University Of Agriculture
Faisalabad
Subject:
Marketing Research
By Jawaria
Section (C )
M.B.A (R)
4th semester
Exploratory Research
Design: Qualitative
Topic: Chapter
# 5
Submitted to:
Prof.Dr.Hassan Rasool
Submitted by:
Jawaria
MBA 4th Semester
Qualitative Research
Uses of qualitative research
Quantitative Research
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
Reasons...
Direct apporach
 Focus group
Deffinition
Characteristics
Types of focus group
Advantages and disadvantages
 Indepth...
Advantages and disadvantages
Indirect apporach
Projective techniques
Association techniques
Deffinition
Techniques u...
Completion Techniques
 Deffinition
 Techniques used for;
• Sentence completion
• Story completion
Expresive techniques...
Exploratory or Qualitative Research:
Definition:
Exploratory or Qualitative research is an unstructured
exploratory resear...
Quantitative Reasearch
A research methodology that seeks to quantify
the data and applies some form of statistical
analys...
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
Comparison Dimension Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
Types of questions P...
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
Comparison Dimension Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
Tools Tape recorders...
Reasons to use Qualitative
Research
Because people are unwilling to answer
the questions which,
Invade their privacy
Ha...
Qualitative
research
Procedure
Direct
(Nondisguised)
Focus
groups
Idepth
Interview
Indirect
(Disguised)
Porjective
techniq...
Direct (Nondisguise)Approach:
A type of qualitative research in which the
purpose of project is disclosed to the
respond...
Focus groups:
• An interview conducted by a trained moderator
among a small group of respondents in an
unstructured and na...
Devision of focus group:
• It is also devided into two parts,
Focus group
Other focus
group
Dual
moderator
group
Responden...
Advantages and disadvantage s of
focus group:
• Advantages
Synergism
Simulation
Security
Structure
Speed
Specializat...
Indepth interview:
• An unstructured interview in which a single
respondent is probed by a highly skilled
interviewer to u...
Indepth interview:
• Techniques:
Techniques that are used in depth interview;
Probing
Laddering
Hidden issuing question...
Probing:
It is useful in obtaining meaningful information and
uncovering hidden issues
.
Laddering:
A technique in which...
Advantages and disadvantages of in
depth interview
• Advantage
▫ Uncover greater depth
of insights
▫ Results in free
excha...
Indirect (Nondisguised) apporach:
A type of qualitative research in which the
purpose of object disguised from the
respo...
Projective techniques:
Projective
techniques
Association
techniques
Word
Association
Completion
techniques
Sentence
comple...
Projective techniques:
• A unstructured and Indirect form of questioning
that encourages the respondents to project their
...
Association techniques:
• A technique in which the respondent is
presented with a stimulus and asked to response
with the...
Word association:
• The respondents are presented with a list of words,
one at a time.
• After each word, they asked to pr...
Completion techniques:
A projective that requires the respondents to
complete an incomplete stimulus situation.
Techniq...
Sentence completion:
• A technique in which the respondents are
presented with a number of incomplete
sentences and asked ...
Story completion:
• A technique in which the respondents are
provided with part of incomplete story.
• They are required t...
Construction techniques:
A projective technique in which the respondents
are required to construct a response in the for...
Picture response:
• A techniques in which a picture is shown to the
respondents and asked to tell the story that the
pictu...
Cartoon test:
• In this, cartoons are shown in a specific situation
related to the problem.
• Respondents are asked to ind...
Expressive technique:
Techniques in which the respondents are
presented a verbal or visual situation and asked
to relate...
Role playing:
• In this the rsepondents are asked to play
the role and assume the behaviour of
someone else.
• Uncovered t...
Third-person technique:
• Respondents are presented with a verbal or
visual situation.
• And asked to relate the beliefs a...
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Chap# 5 marketing research 1 (2) copy

  1. 1. University Of Agriculture Faisalabad
  2. 2. Subject: Marketing Research By Jawaria Section (C ) M.B.A (R) 4th semester
  3. 3. Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Topic: Chapter # 5
  4. 4. Submitted to: Prof.Dr.Hassan Rasool Submitted by: Jawaria MBA 4th Semester
  5. 5. Qualitative Research Uses of qualitative research Quantitative Research Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Reasons to use qualitative research Qualitative research Procedure Direct apporach Indirect apporach
  6. 6. Direct apporach  Focus group Deffinition Characteristics Types of focus group Advantages and disadvantages  Indepth interview Deffinition Characteristics Techniques • Probing • Laddering • Hidden issuing questioning & • Symbolic analysis
  7. 7. Advantages and disadvantages Indirect apporach Projective techniques Association techniques Deffinition Techniques used for; • Word Association technique Completion techniques Deffinition Techniques used for; • Sentence completion • Story Completion
  8. 8. Completion Techniques  Deffinition  Techniques used for; • Sentence completion • Story completion Expresive techniques  Deffinition Techniques used for; • Role playing • Third-person technique
  9. 9. Exploratory or Qualitative Research: Definition: Exploratory or Qualitative research is an unstructured exploratory research design which base on small sample that provides insights and understandings of the problem. Qualitative Research is used to: Define the problem Develop an apporach Generating hypotheses & Develop the variables
  10. 10. Quantitative Reasearch A research methodology that seeks to quantify the data and applies some form of statistical analysis. It is used to solve the problem by using the hypotheses and the variables developed with the help of the qualitative research, and see the cause and effect relationship.
  11. 11. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Comparison Dimension Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Types of questions Probing Limited probing Sample size Small Large Information per Much Varies respondent Administration Requires interviewers Fewer specialized skills with special skills required Types of analysis Subjective, interpretive Statistical, summarization
  12. 12. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research Comparison Dimension Qualitative Research Quantitative Research Tools Tape recorders, projection Questionnaires, computers devices, video, pictures printouts Ability to replicate Low High Training needed by Psychology, sociology, Statistics, decision models, the researcher social psychology, DSS, computer program- consumer behavior ming, marketing Type of research Exploratory Descriptive or causal
  13. 13. Reasons to use Qualitative Research Because people are unwilling to answer the questions which, Invade their privacy Have negative impact on their ego or status Tap their subconcious
  14. 14. Qualitative research Procedure Direct (Nondisguised) Focus groups Idepth Interview Indirect (Disguised) Porjective techniques Associations Techniques Completion Techniques Construction Techniques Expresive Techniques Qualitative Research Procedure:
  15. 15. Direct (Nondisguise)Approach: A type of qualitative research in which the purpose of project is disclosed to the respondents. Types: Focus groups Indepth interview
  16. 16. Focus groups: • An interview conducted by a trained moderator among a small group of respondents in an unstructured and natural manner. Characteristics: Include 8 to 12 members Homogenous in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics Time dueration is 1 to 3 hours Use audiocassettes and vidio tapes for recording
  17. 17. Devision of focus group: • It is also devided into two parts, Focus group Other focus group Dual moderator group Respondent moderator group Dueling moderator group Mini group Teleseccion group Online focus group
  18. 18. Advantages and disadvantage s of focus group: • Advantages Synergism Simulation Security Structure Speed Specialization • Disadvantages: Misuse Misjudge Misrepresentation
  19. 19. Indepth interview: • An unstructured interview in which a single respondent is probed by a highly skilled interviewer to uncover underlying motivation, beliefs, attitude s, and feelings on a topic. Characteristics: An unstructured and direct way of obtaining information. Interview conducted on one -on-one basis. Time duration is 30 minutes to 1 hour
  20. 20. Indepth interview: • Techniques: Techniques that are used in depth interview; Probing Laddering Hidden issuing questioning & Symbolic analysis
  21. 21. Probing: It is useful in obtaining meaningful information and uncovering hidden issues . Laddering: A technique in which a line of questioning proceeds from product characteristics to user characteristics. Symbolic analysis: A technique in which the symbolic meaning of objects is analyzed by comparing them with their opposites . Hidden issuing questioning: A type of interview that attempts to locate personal sore spots related to deeply felt personal concerns
  22. 22. Advantages and disadvantages of in depth interview • Advantage ▫ Uncover greater depth of insights ▫ Results in free exchange of information then in focus group because of no social pressure • Disadvantage ▫ Costly then focus group ▫ Time consuming process ▫ Difficult to find skilled interviewer ▫ Quality and completeness of results depends on the interviewer skills. ▫ Psychologist service is required to analyze and interpret the results.
  23. 23. Indirect (Nondisguised) apporach: A type of qualitative research in which the purpose of object disguised from the respondents. Use: Projective techniques:
  24. 24. Projective techniques: Projective techniques Association techniques Word Association Completion techniques Sentence completion Story completion Construction techniques Picture response Cartoon test Expressive techniques Role playing Third-person technique
  25. 25. Projective techniques: • A unstructured and Indirect form of questioning that encourages the respondents to project their underlying motivations, believes, attitudes or feelings regarding the issue of concern. Most commonly used techniques; Association techniques Completion techniques Construction techniques Expressive techniques
  26. 26. Association techniques: • A technique in which the respondent is presented with a stimulus and asked to response with the first word comes in mind . Techniques used for; Word association
  27. 27. Word association: • The respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time. • After each word, they asked to provide the first word comes in their mind. E.g Drink Taste Quality Price
  28. 28. Completion techniques: A projective that requires the respondents to complete an incomplete stimulus situation. Techniques used for; Sentence completion Story completion
  29. 29. Sentence completion: • A technique in which the respondents are presented with a number of incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. E.g Whenever i am thirsty the drink i peffer, I peffer the drink on the basis of, I select any drink which is, to remove my thirst Mega stores increase the impulse buying behaviour of peoples because, When i thinking of shoping in the mega stores. I
  30. 30. Story completion: • A technique in which the respondents are provided with part of incomplete story. • They are required to give the conclusion in their own words. • Story contain an enough information that direct the attention to a particular topic.
  31. 31. Construction techniques: A projective technique in which the respondents are required to construct a response in the form of a story, dialogue, or description. Techniques used for; Picture response Cartoon test
  32. 32. Picture response: • A techniques in which a picture is shown to the respondents and asked to tell the story that the picture discribes . The technique used for; Thematic apperception test (TAT) Which consist of a series of pictures of ordinary as well as unusual events
  33. 33. Cartoon test: • In this, cartoons are shown in a specific situation related to the problem. • Respondents are asked to indicate what one character might say in response to the comments of another character. • That show the feelings , beliefs and attitudes toward the situation
  34. 34. Expressive technique: Techniques in which the respondents are presented a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation. Techniques used for: Role playing Third-person technique.
  35. 35. Role playing: • In this the rsepondents are asked to play the role and assume the behaviour of someone else. • Uncovered the underlying feelings of the respondents
  36. 36. Third-person technique: • Respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation. • And asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person. • Through taht the researchers indirectly judge the beliefs and attitude sof the respondent

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