The most popular projective technique is the
Rorschach inkblot test developed by Hermann
Rorschach, a Swiss psychiatrist in 1921.
10 Inkblots Published In Rorschach’s famed monograph
Psychodiagnostik In 1921.
The 10 figure that constitute the stimuli of the
Rorschach Test is fully projective (Stimulus and
Frank (1939,1948) introduced the term projective
When people try to understand vague or ambiguous
unstructured stimuli, the interpretation they
produce reflects their needs, feelings, experience,
prior conditioning thought
psychological organization/ unconscious)
Person will project something important about him.
1.Good understanding of people and the notion of
personality.(Rorschach test(RT) is not interpreted
based on any personality theory; but person as a
unique individual = emotion, thinking, self image).
2.Good working knowledge of psychopathology and
3. Interpreter must have an understanding of the test
itself (nature and how it works).
The greatest utility of the RT is when an
understanding of a person, as an individual,
becomes important for the purpose of selecting
Personality Assessment: psychological organization
and functioning of the person than behavior of the
Assessment of Thought Disorder
May be the assessment is to select a diagnostic
Although the RT has become an important clinical tool, its
development has not always proceeded in a very
Rorschach died at the age of 37, only seven months after
psychodiagnostik, was published.
The original title Rorschach selected for his monograph was
“Method and Results of a perceptual- diagnostic
experiment: interpretation of arbitrary forms”
Later changed to Psychodiagnostik by the influence of
Morgenthaler, (editor & friend) it is more than a “mere”
Rorschach played “Blotto”=
Popular Parlor Game.
Rorschach’s father was an artist and he also
developed artistic skill in ink drawings. This lead
In 1915 Rorschach obtained a position as senior
psychiatrist in Herisau. He decided to investigate
the Klecksograhie game systematically
Rorschach made dozens of inkblots in preparing for
Rorschach typically made his inkblots on tissue
“… a few large ink blots are thrown on a piece of
paper, the paper is folded, and the ink spread
between the two halves of the sheet ….not all
figures so obtained can be used, for those used
must fulfill certain conditions… the forms must be
relatively simple….they will not be suggestive…”(in
the monograph, p.15)
At the end he had created a series of 15 or 16 figures
that seemed most useful for his purpose.
After reviewing his findings, reduced the series to 12
figures and continued to administer the 12 until
circumstances caused him to eliminate two more.
The manuscript was published in Sep.1921.
He died in April, 1922.
The method Rorschach was devised offered
considerable diagnostic usefulness in identifying
Inkblots as intellectual assessment, then personality
RT was not well-received, attracting little notice.
David Levy brought it into United states and his
student Samuel Beck, popularized its use in US by
publishing books and papers on it.
Several users published work on Rorschach and
several offered their own system of administration,
scoring and interpretation which leads to lot of
problems in standardization.
John Exner’s empirical studies of the Rorschach
attempts to make the Rorschach inkblot test more
It is the integration of the five systems
Exner’s comprehensive system is the most frequently
used system for interpreting the Rorschach ink blot
The stimuli were generated by dropping ink on to
a card and folding it.
They are not, however, random: the ten cards in
the current test were hand selected out of
thousands that Rorschach generated.
10 blots :
5 black / white (achromatic)
2 red/ grey (II & III) (Monochromatic)
3 colour (VIII – X)(multi chromatic)
Seating: side by side
To avoid unintentional and unwanted cues from the
To have better view from which to see the features
of the blot.
Prepare yourself arrange the cards, seating etc
Protocol sheet and location sheet
Protocol sheet: 8 ½ by 11” white sheet horizontally.
Purpose of the assessment
The purpose is to describe the procedures not how
they are interpreted.
Explain if needs ‘What is inkblot’
10 blots; no time limit
Are Going To Do The Inkblot Test”.
(If pt asks -> it will help me understand you better, plan
a better treatment)
Avoid any reference to card turning , right or wrong
or any statement that might create a set.
The average adult will usually complete with in 60
The term “ink blot” is the preferable term.
Handing the person the first card and asking:
“What might be this?”
How many things I should find?
Can I turn it?
is up to you”
Should I just use my imagination?
tell me what you see there.
Examiner should use good common sense and
answered in a non-direct way.
The client should hold the card.
Two Phases of administration
Response or Free association phase
Record responses verbatim during both phases
2 reasons: Specific words / phrases for accurate
To create permanent record for retest and
Use standard abbreviations
To get more or adequate responses encourage the
What else does it look like?
“Look Some More, Take Your Time, You Will Find
Record the position of the blot when the response
is given ( <, v, > or O).(No marking for upright and
O for rotation without stopping when responding).
Problem of brief/lengthy records
responses) does not contribute much.
Brief protocols (<14) reject or retest
immediately following the response phase.
If Card I Responses > 6, stop before 7th and no
more than 6 on cards 2 – 10
If Card I Responses < 6, no limit on number of
responses for subsequent cards
The instructions employed by Rorschach and
comprehensive system, produce an average
range responses bet. 17 - 27(42).
Inquiry only after 10 cards
No new information only clarification
No direction; no cues
Prepare the subject
“Help Me To See It, Just Like You Saw It”
Re-Read S’s Response Verbatim, Then Record What They Say Verbatim
Location : where is it?
Determinants: what makes it look like that?
Content: what is it?
TOL: some times people see…..here…Do you see
anything looks like that?
This stage is not needed for all examinees
(Some times examinee might convinced that whole
responses are better than part response, so only
give whole responses to all 10 cards).
b = be
r = are
at = any thing
bf = butterfly
dk = don’t know
ll = looks like
ss = some sort
c = see
abt = about
bc = because
cb = could be
e.t = every thing
may b = may be
Eight (8) Categories