6. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND TESTS
DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST
Analysis of the situation in which the tested skills are to be used.
Tentative selection of the test items
Development of a standardized method of administration and scoring
Administration of all test items to a large representative group of individual
Final selection of items
Evaluation of the final test
7. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND TESTS
TYPES OF TESTS
There are two broad categories to classify the psychological tests-
On the basis of test construction and administration-
1. Individual and group tests
2. Speed and power tests
3. Computer-assisted tests
4. Paper and pencil and performance tests
On the basis of test of knowledge, skills and abilities-
1. Achievement tests
2. Aptitude tests
3. Intelligence tests and cognitive ability tests
4. Interest tests
5. Neuropsychological tests
6. Occupational tests
7. Personality tests
8. Specific clinical tests
8. Achievement & ability tests
1. STANFORD-BINET INTELLIGENCE SCALES:-
Devised in 1916 by Stanford psychologist Lewis
9. STANFORD-BINET INTELLIGENCE
Consisting of questions and short tasks arranged from
easy to difficult, the Stanford- Binet scale measures
a wide variety of verbal and nonverbal skills.
Its fifteen tests are divided into
10. Binet Scale of Human Intelligence IQ
Over 140 Genius or Near-Genius/ Gifted
120 – 139 Very Superior
110 – 119 Superior
90 – 109 Average or Normal
80 – 89 Dull Normal
70 – 79 Borderline Deficiency/Mild
50 – 69 Moron /Moderate
20 – 49 Imbecile /Severe
Below 20 Idiot/ Profound
14. Verbal Intelligence test
Information : A persons level of general
Comprehension : How well you can
understand questions and grasp
Arithmetic : A persons mathematical
Similarities : Measures abstract thought.
Digit Span : Measures attention span.
Vocabulary : How many word meanings
15. Performance Intelligence Test
Digit Symbol : Mental flexibility with
Picture Completion : Ability to notice
differences between two similar pictures.
Block Design : Mentally construct printed
designs in your head.
Picture Arrangement : Arrange pictures in a
Object Assembly : Place the correct part in
relationship to a whole.
16. WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALES
The Wechsler Preschool and Primary
Scales of Intelligence (WPPSI)
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
19. PERSONALITY TESTS
Personality tests and inventories evaluate
the thoughts, emotions, attitudes, and
behavioral traits that comprise personality.
The results of these tests determine an
individual's personality strengths and
weaknesses, and may identify certain
disturbances in personality, or
21. 2. PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES
Rorschach inkblot test:-
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Sentence completion test
Create drawings (Draw a person test) or
complete a story.
3. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
4. RATING SCALES
22. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Developed in the late 1930’s by psychologist Starke
R. Hathaway and psychiatrist J.C. McKinley at the
University of Minnesota.
The most widely researched and clinically
used of all personality tests
Developed to identify emotional disorders
This is one of the most frequently used
personality tests in mental health.
23. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
The test is used by trained professionals to assist
in identifying personality structure and
consists of 567 statements that the test taker has
to mark as “true,” “false,” or “cannot say.”
Answers are scored according to how they
correspond with those given by persons with
various psychological disorders, including
depression, hysteria, paranoia, psychopathic
deviancy, and schizophrenia.
24. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
The MMPI is copyrighted by the University of
It is appropriate for use with adults 18 and
The current MMPI-2 has 567 items, all
true-or-false format, and usually takes
between 1 and 2 hours to complete
depending on reading level.
25. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
The MMPI-2 is most commonly used by
mental health professionals to assess and
diagnose mental illness.
The MMPI-2 has been utilized in other fields
outside of clinical psychology. The test is often
used in legal cases, including criminal defense
and custody disputes.
26. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory
It has been designed for adults (18
years and older) who have a minimum
of an eighth-grade reading level.
The MCMI is one of the few self-report
tests that focus on personality
disorders along with symptoms that
are associated with these disorders.
27. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI )
The current version, the MCMI-III, is composed of
175 items that are scored to produce 28 scales
divided into following categories
Clinical Personality Patterns,
Severe Personality Pathology
28. The California Psychological Inventory
Traits (including dominance, responsibility, self-
Traits relevant to academic achievement.
Personality Research Form (PRF)
The Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Personality Inventory,
29. Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
Over several decades of research by Raymond B. Cattell
and his colleagues.
Big Five secondary traits, which have
become popularized by other authors in recent years.
30. THE EYESENCK PERSONALITY
Short questionnaire which can be completed in 10 to 20
It assesses two dimensions of personality: Introversion versus
Extroversion, and Neuroticism versus Emotional stability.
The EPI includes a subset of questions that comprises a Social
Desirability Scale (Lie Scale):
31. PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES
Projective techniques involve asking subjects to interpret
or fill in visual stimuli, complete sentences, or report what
associations particular words bring to mind.
Because of the leeway provided by the tests, subjects
project their own personalities onto the stimulus, often
revealing personal conflicts, motivations, coping styles,
and other characteristics.
33. Rorschach inkblot test
Created in the 1920s by Swiss psychologist
Hermann Rorschach (1884-1922).
It consists of a series of 10 cards, each
containing a complicated inkblot. Some are
in black and white, some in color.
Subjects are asked to describe what they
see in each card.
34. Rorschach inkblot test
Test scores are based on several parameters:
1) what part of the blot a person focuses on
2) what particular details determine the response;
3) the content of the responses (what objects, persons,
or situations they involve);
4) the frequency with which a particular response has
been given by previous test takers
36. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Introduced at Harvard University in 1935 by Henry
Test takers look at a series of up to 20 pictures of
people in a variety of recognizable settings and
construct a story about what is happening in each
one. They are asked to describe not only what is
happening at the moment shown in the picture but
also what events led up to the present situation and
what the characters are thinking and feeling.
37. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Its adherents assert that the TAT taps a subject's
unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality,
motives and needs for achievement, power and intimacy,
and problem-solving abilities.
38. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The subject is asked to tell as dramatic a story as they
can for each picture presented, including the following:
? what has led up to the event shown
? what is happening at the moment
? what the characters are feeling and thinking
? what the outcome of the story was
41. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
There are 31 picture cards in the standard form of
the TAT .
Some of the cards show male figures, some
female, some both male and female figures, some
of ambiguous gender, some adults, some
children, and some show no human figures at all.
One card is completely blank
42. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
USES OF TAT
Individual assessments for employment in fields
requiring a high degree such as law enforcement,
military leadership positions.
For diagnosis in order to match psychotherapy best
suited to patients personalities.
Forensic purposes in evaluating the motivations and
general attitudes of persons accused of violent
Research into specific aspects of human personality,
most often needs for achievement, fears of failure,
43. sentence completion test
Specifically for children or adolescents.
Subjects are asked to complete sentences with such
open-ended beginnings as “I wish . . .” or “My mother .
Same sentence beginnings are shown to different test
There are no norms for comparing their answers to those
of previous subjects.
45. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
Luria- Nebraska battery
Halsted- Reitan battery
Michigan neuropsychological battery
Shipley Institute of Living Scale
NIMHANS neuropsychological battery.
46. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
Assessment of the neurological deficit
Predicts the possible organic psychopathology
Identification of intact neurological functioning
help in the process of neuro-rehabilitation (Cognitive
Evaluation and comparison of various treatment
options and its perceived efficacy
Progressive evaluation and formulation of differential
Developmental progression of the milestones
Tackling the mental developmental delay, and taking
necessary actions on time
47. RATING SCALES
Rating scales are instruments used to assess the
magnitude or severity of a psychological construct
Rating scales aid in research and clinical practice
such data are important for evaluation, decision
making, documentation and/or analysis.
48. Common rating scales in psychiatry:-
For the assessment of general mental health:
1. Golberg general health questionnaire(GHQ)
2. Subjective wellbeing inventory (SWBI)
For the assessment of anxiety :-
1. Hamilton anxiety rating scale (HARC),
2. Covi anxiety scale
49. Common rating scales in psychiatry:-
For the assessment of depression :-
1. Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS),
2. Beck depression Inventory(BDI)
For the assessment of mania :-
1. Young’s mania rating scale,
2. Bech- Rafaelson mania scale
50. Common rating scales in psychiatry:-
For the assessment of schizophrenia :-
1. Brief psychiatric rating scale,
2. Scale for assessment of positive symptoms and
scale for assessment of negative symptoms.
51. PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS USED IN
The Bayley Scales of Infant Development has been standardized on Indian children
The Pandey's Cognitive Development test for the pre-school child is a standardized test,
1. Conceptual skills
4. Visual Perception
6. Object vocabulary
52. USES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
It is easier to get information from test then by clinical interview.
They assist in clinical diagnosis example: Rorschach inkblot test
Information from tests are more scientifically consistent then clinical interview
They assist in the formulation of psychopathology and identification of areas of
stress and conflict. Example: Thematic appreciation test
They help to determine the nature of deficit present. Example: cognitive
53. USES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
They help in assessing severity of psychopathology and response to treatment.
Example: Hamilton rating scale for depression, brief psychiatric rating scale
They help in assessing general characteristics of the individual. Example:
assessment of intelligence, assessment of personality
These tests are also used for forensic evaluations regarding litigation, family
court issues or criminal charges
These tests assesses the level of functioning or disability, help direct treatment
and assess treatment outcome.
54. LIMITATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
Attitudes toward testing
Effects of negative attitudes
55. NURSE’S ROLE IN PSYCHOLOGICAL
Should have knowledge about all the psychological tests.
Clarify the patient’s and relatives’ doubts regarding the psychological tests they have to
Nurses should have good rapport with the patients and family members.
The nurse should reassure the patient about the safety of the tests and the confidentiality of the
observations of the psychologist.
The nurse observes the patient’s behavior and the changes, which occur once the therapy is
The nurse observes, informs and records these changes in patient’s chart.
56. NURSE’S ROLE IN PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
A nurse who is knowledgeable and skilled is an empowered nurse who
is able to function at par with other team members and thus further
build up the nursing images in the public eye.
The nurse can also interrupt the findings of various tests and then plan
the nursing care accordingly.