prerequisite knowledge. Challenges and implications of implementation According to (SKCPIC, 2000): “Learning disabilities are generally thought to be caused by a dysfunction in the central nervous system, and people who have learning disabilities are considered to possess average or above-average intelligence”. So, the first thing always to
  8. 8. Flipped Classroom8 remember is that there are many reasons people have difficulty succeeding academically. Little is known about how these disabilities affect the adult learner of English as a second language (ESL). Learners may show learning disabilities in a second language when they do not in their first. According to (Ganschow & Sparks, 1993) in the new languages there is no way to use some strategies which may be use in first language as getting understand via whole context. Also (D. Shewcraft, personal communication, June 2000) said “a learning disability does not t manifest itself in the learner's first language "because of the systematic structure or transparent nature of his native language versus English” Conclusion To fill the lack on how well student with disabilities get full access, more studies should be held. Recent studies appear that some schools delivered good special education for student with disabilities. At the same time additional researches should continue to translate lessons learned from successful inclusive schools to newer start-ups, ensuring that special education is built in from the earliest design phases. On the other hands, schools must ensure that they develop fair equitable policies regrading to the admission of student with disabilities. Also schools should provide designated persons within schools to help students with disabilities. Schools have to be committed to develop the student by providing them with challenge learning opportunities
  9. 9. Flipped Classroom9 References Ann, Y. Reigeluth, C.(2012) creating Technology-enhanced, learner-centered classrooms: K-12 Teachers Beliefs, Perceptions, Barriers and support needs. Journal of Digital learning in teacher education, 28(2), 54-62. Bodong C. Kelly Gallagher, Anne.K (2014) Digital Learning in Ontario Schools - People for Education Retrieved from: www.peopleforeducation.ca/wp.../03/digital-learning-2014-WEB.pdf Christopher Nwosisi, Alexa Ferreira, Warren Rosenberg, and Kelly Walsh, "A Study of the Flipped Classroom and Its Effectiveness in Flipping Thirty Percent of the Course Content," International Journal of Information and Education Technology vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 348-351, 2016. Deslauriers, L., Schelew, E., & Wieman, C. (2011) Improved Learning in a Large-Enrollment Physics Class, Science, Vol. 332 no. 6031 pp. 862-864 Estes. M. D., Ingram, R., & Liu, J. C. (2014). A review of flipped classroom research, practice, and technologies. International HETL Review, Volume 4, Article 7, URL: https://www.hetl.org/feature-articles/a-review-of-flipped-classroom-research-practice-and- technologies Flipped Learning Network (FLN). (2014) The Four Pillars of F-L-I-P™ Retrieved from www.flippedlearning.org/definition Flipped Learning Network. (2012). Improve student learning and teacher satisfaction with one flip of the classroom. Retrieved from author at http://flippedlearning1.files.wordpress.com/2012/07/classroomwindowinfographic7-12.pdf Fichten, C. S., et al (2009). Disabilities and e-Learning Problems and Solutions: An Exploratory Study. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 241–256. Ganschow, L., & Sparks, R. (1993). Foreign language and learning disabilities: Issues, research and teaching implications. In S.A. Vogel & P. B. Adelman (Eds.), Success for college students with learning disabilities (pp. 283-322). New York: Springer-Verlag. Hill, J.L. (1991). Accommodating a student with a disability: Suggestions for faculty. Victoria: University of Victoria, Department of Psychological Foundations. Kelly
  10. 10. Flipped Classroom10 Kovach, J.V. (2014). Leadership in the “classroom” Journal for quality & Participation, 37(1), 39-40 Mace, Ron, Center for Universal Design http://www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/index.htm Sang-Hong, K.,Nam-Hum,P.,& Kil-Hong,J. (2014) effects of flipped classroom. Based on smart learning on self-directed and collaborative learning. International Journa, of control and automation, 7 (12) 69-80. Doi:10-14257/I JCA.2014 Sec. 300.172 Access to instructional materials http://idea.ed.gov/explore/view/p/,root,regs,300,B,300%252E172, Smith, Ban& Mader. J (2015) Filpping Tools for Sciences classroom. Science Teacher 82,(3) Statistics Canada. (2007, December 3). Participation and activity limitation survey. The Daily. Retrieved January 11, 2007, from Statistics Canada’s website: http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/071203/d071203a.htm 11 Pinantoan, Andriane (2012) Learning Difficulties: What Can Technology Do for Disabled Learners? Retrived from: http://www.opencolleges.edu.au/informed/features/what-can-technology-do-for-disabled- learners/

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