Differentiated Instruction Action Research Proposal
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An action research proposal on how to train teachers on Differentiated Instruction for implementation. It has detailed calendar events, surveys, documents for observations, coding of observations, ...

An action research proposal on how to train teachers on Differentiated Instruction for implementation. It has detailed calendar events, surveys, documents for observations, coding of observations, goals, expected outcomes, and research of other's action research projects. This was completed for EDD 581 at the University of Phoenix.

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    Differentiated Instruction Action Research Proposal Differentiated Instruction Action Research Proposal Presentation Transcript

    • Action Research Proposal Differentiated Instruction Action Research Proposal Samantha Munks-Folty EDD/581: Action Research and Evaluation December 23, 2013 Elizabeth Ashley 1
    • Introduction Differentiated Instruction helps students achieve objectives through their academic level and learning style. To be able to properly differentiate lessons, teachers must be trained in the various ways. Through teaching the educators on how to properly differentiate instruction through lesson plans and hands-on activities the implementation has a better chance of taking place. The teachers must be able to see other professionals differentiate instruction, and be observed themselves. In this action research proposal, the how, why, when, who, and what will be answered. The way data is collected will also be
    • Section One: Background
    • Problem Statement 4 The problem is that Differentiated Instruction is not taking place in the General Education setting to boost student’s knowledge and test scores. Once the problem is narrowed down then an intervention will be implemented into the general education classroom to improve student’s knowledge and in result their test scores.
    • Problem Description 5 The main problem in the district is that some students who are in general education are falling more and more behind each year in their academics. Those specific students have been identified as having some learning difficulties and are on the RTI (Response to Intervention) Tier 2. This Tier is where students are to receive intervention in the general education classroom. What better way then through Differentiated Instruction, which will boost their knowledge in the content area through their academic level and learning style. Which in turn will increase their test scores. Here are some problems that may occur: The biggest difficulty I may encounter is teacher’s not being willing to participate in the study, because of the added work to each lesson. Since there are more than one way of demonstrating a lesson in small groups, the teachers may be hesitant.  The main reasons the problem has not been addressed is:   Lack of knowledge and practice of Differentiated Instruction implementation on the teacher’s part.  Extra work for the teacher to plan the lessons on different levels and learning styles. The reason Action Research is being used to address the problem is to show the teachers how to Differentiate Instruction hand on. Also to enlighten them how this will capture the student’s attention and boost the student’s knowledge. 
    • Purpose of the Project 6 This Action Research Project has two purposes: 1) to enhance teacher’s knowledge on how to use Differentiated Instruction in the General Education Setting and 2) to strengthen student’s knowledge in a specific content area through their academic level by using their specific learning style(s); which will increase test scores.
    • Writer’s Role 7 I relate to this topic of Differentiated Instruction because I am the Instructional Special Education Teacher and RTI Teacher for our middle school. I have seen many more students being added to the RTI list because of their low test scores in reading and math. I see teachers not understanding that students who are on the Tier 2 of the RTI triangle are not to be getting intervention outside the classroom. Intervention on this tier must happen inside the general education classroom, and many teachers are unsure of how to differentiated instruction based on academic level through their learning style. I picked this topic because I have seen the struggle in our students and teachers. I use Differentiated Instruction in my classroom on a daily basis, and I want to share my knowledge with my co-workers. In turn this will enhance our test scores, and lessen our RTI list. I have many teacher’s coming to me asking me ways to differentiate their current lesson, and I walk them through it. I have influenced others to differentiate their instruction and feel that I can reach and influence the ones who are hesitate.
    • Section Two: Problem Documentation
    • 9 Differentiated Instruction Survey Instrument  The following survey instrument has been designed to assess the feelings and knowledge on Differentiated Instruction. For the purposes of this survey “Differentiated Instruction” is being defined as providing different students with different avenues to learning! The survey instrument, composed of ten (10) questions about Differentiated Instruction. It will look at their current knowledge of Differentiated Instruction, if it is being implemented in their school, how well prepared they feel they are, if they have enough materials, and if they are interested in more professional development. This data will be collected and a plan will be put into place on how to help the teacher’s out with Action Research Proposal Differentiated Instruction.
    • 10 Who will take the survey & why… Who?    Why? Teachers  General Education  Special Education  FACs, Physical Education, Administration Specialty Professionals  Social workers  Speech Therapists   Teachers (general & special education) are with the children inside an academic setting day in and day out. FAC and Physical Education teachers are with the students almost everyday, and at times have tests, notes, and discussions that students might benefit from if lessons are differentiated. Administration will be surveyed because they are the leaders of the school, and make important decisions that effect student learning. The specialty professionals will be tested, because they see specific students who have different needs, too. They need to be informed on differentiated instruction for their group sessions to be successful. Action Research Proposal 
    • Differentiated Instruction Research Survey…Differentiated Instruction involves providing different students with different avenues to learning! Please fill out the survey to the best of your knowledge and be honest. 11 1. What is your position in the district? Paraprofessional Teacher Administrator Specialty Teacher Administration Secretary 6. Have you been given the adequate training on how to properly differentiate instruction? Low Level Medium Level High Level 2. Are you aware of the different methods of differentiating instruction? No Sort of Yes 7. Differentiated Instruction would improve the student's understanding of the objectives and test scores. Low Level Medium Level High Level 3. Differentiated Instruction is taking place in the general education classrooms in your district with fidelity. No Sort of Yes 8. There is enough resources in your district/school to properly implement differentiated instruction. Low Level 4. Implementation of differentiated instruction is a problem in your district Low Level Medium Level High Level 5. How comfortable do you feel with Differentiated Instruction methods? Low Level Medium Level High Level Medium Level High Level 9. Common Core makes Differentiated Instruction implementation easier. No Sort of Yes 10. Would you be interested in more professional development sessions on differentiated instruction? No Maybe Yes Survey can also be found at: https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/QZHKZKX
    • 13 22 responded to the survey within the district schools. These responders range from Pre-K to 8th Grade teachers, paraprofessionals, and administrators. Out of the 22 who responded: 3 were paraprofessionals 11 were teachers 4 were administrators. (The numbers next to the words on the Y axis are corresponding with the question numbers on previous slide.)
    • 13 Literature Research
    • Study 1 14 Authors of the study Title of the study Purpose of the study Pertinent findings that support your project Dominique Bondley How will Differentiated Instruction affect student learning? To meet students where they currently are and help them progress. All academic levels will be addressed in the class according to their learning process. Through this study helps assure that there is a need for differentiated instruction in any given math group. The findings showed there is growth when there are assignments geared to the student interest and learning levels. http://yourspace.minotstateu.edu/laurie.geller/Capstone%20Examples/Final%20Capstone%20Projects/Dominique%20Bondley%20Capstone%20Project.pdf
    • Study 2 15 Authors of the study Title of the study Purpose of the study Pertinent findings that support your project Jamie Danzi Kelly Reul Rana Smith Improving student motivation in mixed ability classrooms using differentiated instruction Through the student’s learning style they will increase motivation to the mixed abilities in the class. The information that is provided is inline with the problems that lay within my district. There is a mix of class demographics and grade levels that shows that all levels need differentiated instruction. Through the implementation the students were able to progress. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED500838.pdf
    • Study 3 16 Authors of the study Title of the study Purpose of the study Pertinent findings that support your project Jason Galvas Does the use of differentiated performance tasks following Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory improve my high school science students’ opportunity to demonstrate their achievement? The purpose of this study was to determine if using Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences would improve the student’s achievement. Using Gardner’s multiple intelligences to differentiate instruction proves to be a sufficient way to get kids motivated and caring about what they learn. Even having older students being aware of their learning style helps them take control of their learning, and how they want to demonstrate their knowledge. https://research.vancouver.wsu.edu/sites/research.vancouver.wsu.edu/files/702%20Galvas%20w%3A1% 20app.pdf
    • Study 4 17 Authors of the study Title of the study Purpose of the study Pertinent findings that support your project Terri Lynn Kirley Differentiated instruction and enrichment opportunities: An Action Research Report The purpose of this study was to reflect on teaching practices and explore the benefits of Differentiated Instruction. This study shows that many teacher’s don’t have the correct practice of different instruction, and how we need to be properly trained. This study showed how to differentiate instruction in a reading class for not just one student but a variety. Many times math is the concentration for differentiated, but reading is just as important if not more. http://oar.nipissingu.ca/pdfs/v833e.pdf
    • Study 5 18 Authors of the study Title of the study Purpose of the study Pertinent findings that support your project Shondra Denise James Does Differentiated Instruction Raise Student Performance in Mathematics: An Action Research Study The purpose of this study was to determine if an intervention in a 2nd grade math class was successful then could it be implemented and adjusted to other grade levels. The findings in this study strengthens my believe in using learning styles, hand on, and student interests to drive instruction. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/docview/ 1461413137
    • Study 6 19 Authors of the study Title of the study Purpose of the study Pertinent findings that support your project Gretchen Kelly Differentiated Instruction in the Classroom The purpose of this study was to compare whole group instruction and differentiated instruction to define which strategy was more effective to increase low achievement in a middle grade classroom. My concentration will be for math and reading in a low income/achieving middle school. This study shows how hands on activities can be for older students, and can increase student motivation and understanding of the concepts. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/docview/ 1424274598
    • Study 7 20 Authors of the study Title of the study Purpose of the study Pertinent findings that support your project Carol Ann Tomlinson The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners The author devotes three chapters of the book to describe actual lessons, units, and classrooms with differentiated instruction in action. The purpose to show how differentiated instruction can be implemented into a classroom of multiple levels and learning styles. Tomlinson really proves and demonstrates on to differentiate instruction for all academic core subjects. This study shows how a teacher can teach the same topic to a variety of Gardner’s learning styles. Through this I am able to add to the resources for the classrooms. Tomlinson, C. (1999).  The Differentiated Classroom: Responding To The Needs Of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    • Study 8 21 Authors of the study Title of the study Purpose of the study Pertinent findings that support your project Barbara R. Blackburn Rigor is not a fourletter word The author devotes a chapter of the book to describe actual lessons and methods with differentiated instruction. The purpose is to show how differentiated instruction can be implemented into a classroom of multiple levels and learning styles buy goal setting and motivation. Also by raising the level of content in instruction, raise expectations, and open up the questions that are asked of them. This study also demonstrates on how using Bloom’s Taxonomy and Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences can be differentiated together in all different grade and academic levels. It helps prove there is a need to differentiate instruction and train teachers correctly. It also gives many resources for teachers to use inside the classroom, and while preparing the lessons. Blackburn, B. (2008) Rigor is not a four-letter word. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education
    • Study 9 22 Authors of the study Title of the study Purpose of the study Pertinent findings that support your project Patti Drapeau Differentiated Instruction: Making it Work This resource begins with theory and ends with how to make the theory practical. A beginning professional will be able to quickly look up, define, and understand the typical verbiage of differentiated instruction. The purpose is to show language arts, science, and social studies sample units. By offering both examples and non-examples of when to use the various strategies, the author makes it easier for a teacher to decide which strategy to use. This is important for training teachers in differentiating instruction by giving examples of when to use different strategies. It gives a teacher a guide of how to and why to do it! It’s putting the theory into practice! Drapeau, P. (2004). Differentiated Instruction: Making It Work. New York, NY: Scholastic.
    • Section 3: Solution Strategy Action Research Proposal
    • 24 Goal(s)
    • Action Goal 25 The overall goal of this intervention is to increase the effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction in the general education setting after given the teacher’s proper training with many different techniques. In turn this will increase student knowledge and test scores. Teachers will be able create lesson plans and centers/stations to implement in their classrooms.  There are two benchmark goals to this intervention:  By the end of the summer all general education teachers will be given adequate training on different techniques for Differentiating Instruction for their classroom with 100% accuracy.  By the end of the first semester (December), teachers will be able to implement proper practice of Differentiated Instruction in their classrooms with 80% accuracy.
    • 26 Solutions
    • Selected Solutions 27 Below are the solutions to get teachers to implement Differentiated Instruction properly into their classroom: Training on different ways of Differentiating Instruction for  Math-lesson plans, centers/stations  Reading-lesson plans, centers/stations  Learning Styles Inventory  Observations from Teacher Leader and demonstrations  Math  Reading  Observations of teachers by other teachers  Weekly Journals  Weekly Lesson Plans  Weekly student assessments  Weekly/monthly meetings  Data Portfolios 
    • Teacher Training 28 First, we need make sure that teachers are made aware of what Differentiated Instruction is and why it is so extremely important to our student’s education. To do this, I have created a presentation on Differentiated Instruction. It goes through what DI is and how to Differentiate Reading and Math. Here are the steps that need to be followed:  As a group please give your definition of Differentiated Instruction and http://prezi.com/eozqgbvvjcqt/?utm_campaign=sha the team will share with one another.  Start the presentation located at  The first day will result of understanding differentiated instruction:  What it is : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fa82Icnzo9s  How it is to be implemented: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oS45ZkIh_rA  What it means for them: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ys-OWfOpHoM  Teachers will also be required to understand Learning Styles
    • Teacher Training 29 Day 2 to Day 7: This is for math & reading Teachers will be shown how to differentiate instruction on a specific learning objective.  Teachers are to bring a lesson they already have that all students seem to struggle with. (e.g. Inferencing, sequencing, etc...)  The lesson needs to be connected to Common Core Standards Through the Prezi presentation (link located on slide 29 and appendix A) the teachers will walk through the lesson plan to match how to differentiate the reading section.   For example, they will create the folders that are mentioned in the presentation, and come up with how they form a lesson around the different learning styles. There are handouts located on Appendix B, C, & D Teachers will prepare a 30 minute lesson using Differentiated Instruction and present it to the class 
    • Teacher Training 30 Day 8 to Day 10: Teachers will continue perfecting their lessons and will walk away with a portfolio of lesson plans. Teachers will create centers for their math objectives (using their own creativity or finding them on line.   Teachers will learn more about lesson plans. Teachers will learn about their weekly journals, weekly student assessments, and keeping a data portfolio weekly to show growth.    Data Portfolio is their weekly assessment scores and qualitative observation notes Math and Reading websites found on Appendix E
    • Observations & Meetings 31 Observations will be as follows throughout the 19 weeks of implementing this action research project.  Observations by the teacher leader every other week.  The general education teachers will observe other teachers once a month  Teacher leaders will present a lesson at the beginning of the implementation and in the middle if needed. Meetings:    Weekly meetings will be held for the first month to check in with the teachers to answer questions and see what progression is occurring. Months (October, November, December) there will be monthly meetings to answer questions and see what progression is occurring. At the end of the study there will be a meeting to show evidence of implementation and growth of students. Journals:  Weekly reflection journals are due electronically as well as lesson plans. Action Research Proposal
    • Journals & Portfolios 32 Journals:  Weekly reflection journals are due electronically as well as lesson plans.  Write observational notes of:  student’s progression/regression  Next steps for the following week  How well the lessons went or what needs to be changed  How centers are going and any other concerns  How the lesson went when teacher leader was there  Notes of watching another teacher’s lesson Portfolios  Pre-assessment of students in math and reading  Weekly assessment scores of students  Mid-Term assessment  Post assessment scores  Chart of progression Action Research Proposal
    • 33 Calendar
    • Weeks 1- 3: Training & first week of Implementation 34 Teacher’s Calendar of Events 1 2 3
    • Weeks 4-7: Implementation 35 Teacher’s Calendar of Events 4 5 6 7 Action Research Proposal
    • Weeks 8-12: Implementation 36 Teacher’s Calendar of Events 8 9 10 11 12
    • Week 13-16: Implementation 37 Teacher’s Calendar of Events 13 14 15 16
    • 38 Week 17-19: Implementation & Wrap Up Teacher’s Calendar of Events 17 18 19
    • Section 4: Outcomes and Evaluation Action Research Proposal
    • 40 Outcomes
    • Expected Outcomes 41 Goal Outcome To increase the effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction in the general education setting after given the teacher’s proper training with many different techniques. In turn this will increase student knowledge and test scores. Student’s knowledge of the content will reflect through teacher observations, teacher made assessments, and overall grades. We will be able to measure the growth from the pre-test in September to the mid-term test in January made by the teacher. By the end of the summer all general education teachers will be given adequate training on different techniques for Differentiating Instruction for their classroom with 100% accuracy. By the end of the first semester (December), teachers will be able to implement proper practice of Differentiated Instruction in their classrooms with 80% accuracy. The outcome is for teachers to have a binder full of differentiated lessons of the Common Core Standards along with hands-on centers to support the lessons. This will be measured through observations and meetings. Throughout the semester prior to the mid-term testing, the teacher leader will evaluate the the teacher’s differentiated instruction techniques in the classroom. To be able to determine if the teacher is properly implementing differentiated instruction, the teacher and teacher leader will meet weekly within the first month. After the first month they will have a monthly meeting. The teacher leader will be doing weekly visits to the classroom to make sure that implementation is taking place. Through lesson plans the teacher leader will be able to determine if the implementation is being
    • 42 Measurement
    • Measurable of Outcomes 43 Outcomes Measurement Student’s knowledge of the content will reflect through teacher observations, teacher made assessments, and overall grades. We will be able to measure the growth from the pretest in September to the mid-term test in January made by the teacher. Student’s pre and post test will be at the teacher’s discretion. However, there are specific guidelines for the pre and post test located in APPENDIX F. The teachers will have a portfolio filled with observations (which will be coded: APPENDIX F.1) and student artifacts from their centers/stations. Grades will be shown for the semester. The outcome is for teachers to have a binder full of differentiated lessons of the Common Core Standards along with hands-on centers to support the lessons. This will be measured through observations and meetings. Throughout the semester prior to the mid-term testing, the teacher leader will evaluate the the teacher’s differentiated instruction techniques in the classroom. To be able to determine if the teacher is properly implementing differentiated instruction, the teacher and teacher leader will meet weekly within the first month. After the first month they will have a monthly meeting. The teacher leader will be doing weekly visits to the classroom to make sure that implementation is taking place. Through lesson plans the teacher leader will be able to determine if the implementation is being done correctly as well. At the end of the teacher training sessions, teachers are expected to have at least 20 lesson plans with Common Core standards with differentiation. These lessons will be in a binder, and they will have hands on for each lesson as well leveled assignments according to academic and learning styles. (APPENDIX G) Teachers will be observed through the Danielson Model http://www.danielsongroup.org/userfiles/files/downloads/2013Evaluat This model includes all areas of what the observations are looking for. There are four levels that are coded. (SEE APPENDIX H-I) For a breakdown of what each level is looking for see the website listed above. Meetings will be measured through the success of the meeting, and the outcome of the surveys. (SEE APPENDIX J)
    • 44 Analysis
    • Analyzing my Results? 45 Through grading of the coded observations, meetings with the teachers, and surveys I will be able to determine if the training was a success. I will also be able to tell if the implementation of Differentiated Instruction is being done with fidelity. Through the student’s test scores, grades, teacher observations of the students, as well as student artifacts I will be able to see if the differentiated instruction is taking place. I will also be able to tell if progression is taking
    • Was it effective? 46 I will be able to tell if the intervention was effective by:      Student progression through grades and test scores Teacher’s are less stressed from student’s not progressing Lesson plans are detailed and differentiated instruction is shown in different ways Hands on materials and assignments are differentiated by academic level and learning styles Through teacher responses to surveys will also
    • Presentation of findings… 47 I will present my findings to:  Administration of my building:   Teachers that were not part of the implementation   Principal & Dean  This way they will know the progression that can be gained through differentiated instruction through hands on activities according to academic level and learning styles. To show them how it can help their classroom. Board of Education, Superintendent, Special Education Director, Principal(s) in other building within my district  This way they will know the progression that can be gained through differentiated instruction through hands on activities according to academic level and learning styles.
    • Conclusion 48 Differentiated Instruction helps students achieve objectives through their academic level and learning style. Through this proposal how to train teachers, collect data, and how to properly differentiate instruction have been explained. To be able to properly differentiate lessons, teachers must be trained in the various ways. The teachers must be able to see other professionals differentiate instruction, and be observed themselves. In this action research proposal, the how, why, when, who, and what was answered. The end result will be student’s academic
    • References 49  Blackburn, B. (2008) Rigor is not a four-letter word. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education  Bondley, D. (2011) How will differentiated instruction affect student learning. Retrieved from: http://yourspace.minotstateu.edu/laurie.geller/Capstone%20Examples/Final%20Capstone%20Projec  Danzi, J., Reul, K., Smith, R. (2008) Improving student motivation in mixed ability classrooms using differentiated instruction. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED500838.pdf  Danielson, C. (2013) The framework for teaching evaluation instrument. Retrieved from: http://www.danielsongroup.org/userfiles/files/downloads/2013EvaluationInstrument.pdf  Drapeau, P. (2004). Differentiated Instruction: Making It Work. New York, NY: Scholastic.  Galvas, J. (2010) Does the use of differentiated performance tasks following Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory improve my high school science students’ opportunity to demonstrate their achievement? Retrieved from: https://research.vancouver.wsu.edu/sites/research.vancouver.wsu.edu/files/702%20Galvas%20w%3A
    • References 50  James, S.D. (2013) Does differentiated instruction raise student performance in mathematics: an action research study. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/docview/1461413137  Kelly, G. (2013) Differentiated instruction in the classroom. Retrieved from: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/docview/1424274598  Kirley, T.L. (2002) Differentiated instruction and enrichment opportunities: An Action Research Report Retrieved from: http://oar.nipissingu.ca/pdfs/v833e.pdf  Tomlinson, C. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding To The Needs Of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    • Appendix A 51  Lesson plans:   Learning Style Inventories:     http://wvde.state.wv.us/counselors/links/students/documents/10.18.1-Learning_styles_a http://ualc.umass.edu/advising/uploads/textWidget/422.00020/documents/ Learning_Styles__Study_Strategies.pdf http://stetsonassociates.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Learning-InventoryElem.doc Presentation   http://www.docstoc.com/docs/4963635/Differentiated-Lesson-Plan-Template http://prezi.com/eozqgbvvjcqt/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy Differentiated Instruction  http://bit.ly/1eiFEve Action Research Proposal
    • Appendix B 52  Literacy Station Handout:
    • Appendix C 53 Action Research Proposal
    • Appendix D 54
    • Appendix E 55 Math Sites: http://www.kidsites.com/sites-edu/math.htm  http://www.coolmath.com  http://www.mathfactcafe.com/worksheet/flashcard  http://www.mathplayground.com/flashcards_timed.html  Reading Sites: http://readinga-z.com/  http://www.raz-kids.com  www.easycbm.com  www.mobymax.com 
    • Appendix F 56 Student assessment must have: Pre test and post test must be at least 4 weeks apart  5-8 objectives (depending on pacing guides)  3 or 5 questions per objective  Multiple choice, short answer, or extended response questions are accepted  Same test given as the pre test and post test.  Make charts to grade the objectives and get the percentage.   EX: Obj RL.6.4 Student Response Question 1 A Question 6 D Question 14 C Questions 21 Correct/Tot C
    • Appendix F.1 Coding observations and student artifacts 57 OBSERVATI ON TIME PERCENTAGE 0 1: 25% 2: 50% 3:75% 4:100% Appropriate Peer Interaction Completed Work Assistance Needed Time on Task ARTIFAC TS 0 Complete Work Assistance Needed 1: 25% 2: 50% 3:75% 4:100%
    • Appendix G Coding Teacher Binder 58 BINDER Completed At least 20 lesson plans Differentiation stated Hands-on & assignments for all levels and learning styles Neatly put in a binder and labeled 0 1: 25% 2: 50% 3:75% 4:100%
    • Appendix H Teacher Observations: Danielson Model 59
    • Appendix H con’t Teacher Observations 60
    • Appendix I Teacher Observations Coded 61
    • Appendix I con’t Teacher Observations Coded 62
    • Appendix I con’t Teacher Observations Coded 63
    • Appendix J Teacher Survey for Pre, Mid, & Post 64 https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/LQZD2SR