SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 168
Download to read offline
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL
TESTS – PART - II
DR.SUBRATA NASKAR
MD Psychiatry Trainee
Email: nsubrata09@gmail.com
PLAN OF PRESENTATION
continued from Part- I …
• INTELLIGENCE TESTS
• PERSONALITY TESTS
• BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTELLIGENCE
• "THE GLOBAL CAPACITY OF A PERSON TO ACT
PURPOSEFULLY, TO THINK RATIONALLY, AND TO DEAL
EFFECTIVELY WITH HIS/HER ENVIRONMENT.”
- DAVID WECHSLER
INTELLIGENCE TESTS – HISTORICAL
PERSPECTIVE
• LATE 1800 – SIR FRANCIS GALTON – 1ST ATTEMPT TO
DEVELOP A SCALE
• 1905 – ALFRED BINET & THEOPHILE SIMON – BINET’S
INTELLIGENCE SCALE
• 1916 – LEWIS TERMAN OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY –
STANFORD BINET’S INTELLIGENCE SCALE
• LAST MODIFIED IN 2003
• NO IQ BUT STANDARDIZED SCORE
• INTERPRETED IN TERMS OF PERCENTILES
• 1939 – DAVID WECHSLER – WECHSLER’S ADULT
INTELLIGENCE SCALE.
• 1958 – DAVID WECHSLER – WECHSLER’S INTELLIGENCE
SCALE FOR CHILDREN.
INTELLIGENCE TEST
• WECHSLER’S TESTS:
• WECHSLER’S ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE 4TH ED
• WECHSLER’S INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN 5TH ED
• WECHSLER ABBREVIATED SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE (WASI)
• WECHSLER PRESCHOOL AND PRIMARY SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE, THIRD
EDITION (WPPSI-III),
• WECHSLER TEST OF ADULT READING (WTAR)
• STANFORD BINET’S INTELLIGENCE SCALE 5TH ED
• SHIPLEY SCALE
• THE TEST OF NONVERBAL INTELLIGENCE—3 (TONI-3)
• NATIONAL ADULT READING SCALE
• THE SPEED AND CAPACITY OF LANGUAGE PROCESSING TEST (SCOLP)
• SEGUIN FORM BOARD TEST
WECHSLER’S ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE
• 2 MAJOR SCALES:
• VERBAL SCALE
• PERFORMANCE SCALE
VERBAL SCALE
• INFORMATION
• QUESTIONS TO TAP A GENERAL RANGE OF INFORMATION, FOR
EXAMPLE, ‘WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF INDIA/ITALY?’
• COMPREHENSION TESTS
• PRACTICAL INFORMATION AND ABILITY TO EVALUATE PAST
EXPERIENCE, FOR EXAMPLE, ‘WHY DO WE PUT STAMPS ON A LETTER
TO BE MAILED?’
• ARITHMETIC
• VERBAL PROBLEMS TESTING ARITHMETIC REASONING.
• SIMILARITIES
• ASKS IN WHAT WAY TWO OBJECTS OR CONCEPTS (FOR EXAMPLE,
RECIPE AND MAP) ARE SIMILAR; ASSESSES ABSTRACT THINKING.
VERBAL SCALE
• DIGIT SPAN
• A SERIES OF DIGITS PRESENTED AUDITORILY (FOR EXAMPLE, 7–5–6–3–8)
IS REPEATED IN A FORWARD OR BACKWARD DIRECTION , TESTS
ATTENTION AND REMOTE MEMORY.
• VOCABULARY
• ASSESSES WORD KNOWLEDGE.
• LETTER NUMBER SEQUENCING
• ORALLY PRESENTED LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN A MIXED-UP ORDER
MUST BE REORDERED AND REPEATED, FIRST WITH THE NUMBERS IN
ASCENDING ORDER AND THEN WITH THE LETTERS IN ALPHABETICAL
ORDER.
PERFORMANCE SCALE
• DIGIT SYMBOL
• A TIMED CODING TASK IN
WHICH NUMBERS MUST BE
ASSOCIATED WITH MARKS
OF VARIOUS SHAPES
• ASSESSES SPEED OF
LEARNING AND WRITING.
PICTURE COMPLETION
• THE MISSING PART OF AN INCOMPLETELY
DRAWN PICTURE MUST BE DISCOVERED
AND NAMED
• ASSESSES VISUAL ALERTNESS, VISUAL
MEMORY, AND PERCEPTUAL
ORGANIZATION.
BLOCK DESIGN
• PICTURED DESIGNS MUST
BE COPIED WITH BLOCKS
• ASSESSES ABILITY TO
PERCEIVE AND ANALYZE
PATTERNS.
PICTURE ARRANGEMENT
• A SERIES OF COMIC-STRIP
PICTURES MUST BE
ARRANGED IN THE RIGHT
SEQUENCE TO TELL A STORY
• ASSESSES UNDERSTANDING
OF SOCIAL SITUATIONS.
MATRIX REASONING
• A GEOMETRIC SHAPE THAT
IS SIMILAR IN SOME WAY TO
A SAMPLE SHAPE MUST BE
SELECTED FROM A SET OF
POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES
• ASSESSES PERCEPTUAL
ORGANIZATION.
OBJECT ASSEMBLY
• PUZZLE PIECES MUST BE ASSEMBLED
TO FORM A COMPLETE OBJECT
• ASSESSES ABILITY TO DEAL WITH
PART–WHOLE RELATIONSHIPS
SYMBOL SEARCH
• A SERIES OF PAIRED GROUPS OF
SYMBOLS ARE PRESENTED, A
TARGET GROUP OF TWO
SYMBOLS AND A SEARCH
GROUP.
• EXAMINEE MUST DETERMINE IF
EITHER TARGET SYMBOL APPEARS
IN THE SEARCH GROUP
• ASSESSES PROCESSING SPEED.
WHATS NEW IN WAIS IV ?
• 4 SUBTESTS DROPPED
• OBJECT ASSEMBLY
• PICTURE ARRANGEMENT
• CODING RECALL (DIGIT SYMBOL-INCIDENTAL LEARNING)
• CODING COPY (DIGIT SYMBOL-COPY)
• 12 SUBTESTS RETAINED WITH MODIFICATIONS
• 3 NEW SUBTESTS
• VISUAL PUZZLES
• FIGURE WEIGHTS
• CANCELLATION
VISUAL PUZZLES
“WHICH 3 OF THESE PIECES GO TOGETHER TO MAKE THIS PUZZLE?”
FIGURE WEIGHTS
“WHICH ONE OF THESE GOES HERE TO BALANCE THE SCALE?”
CANCELLATION
“WHEN I SAY GO, DRAW A LINE THROUGH EACH RED SQUARE AND YELLOW TRIANGLE.”
STANFORD BINET INTELLIGENCE SCALE
• VERBAL REASONING
• VOCABULARY DEFINES WORDS, SUCH AS ‘VIRTUE’ AND ‘ENVELOPE’.
• COMPREHENSION
• ANSWERS QUESTIONS, SUCH AS ‘WHERE DO PEOPLE BUY FOOD?’ AND ‘WHY DO PEOPLE COMB THEIR HAIR?’
• ABSURDITIES
• IDENTIFIES THE ‘FUNNY’ ASPECT OF A PICTURE, SUCH AS A GIRL RIDING A BICYCLE ON A LAKE OR A BALD MAN
COMBING HIS HAIR.
• VERBAL RELATIONS
• TELLS HOW THE FIRST THREE ITEMS IN A SEQUENCE ARE ALIKE AND HOW THEY DIFFER FROM THE FOURTH: SCARF,
TIE, MUFFLER, SHIRT.
• QUANTITATIVE REASONING
• QUANTITATIVE PERFORMS SIMPLE ARITHMETIC TASKS, SUCH AS SELECTING A DIE WITH SIX SPOTS BECAUSE THE
NUMBER OF SPOTS EQUALS THE COMBINATION OF A TWO-SPOT DIE AND A FOUR-SPOT DIE.
• NUMBER SERIES
• GIVES THE NEXT TWO NUMBERS IN A SERIES, SUCH AS 20 16 12 8 ___ ___.
• EQUATION BUILDING
• BUILDS AN EQUATION FROM THE FOLLOWING ARRAY: 2 3 5 + =. ONE CORRECT RESPONSE WOULD BE 2 + 3 = 5.
ABSTRACT/VISUAL REASONING
• PATTERN ANALYSIS
• COPY A SIMPLE DESIGN WITH BLOCKS.
• COPYING
• COPY A GEOMETRICAL DRAWING DEMONSTRATED BY THE EXAMINER,
SUCH AS A RECTANGLE INTERSECTED BY TWO DIAGONALS.
SHORT-TERM MEMORY
• BEAD MEMORY
• SHOWN A PICTURE OF DIFFERENT-SHAPED BEADS STACKED ON A STICK.
REPRODUCES THE SEQUENCE FROM MEMORY BY PLACING REAL BEADS ON A
STICK.
• MEMORY FOR SENTENCES
• REPEATS AFTER THE EXAMINER SENTENCES SUCH AS ‘IT IS TIME TO GO TO SLEEP’.
• MEMORY FOR DIGITS
• REPEATS AFTER EXAMINER A SERIES OF DIGITS, SUCH AS 5–7–8–3, FORWARD AND
BACKWARD.
• MEMORY FOR OBJECTS
• SHOWN PICTURES OF INDIVIDUAL OBJECTS, SUCH AS A CLOCK AND AN
ELEPHANT, ONE AT A TIME.
• IDENTIFIES THE OBJECTS IN THE CORRECT ORDER OF THEIR APPEARANCE IN A
PICTURE THAT ALSO INCLUDES EXTRANEOUS OBJECTS; FOR EXAMPLE, A BUS, A
CLOWN, AN ELEPHANT, EGGS, AND A CLOCK.
INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT / I.Q.
• SUGGESTED BY THE GERMAN PSYCHOLOGIST
WILLIAM STERN.
• THIS INDEX (IQ), EXPRESSES INTELLIGENCE AS A
RATIO OF MENTAL AGE TO CHRONOLOGICAL
AGE:
IQ = MA/CA X 100
CLASSIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE BY IQ RANGE
CLASSIFICATION IQ RANGE
VERY SUPERIOR 130 AND ABOVE
SUPERIOR 120-130
BRIGHT NORMAL 110-120
NORMAL 90-110
DULL NORMAL 80-90
BORDERLINE 70-79
MILD MR 55-70
MODERATE MR 35-55
SEVERE MR 20-35
PROFOUND MR BELOW 20
SEGUIN FORM BOARD
• A CRUDE TEST - USED UPTO 7 YR
• PERFORMANCE BASED TEST
• BLOCKS ARE PUT JUST BELOW THE LOWER BORDER OF THE
BOARD TOWARDS THE SUBJECT’S SIDE
• USUALLY THREE TRIALS ARE GIVEN
A SEGUIN FORM BOARD
INSTRUCTION
“here are the pieces taken out. you have to keep the block on their original
position. work as fast as you can”
I.Q. CALCULATION:
• SHORTEST TIME OUT OF THE THREE TRIALS
• MEAN OF THE THREE TRIALS
• SEE THE MENTAL AGE FROM THE MANUAL
• A MULTI-TEST BATTERY (I.E., MULTI-FACTORED EVALUATION)
SHOULD BE USED AS LEARNING PROBLEMS, ATTENTION,
AND EMOTIONAL DIFFICULTIES CAN HAVE SIMILAR
SYMPTOMS, CO-OCCUR, OR RECIPROCALLY INFLUENCE
EACH OTHER.
IN CHILDRENS
PERSONALITY TESTS
WHAT IS PERSONALITY ?
“Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual
of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique
adjustments to the environment.”
- (ALLPORT, 1937)
WHAT ARE PERSONALITY TESTS ?
PERSONALITY TESTS ARE STANDARDIZED INSTRUMENTS
DESIGNED TO MEASURE OBJECTIVELY ONE OR MORE
ASPECTS OF A TOTAL PERSONALITY BY MEANS OF SAMPLE OF
VERBAL OR NON VERBAL RESPONSES OR BY MEANS OF
OTHER BEHAVIOR.
INDICATIONS
• PERSONALITY DISORDERS
• PERSONS WHO HAD RECOVERED FROM PSYCHOSIS
• PROFILING OF CRIMINALS
• ADJUSTMENT ISSUES
• PROGNOSIS AND THERAPY
INSTRUMENTS TO ASSESS PERSONALITY
• TO ASSESS INDIVIDUAL TRAITS, COLLECTION OF TRAITS,
CONSTELLATIONS OF TRAITS.
• METHODS-
1. SELF-REPORT INVENTORIES.(SRI)
2. SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS.(SSI)
3. PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES.
SELF-REPORT INVENTORIES
 CONSIST OF WRITTEN STATEMENTS OR QUESTIONS TRUE-FALSE,
AGREE-DISAGREE, YES-NO ETC.
 MOST POPULAR METHOD
 LESS EXPENSIVE, LESS TIME.
 EASY TO ADMINISTER
 VAST SAMPLES.
 HIGH RELIABILITY DUE TO HIGH DEGREE OF STRUCTURE.
SELF-REPORT INVENTORIES
• 16 PERSONALITY FACTORS QUESTIONNAIRE : T/F
• MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY-2 (MMPI-2) 567
ITEMS; TRUE–FALSE; SELF-REPORT FORMAT
• IOWA PERSONALITY DISORDER SCREEN: Y/N, 5 MIN,11 SCREENING
INSTRUMENTS.
• MILLON CLINICAL MULTI-AXIAL INVENTORY, MCMI, DSM-IIIR,175
QUESTIONS, 20-30 MIN.
• PDQ-R : 152 QUESTIONS, 30 MIN.
SELF-REPORT INVENTORIES
• SCHEDULE FOR NORMAL & ABNORMAL PERSONALITY
DISORDERS OR SNAP—106 QUESTIONS, 10 MIN.
• TRI-DIMENSIONAL PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE ,100
QUESTIONS,20-30 MIN.
• WISCONSIN PERSONALITY INVENTORY ,360 QUESTIONS, 20 MIN.
SEMI STRUCTURES INTERVIEWS
SEMI STRUCTURES INTERVIEWS
• DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEW FOR P.D. (DIPD)- ZANARINI -101Q,
60-120 MIN.
• INTERNATIONAL PERSONALITY DISORDER EXAMINATION-
IPDE - LORANGER ET AL.-157Q, 150 MIN.
• PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT SCHEDULE – PAS - TYRER ET AL-
24Q, 60MIN.
SEMI STRUCTURES INTERVIEWS
• PERSONALITY INTERVIEW QUESTIONS - II, WIDIGER-375Q, 60-120
MIN.
• STANDARDIZED ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY, MANN ET AL.,10-
15MIN.
• STRUCTURED CLINICAL INTERVIEW FOR DSM-IIIR PD — SCID-II,
SPITZER& WILLIAMS,120 Q ,60-90MIN.
• SIPD ---- PFOHL ETAL.,136Q, 90MIN.
MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY
• THE MMPI, A SELF-REPORT INVENTORY, IS THE MOST WIDELY
USED AND MOST THOROUGHLY RESEARCHED OBJECTIVE
PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT.
• THE MMPI WAS DEVELOPED IN
1937 BY :
• STARKE HATHAWAY, A
PSYCHOLOGIST
• J. CHARNLEY MCKINLEY, A
PSYCHIATRIST.
• IT IS AN OBJECTIVE TYPE OF PERSONALITY TEST
• THE ITEMS FOR EACH SCALE WERE SELECTED FOR THEIR
ABILITY TO SEPARATE MEDICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS
FROM NORMAL CONTROL SUBJECTS.
SCALE TYPES
• VALIDITY SCALE
• CLINICAL SCALE
• SUPPLEMENTARY SCALE
VALIDITY SCALE
• ? CANNOT SAY SCALE.
• ? CANNOT SAY SCALE IS NOT ACTUALLY A SCALE BUT SIMPLY THE
NUMBER OF TEST ITEMS EITHER OMITTED OR DOUBLE MARKED
• L: LIE SCALE.
• A NONEMPIRICALLY DERIVED SOCIAL DESIRABILITY SCALE.
• ITEMS TEND TO REFLECT BEHAVIORS THAT ARE CONSIDERED SOCIALLY
DESIRABLE BUT RARELY PRACTICED.
• THE SCORE CAN SUGGEST DEFENSIVENESS, ILLITERACY, PSYCHOSIS, OR
PERSONALITY PROCESSES, DEPENDING ON VARIOUS FACTORS.
• F: INFREQUENCY SCALE.
• MEASURES A TENDENCY TO ENDORSE SELECTED ITEMS THAT ARE
STATISTICALLY RARE RESPONSES (LESS THAN 10 PERCENT OF THE
ORIGINAL NORMAL SAMPLE).
• USEFUL IN IDENTIFYING ILLITERACY, MALINGERING, PANIC,
CONFUSION, PSYCHOSIS, AND PERSONALITY PROCESSES.
• K: SUPPRESSOR SCALE.
• USED TO ADJUST MATHEMATICALLY CERTAIN CLINICAL SCALES TO
DECREASE FALSE POSITIVES AND FALSE NEGATIVES.
• THE SCALE IS ALSO USEFUL IN DETERMINING OVERALL TEST-TAKING
ATTITUDE AND IS AN INDICATION OF PERSONALITY VARIABLES.
CLINICAL SCALES
MMPI-2 - WHAT IS NEW ?
• ORIGINAL ITEMS OBSOLETE, POLITICALLY INCORRECT, OR
OFFENSIVE
• ELIMINATED AND/OR REWORDED ITEMS; ADDED ITEMS TO
INCLUDE AREAS SUCH AS SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MARITAL
RELATIONSHIPS TO GET POOL OF 704 ITEMS
• THERE ARE OVER 115 TRANSLATIONS OF THE MMPI-2
MMPI-2
• NEW SAMPLE
• AGE 18-90
• WIDE GEOGRAPHIC AREA
• GENERALLY COMPARES WELL WITH US CENSUS DATA
MMPI-2
• FINAL VERSION CONSISTS OF 567 ITEMS
• ORIGINAL 4 VALIDITY SCALES AND 10 CLINICAL SCALES (ALL IN
FIRST 370 ITEMS) IN ADDITION TWO NEW VALIDITY SCALES
• BACKPAGE INFREQUENCY (Fb) SCALE
• VARIABLE RESPONSE INCONSISTENCY SCALE (VRIN)
• RESULTS ARE EXPRESSED AS UNIFORM T SCORES
MMPI-2
• ADMINISTRATION
• RECOMMENDED FOR USE WITH PERSONS 18 YEARS OLD OR OLDER
• NEED AT LEAST 8 YEARS OF EDUCATION
• MOST ITEMS WRITTEN 6TH-8TH GRADE READING LEVEL
• NORMAL TESTING TIME 60-90 MINUTES
MMPI-2
• SUBECTS SHOULD BE INFORMED WHY THE TEST IS BEING
ADMINISTERED
• AVOID PROVIDING DIRECT HELP
• EMPHASIZE THAT THEY SHOULD RESPOND IN WAY THAT
REFLECTS THEIR CURRENT THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, BEHAVIORS,
AND EXPERIENCES
MMPI-2
• SCORING
• ANALYSIS LOOKS AT RELATIVE ELEVATION OF FACTORS COMPARED TO
THE VARIOUS NORM GROUPS STUDIED.
• RAW SCORES ON THE SCALES ARE TRANSFORMED INTO A STANDARDIZED
METRIC KNOWN AS T-SCORES
FURTHER MODIFICATIONS
• MMPA – A
• DESIGNED FOR ADOLESCENTS AGES 14 TO 18, THE MMPI-A, WAS
RELEASED IN 1992
• MMPA – 2 – RF
• PUBLISHED IN 2008
• CONTAINS 338 ITEMS; CONSEQUENTLY IT TAKES LESS TIME TO
ADMINISTER.
• NEWER SCALES TO ASSESS OTHER AREAS LIKE SOMATIC COMPLAINS,
INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS.
16 PERSONALITY FACTOR MODEL (16PF)
• DEVELOPED IN THE 1940S BY Raymond B. Cattell AND
REFINED IN THE 60S
• ATTEMPTS TO DEFINE THE BASIC UNDERLYING PERSONALITY
• MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONNAIRE
• ANALYSIS USING 16 PERSONALITY FACTORS
Factor Descriptors
A Warmth Reserved Outgoing
B Reasoning Less Intelligent More Intelligent
C Emotional Stability
Affected by
feelings
Emotionally stable
E Dominance Humble Assertive
F Liveliness Sober Happy-go-lucky
G
Rule
Consciousness
Expedient Conscientious
H Social Boldness Shy Venturesome
I Sensitivity Tough-minded Tender-minded
L Vigilance Trusting Suspicious
M Abstractedness Practical Imaginative
N Privateness Straightforward Shrewd
O Apprehension Self-Assured Apprehensive
Q1
Openness to
Change
Conservative Experimenting
Q2 Self-Reliance
Group-
dependent
Self-sufficient
Q3 Perfectionism Self-conflict Self-control
Q4 Tension Relaxed Tense
THE 16 FACTORS WITH
THEIR WORD DESCRIPTORS
OF EACH SCALE
16 PF IS USED FOR:
• CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS, PROGNOSIS & THERAPY PLANNING
• EXECUTIVE COACHING
• TEAMBUILDING
• MARITAL COMPATIBILITY OR SATISFACTION
PROJECTIVE TESTS
OBJECTIVE/DIRECT/PAPER PENCIL VS PROJECTIVE TESTS
RESPONSES ARE ANALYSED
ACCORDING TO
UNIVERSAL STANDARD
(FOR EXAMPLE, A MULTIPLE
CHOICE EXAM)
CONTENT ANALYZED FOR
MEANING RATHER THAN
BEING BASED ON
PRESUPPOSITION ABOUT
MEANING
PROJECTIVE TESTS
• IS A PERSONALITY TEST DESIGNED TO LET A PERSON RESPOND TO
AMBIGUOUS STIMULI, PRESUMABLY REVEALING HIDDEN
EMOTIONS AND INTERNAL CONFLICTS
• DESIGNED TO EVOLVE HIGHLLY INDIVIDUAL ,VARIETY RESPONSE WITH LESS CONSCIOUS
CONTROL
• SCORING PROCEDURED IS LESS STRUCTURED AND INTERPRETER MUST OFTEN RELY
HEAVILY ON A SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF RESPONSE
PROJECTION DEFENSE MECHANISM (SIGMUND FREUD)
• PROJECTION IS THE UNCONSCIOUS ACT OF DENIAL OF A PERSON'S
OWN ATTRIBUTES, THOUGHTS, AND EMOTIONS, WHICH ARE THEN
ASCRIBED TO THE OUTSIDE WORLD, OR TO OTHER PEOPLE.
• IT INVOLVES IMAGINING OR PROJECTING THAT OTHERS HAVE THOSE
FEELINGS
TYPES OF PROJECTIVE TEST
DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF TASK INVOLVED ( LIINDZEY, 1961)
• ASSOCIATION TECHNIQUE: ASK THE SUBJECT TO TELL WHAT IS
SUGGESTED BY A VERBAL, VISUAL, OR AUDITORY STIMULI
• WORD ASSOCIATION, RORSCHACH
• CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE INVOLVE THE CREATING OF AN IMAGINAL
PRODUCTION FOR WHICH THE TEST MATERIALS PROVIDE A FRAME WORK
• TAT, MAKE A PICTURE STORY
• COMPLETION TECHNIQUE
• REQUIRES THAT SUBJECTS COMPLETE A STATEMENT OR STORY; THEY ARE MORE
STRUCTURED CONSTRUCTURED PROCEDURE (SEMISTRUCTURED)
• ROSENZWEIG PICTURE-FRUSTATION STUDY, SENTENCE
COMPLETION TESTS
• CHOICE OR ORDERING TECHNIQUE
• INVOLVE ARRANGING MATERIAL IN STORY TELLING SEQUENCES, IN ORDER OF CHOICE,
ETC, OFTEN WITH NO VERBAL ELABORATION
• TOMKINS-HORN PICTURE ARRANGEMENT TEST, SZONDI
• EXPRESSIVE TECHNIQUE
• DO NOT DEPEND ON TEST STIMULI, BUT RATHER ASK THE SUBJECT TO PERFORM AN
ARITISTIC OR CREATIVE ACTION
• DRAW A PERSON, FINGER PAINTING, PLAY,
PSYCHODRAMA
THEORETICAL BASIS
• PROJECTIVE TESTS HAVE THEIR ORIGINS IN PSYCHOANALYTIC
PSYCHOLOGY, WHICH ARGUES THAT HUMANS HAVE
CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS ATTITUDES AND
MOTIVATIONS THAT ARE BEYOND OR HIDDEN FROM
CONSCIOUS AWARENESS
THE PROJECTIVE HYPOTHESIS
(LAWRENCE FRANK, 1939)
“when people try to understand vague or ambiguous unstructured stimuli,
the interpretation they produce reflects their needs, feelings, experience,
prior conditioning, thought processes”
• WHENEVER A SPECIFIC QUESTION IS ASKED, THE RESPONSE WILL
BE CONSCIOUSLY-FORMULATED AND SOCIALLY DETERMINED.
THESE RESPONSES DO NOT REFLECT THE RESPONDENT'S
UNCONSCIOUS OR IMPLICIT ATTITUDES OR MOTIVATIONS.
• THE RESPONDENT'S DEEP-SEATED MOTIVATIONS MAY NOT BE
CONSCIOUSLY RECOGNIZED BY THE RESPONDENT OR THE
RESPONDENT MAY NOT BE ABLE TO VERBALLY EXPRESS THEM IN
THE FORM DEMANDED BY THE QUESTIONER.
• AMBIGUITY OF THE STIMULI PRESENTED WITHIN THE TESTS ALLOW
SUBJECTS TO EXPRESS THOUGHTS THAT ORIGINATE ON A DEEPER
LEVEL THAN TAPPED BY EXPLICIT QUESTIONS.
RORSCHACH - INK BLOT TEST
HISTORICAL ASPECTS
DEVELOPOED SWISS PSYCHOLOGIST HERMANN RORSCHACH IN 1921
BEFORE RORSCHACH -- LEONARDO DAVINCI ( 15TH CENTURY) J. KERNER'S
(1857), ALFRED BINET(1896)
AFTER RORSCHACH– DAVID LEVY, SAMUEL BECK, JOHN EXNER
TESTING MATERIAL
• CONSISTS OF TEN SYMMETRICAL INKBLOTS APPEAR ON SEPARATE
CARDS
• BLACK AND WHITE(5)
• TWO COLOURED (2)
• MULTICOLOURED(3)
• FAIRLY LARGE OVER-ALL BLACK-
GRAY BLOT
• MORE IMAGINATIVE AND LESS
CONSTRICTED
• SUBJECTS USE IN MANY DIFFERENT
WAYS
CARD-1
ANY CREATURE WITH WINGS AT THE SIDE (P-1)
When seeing card I, subjects often inquire on how they should proceed, and questions on what they are
allowed to do with the card (e.g. turning it) AND are not very significant. Being the first card, it can provide
clues about how subjects tackle a new and stressful task. It is not, however, a card that is usually difficult for
the subject to handle, having readily available popular responses.
CARD - 2
• FIRST BLOT WITH A COLOR
• FACILITATES MORE THAN ONE RESPONSES
RATHER THAN TAKING IN THE ENTIRE BLOT
• SUBJECTS WHO HAVE ORGANIZATIONAL
INTEREST OR ABILITY GIVE WHOLE RESPONSE
• SEXUAL RESPONSES ARE QUITE LIKELY (CENTER
AND LOWER PART)
• THE RED DETAILS ARE OFTEN SEEN AS BLOOD,
AND ARE THE MOST DISTINCTIVE FEATURES.
• RESPONSES TO THEM CAN PROVIDE
INDICATIONS ABOUT HOW A SUBJECT IS
LIKELY TO MANAGE FEELINGS OF ANGER OR
PHYSICAL HARM.
POPULAR RESPONSE:
WHOLE OR PART OF AN ANIMAL (BEARS OR
DOGS) (P-2)
CARD - 3
• VERY DISTINCT AREAS, CLEARLY
SEPARATED AND HIGHLY SUGGESTIVE
• VERY UNUSUAL TO ATTEMPT TO USE BLACK
AND RED AREAS FOR ONE CONCEPT
• MAY PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT HOW
THE SUBJECT RELATES WITH OTHER PEOPLE
(SPECIFICALLY, RESPONSE LATENCY MAY
REVEAL STRUGGLING SOCIAL
INTERACTIONS).
POPOLAR RESPONSES:
TWO HUMAN BEINGS OR ANIMALS DRESSED AS
HUMANS (MUST BE SEEN IN ACTION) (P-3)
AND, BOW TIE, HAIR RIBBON, BUTTERFLY (P-4)
CARD - 4
• MASSIVE, COMPACT, DENSELY
SHADED
• GIANT, APE OR MONSTER
• THE COMMON IMPRESSION OF THE
SUBJECT BEING IN AN INFERIOR
POSITION ("LOOKING UP") TO IT,
THIS SERVES TO ELICIT A SENSE OF
AUTHORITY.
• THE HUMAN OR ANIMAL CONTENT
SEEN IN THE CARD IS ALMOST
INVARIABLY CLASSIFIED AS MALE
RATHER THAN FEMALE
• THE QUALITIES EXPRESSED BY THE
SUBJECT MAY INDICATE ATTITUDES
TOWARD MEN AND AUTHORITY.
BECAUSE OF THIS CARD IV IS
OFTEN CALLED "THE FATHER
CARD".
CARD - 5
• DEFINITE OUTLINE, EASY
FOR MOST
• TYPICALLY INSTIGATES A
"CHANGE OF PACE" IN THE
TEST, AFTER THE PREVIOUS
MORE CHALLENGING
CARDS.
• REALITY TESTING CARD
ANY WINGED CREATURE (P-5)
CARD - 6
• CALLED SEX CARD
BECAUSE THE UPPER PART IS
INTERPRETED AS PHALLIC
SYMBOL
• FREQUENTLY SEEN AS WHOLE,
BUT UPPER AND LOWER
PORTIONS MAY BE PERCEIVED
AS SEPARATE UNITS
• TEXTURE IS THE DOMINANT
CHARACTERISTIC OF CARD VI,
WHICH OFTEN ELICITS
ASSOCIATION RELATED TO
INTERPERSONAL CLOSENESS
SKIN OF AN ANIMAL OR A PIECE OF FUR (P
CARD - 7
• LIGHT AND AIRY, ONLY SMALL DARKER
AREA IN THE BOTTOM
• OFTEN CLOUDS, SMOKE, MAPS OR HUMAN
FIGURE IN ACTION
• DIFFICULTIES IN RESPONDING MAY BE
RELATED TO CONCERNS WITH THE FEMALE
FIGURES IN THE SUBJECT'S LIFE.
• THE CENTRE DETAIL IS RELATIVELY OFTEN
(THOUGH NOT POPULARLY) IDENTIFIED AS
A VAGINA, WHICH MAKES THIS CARD
ALSO RELATE TO FEMININE SEXUALITY IN
PARTICULAR.
• REFERRED TO AS MOTHER CARD
NO UNIVERSAL POPULAR RESPONSE
CARD - 8
• FIRST OF THE THREE ENTIRELY COLORED CARDS
• SEVERAL DEFINITE AND DISTINCT AREAS
• COLORED BUTTERFLY, ANATOMICAL CHART,
EMBLEM ETC.
• PEOPLE OFTEN EXPRESS RELIEF ABOUT CARD VIII,
WHICH LETS THEM RELAX AND RESPOND
EFFECTIVELY. SIMILAR TO CARD V, IT REPRESENTS
A "CHANGE OF PACE”
• PEOPLE WHO FIND PROCESSING COMPLEX
SITUATIONS OR EMOTIONAL STIMULI
DISTRESSING OR DIFFICULT MAY BE
UNCOMFORTABLE WITH THIS CARD.
ANY FOUR-LEGGED ANIMAL IN MOTION (P-7)
CARD - 9
• LARGE BUT VAGUE IN OUTLINE WITH NO
CLEARLY DISTINGUISHABLE SMALL
PORTIONS, COLORS RUN INTO ONE
ANOTHER
• DIFFICULT TO RESPOND EITHER WHOLE OR
PART
• OFTEN WITCHES, HUMAN HEAD, BOMB
EXPLOSION
• HAVING DIFFICULTY WITH PROCESSING
THIS CARD MAY INDICATE TROUBLE
DEALING WITH UNSTRUCTURED DATA
• NO UNIVERSAL POPULAR RESPONSE
CARD - 10
• MORE COLOR THAN ANY OTHER CARD, COLORS ARE
LARGELY DISTRIBUTED
• WHOLE RESPONSE IS DIFFICULT HENCE GENERATE MORE
RESPONSES, FACILITATE NUMBER OF ANIMAL RESPONSES
MOSTLY IN ACTION
• STRUCTURALLY SIMILAR TO CARD VIII, BUT ITS UNCERTAINTY
AND COMPLEXITY ARE REMINISCENT OF CARD IX
• PEOPLE WHO FIND IT DIFFICULT TO DEAL WITH MANY
CONCURRENT STIMULI MAY NOT PARTICULARLY LIKE THIS
OTHERWISE PLEASANT CARD.
• BEING THE LAST CARD, IT MAY PROVIDE AN OPPORTUNITY
FOR THE SUBJECT TO "SIGN OUT" BY INDICATING WHAT
THEY FEEL THEIR SITUATION IS LIKE, OR WHAT THEY DESIRE
TO KNOW.
 ANY MANY LEGGED ANIMAL SPIDER, CRAB, OCTOPUS (P-8)
 ANY ELONGATED GREENISH (COLOR MUST BE USED)
ANIMAL SUCH AS GARDEN SNAKE, CATERPILLAR ON
LEAVES (P-9)
 HEAD OF AN ANIMAL WITH LONG EARS OR HORNS EG.
RABBIT’S HEAD (P-10)
ADMINISTRATION
• THE PERSON WHO IS TESTING THE TEST SUBJECT SITS NEXT TO THE
PERSON WHO IS BEING TESTED, ONLY SLIGHTLY BEHIND THEM.
• THE CARDS ARE SHOWN IN A SPECIFIC ORDER.
• THE EXAMINER TAKES NOTES OF EVERYTHING. THEIR BREATHING,
THE WAY THEY MOVE THE CARD, WHAT THEY SAY, HOW THEY
MOVE.
• SUBJECT SHOULD BE MADE COMFORTABLE AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE
BEFORE STARTING THE TEST, ALSO DURING THE TEST EXAMINER
SHOULD NOT OPENLY TAKE HIS NOTES
PHASES
• FREE ASSOCIATION PHASE
• SUBJECTS ARE PRESENTED WITH THE CARDS, ONE AT A TIME AND ASKED QUESTIONS SUCH AS
• “What might this be?”
• “What does this remind you of?”
• - Hermann Rorschach
• Modified : “ People see all sorts of things in these inkblots; now tell me what you see, what it might be for you,
what it makes you think of ?”
• EXAMINER WRITES DOWN AS MANY ANSWERS AS THE SUBJECT CARES TO GIVE, EACH BLOT
• POINTS TO BE NOTED:
• CARD TURNING
• RESPONSE TIME
• RESPONSES
• VERBALIZATION
• BEHAVIOUR
INQUIRY PHASE
• EXAMINER GOES BACK THROUGH THE SET ASKING THE
SUBJECT FOR MORE DETAILS, INCLUDING WHAT IT WAS
ABOUT THE BLOT THAT DETERMINED THE SUBJECTS
RESPONSE
• WHAT, WHERE & WHY OF EACH RESPONSE
THIRD PHASE– TESTING OF LIMITS
• WHETHER THE SUBJECT IS CAPABLE OF OTHER SORT OF
RESPONSES BY CALLING ATTENTION TO PARTICULAR AREAS,
HINTING OR ASKING OUTRIGHT “ Might this also be ?”
WHAT TO NOTE ?
• TIME UNTIL THE FIRST RESPONSE, AND TOTAL TIME FOR EACH
CARD IS NOTED
• GROSS AND SUBTLE BEHAVIOUR
• INCIDENTAL COMMENT AND VISIBLE FEELINGS ARE
CAREFULLY OBSERVED
• THE AVERAGE RECORD HAS ABOUT 25 RESPOSNES
SCORING AND INTERPRETATION
• JOHN EXNER’S COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM IS THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED SYSTEM FOR INTERPRETING THE
RORSCHACH INKBLOT TEST, WHICH IS INTEGRATION OF - FIVE COMPETING INTERPRETATIVE SYSTEMS
• BECK (SAMUEL BECK)
• HERTZ (MARGUERITE HERTZ)
• KLOPFER (BRUNO KLOPFER)
• PIOTROWSKI (ZIGMUND PIOTROWSKI)
• RAPPAPORT (DAVID RAPPAPORT)
• EACH RESPONSE IS SCORED IN TERMS OF
1. ITS LOCATION
2. THE DETERMINANTS USED IN FORMING THE RESPONSE
3. THE LEVEL OF ACCURACY OF PERCEPT
4. ITS CONTENT, INCLUDING THE CONNECTIVITY OR ORIGINALITY SHOWN
LOCATION
• THE AREA CHOSEN INDICATES, IN GENERAL, THE SUBJECT’S COGNITIVE ORIENTATION
( I.E. WHETHER HE INTEGRATES OR SEGREGATES EXPERIENCES, DEADS IN MORE ABSTRACT WAY OR IS LIMITED TO
CONVENTIONAL CATEGORIES OR WHETHER HE IS DRAW TO THE TRIVIAL AN UNUSUAL)
• RESPOND TO WHOLE BLOT (W)
• MANY W RESPONSES– SHOW A CAPACITY FOR ABSTRACTION AND INTEGRATION
• EASY OR VAGUE W– IS OFTEN GIVEN BY MENTALLY RETARDED
• TO LARGE AND COMMONLY SUGGESTED AREAS (D)
• IS THE MARK OF CONVENTIONAL THOUGHT
• TINY OR RARE DETAILS (Dd)
• THE SUBJECT CAN RESPOND TO THE WHITE SPACE INSTEAD OF INK (S )– MORE THAN ONE OR
TWO IN A RECORD (>5%) OFTEN INDICATES OPPOSITIONAL OR NEGATIVISTIC TENDENCIES AND
IS FOUND IN PASSIVE-AGGRESSIVE PEOPLE, THEY MAY HOWEVER ALSO FOUND IN CREATIVE
AND ORIGINAL THINKERS
DETERMINANTS
 FORM
 COLOR
 MOVEMENT
 SHADING
FORM
• REPRESENTS THE INDIVIDUALS CONCERN WITH EXTERNAL
REALITIES
• IN GENERAL SENSE IT INDEXES EGO CONTROL
• VERY HIGH PROPORTION OF F RESPONSES
• LITERAL AND FACTUAL
• A COLOUR LESS PERSON WITH LITTLE CAPACITY FOR SPONTANIETY, EMOTIONAL WARMTH, OR FANTASY
• AT THE EXMTREME, RIGID AND UNFEELING
• VERY LOW PROPORTION OF F RESPONSES
• IMPULSIVITY
• EMOTIONAL DOMINANCE
• LOW CAPACITY FOR LOGICAL THINKING
F = ORDINARY ACCURACY
F+ = UNUSUAL OR CLEAR PERCEPT
F- = POOR FORM PERCEPT
F + %= F +
(F+) + (F-)
HIGH F+ % : GOOD REALITY CONTACT
STRONG EGO STRENGTH
COLOUR
1. RESPONSES ARE RELATED TO
1. THE EMOTIONAL LIFE OF THE INDIVIDUAL
2. HIS RESPONSIVITY AND READINESS TO DISCHARGE RATHER DELAY
TENSION INTO ACTION
2. NEUROTICS SEEMED TO BE PARTICULARLY PRONE TO COLOR SHOCK TO BE
DISCOURTED AND DISORGANISED WHEN FIRST CONFRONTED WITH CLOUR
BLOTS
3. PURE COLOUR RESPONSE( C ) : LACK OF INDIVIDUAL CONTROL AND
CORRESPONDINGLY READINESS FOR INTENSELY IMPULSIVE ACTS,
HYPERSTIMULATIVITY, AND MININAL THOUGHT OR LOGIC BEFORE LEAPING
4. FORM IS INVOLVED, BUT COLOUR IS MORE IMPORTANT ( CF ) - egocentric
5. FORM IS INVOLVED, BUT SHAPE IS MORE IMPORTANT ( FC ) THE AFFECTS ARE
MODULATED AND SOCIALIZED
MOVEMENT
• LIVING MOVING HUMAN BEING (M)
• ANIMAL (FM)
• INANIMATE (m)
 WISH FULFILLING ACTIVITIES AND FANTASY LIFE
 M+ CREATIVITY AND IMAGINATION
 M- DELUSIONS, AUTISTIC IMAGINATION, DEFECTIVE EGO ORGANIZATION
 EMPATHY WITH OTHERS.
 HIGHLY DIFFERENTIATED AND WELL-INTEGRATED INTELLIGENCE
 INNER-STABILITY
 m- AWARENESS OF FORCES OUTSIDE ONE’S CONTROL
SIGNIFICANCE OF MOVEMENT
• PRIMARY SECURITY NEED/NEED FOR AFFECTION AND BELONGINGNESS
• ANXIETY /FRUSTRATION
SHADING
• PERSPECTIVE OF DEPTH = (V) VISTA + GOOD - BAD
ADJUSTMENT
• TEXTURE RESPONSE : NEED FOR LOVE OR AFFECTION
• HUMAN H
• HUMAN DETAIL Hd
• ANIMAL A
• ANIMAL DETAIL Ad
• PLANT/TREE/ Bt
• INNER BODY An
• ABSRTACTION Ab
• ARCHITECTURAL Ar
• FIRE Fi
• BLOOD Bl
• MYTHOLOGY My
• NATURE NA
• SEX Sex
CODING OF RESPONSES
 VARIATIONS IN FORM ACCURACY WITH DECREASE IN F%.
 POOR FORM LEVEL RATING.
 CONTAMINATION : THE ACCIDENTAL ASSOCIATION OF PARTS OF THE
BLOTS IS TAKEN TO INDICATE REAL CONNECTIONS.
 CONFABULATION: TO GENERALIZE FROM ONE DETAIL OF THE CARD.
 PERSEVERATION
 BIZARRE AND UNUSUAL RESPONSES
 MANY M RESPONSES OF POOR QUALITY
 C AND CF HIGH
 F% - LOW
 TOTAL RESPONSES <15
 EDGING RESPONSES-UNUSUALLY HOLDING AND RESPONDING.
SCHIZOPHRENIA
 POSITION RESPONSES
 COLOUR NAMING
 COLOUR SYMBOLISM
 REDUCTION IN TOTAL RESPONSES
 LESS THAN 4 POPULAR RESPONSES
 M< 3
 NO COLOUR RESPONSES AND ABSENCE OF SHADING AND SHADING
INSENSITIVITY
 PERSONALIZATION
 SEXUAL, BLOOD AND ANATOMICAL CONTENT.(BROKEN BODIES HALF
MAN, PELVIS, BUTTOCKS, BREASTS, SEXUAL ACTS, DEHUMANIZATION,
CARTOON FIGURES)
 ESOTERIC OR ARTISTIC RESPONSES.
• REJECTION OF CARDS MORE THAN ONE
• SHADING SHOCK / COLOUR SHOCK
• < 1 M
• OVER 50% ANIMAL AND ANATOMICAL RESPONSES
• FM > M
• SHADING PREOCCUPATION
• MOVEMENT OF INANIMATE OBJECTS.
• CF > FC
NEUROTIC INDICATORS
• PROLONGED REACTION TIME
• FEW RESPONSES
• ABSENCE OF COLOUR RESPONSE OR INSENSITIVITY TO COLOURS
• COLOUR PRIME RESPONSES ARE HIGH.
• ANIMAL % HIGH
• REDUCTION IN W RESPONSES
• CONTENT OF DEPRESSIVE OR DYSPHORIC QUALITY.
• EMPHASIS ON D AND DD REPONSES.
• A% IS HIGH
• FEW W RESPONSES
• FEW M RESPONSES.
DEPRESSION
• POOR QUALITY OF RESPONSES
• INCREASE IN M AND C RESPONSES
• ANIMAL % WITH FM RESPONSES
• DECREASED REACTION TIME
• CONFABULATORY WHOLE RESPONSES
• CONTENT ANALYSIS
• OVERINCLUSIVENESS
• DECREASE IN D RESPONSES
• MANY ORIGINAL RESPONSES
MANIA
• RIGID SUCCESSION
• METHODICAL APPROACH –W-D-Dd
• MANY D AND Dd
• HIGH F% -CONSTRICTIVE CONTROL
• DOUBTFUL IN RESPONDING TO PARTICULAR PARTS OF BLOTS.
• COLOUR NAMING
• FEW POPULAR RESPONSES
• BLOCKING
• STEREOTYPIC RESPONSES
OBSESSIVE –COMPULSIVE
INTERPRETATION
• F + % Low > F20
F30
F00
• F + % High > good -- intelligence
good -- emotional control
good – reality touch
• C = F20,F30,F00
• CF = diss. adolescent
• FC = adult mature
• Y = depression
• M+ = rich fantasy life
• M+ C+ = superior, creative
• M+ Co = rich inner life
• M few C++ = extrovert
• Human (3-4) = indicate autism
• Animal = dull
• Anatomical = hypochondriasis
• Sex = preoccupation
• Original = intelligence
LIMITATION
• SUBJECTIVE TECHNIQUE NEEDS SKILLED AND EXPERIENCED
CLINICIAN FOR ANALYSIS.
• NO SATISFACTORY STATISTICAL METHOD
• RATING AND SCORING INVOLVE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENT
MERITS
• STIMULUS MATERIALS ARE UNSTRUCTURED AND VAGUE FOR
WHICH SUBJECTS DON’T FIND DIFFICULTY FOR PROJECTION
• PROJECTION OCCUR WITHOUT THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE
SUBJECT
• GIVES A HOLISTIC VIEW OF PERSONALITY
• HELPS IN DIAGNOSIS OF ORGANICITY
• ACT AS A SHOCK ABSORBER- UNCONSCIOUS VENTILATION
RELIEVES ANXIETY
• HELPS TO FIND GUIDELINE FOR PSYCHOTHERAPY
THEMATIC APPERCEPTION TEST
HISTORICAL ASPECTS
DEVELOPED BY HENRY A. MORGAN
AND HIS HARVARD COLLEAGUE CHRISTIAN
D. MURRAY IN 1935.
IT IS BASED ON MURRAYS THEORY OF NEEDS –IT IS DESIGNED
TO FERRET OUT PEOPLE’S BASIC NEEDS BY HAVING THEM TO
TELL STORIES
TESTING MATERIAL
• IN THE PRESENT FORM, IT CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF 32 PICTURES ONE OF WHICH IS BLANK
• THE PRESENT TAT PICTURES ARE THE THIRD SET TO BE USED SINCE 1935.
• ASIDE FROM ADDITIONS AND OMISSIONS MADE SINCE THE FIRST SERIES WAS ISSUED, THE CARDS IN THE
SECOND AND THIRD SERIES ARE DISTINGUISHED BY BEING TWICE THE ORIGINAL SIZE.
• TAT WAS STANDARDIZED FOR INDIAN CONDITIONS BY UMA CHOUDARY(1974) FOR THE CLINICAL
USAGE.
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
TAT CARDS
ONE CARD IS BLANK
METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION
• IN THE RECOMMENDED ADMINISTRATION 20 CARDS ARE USED,
SELECTED ACCORDING TO PATIENTS AGE AND SEX, HALF OF WHICH
ARE SHOWN ON ONE OCCASION AND OTHER HALF A LATER TIME
(HA MURRAY,1943)
• LIMIT TESTING TO ONE-HOUR LONG DURATION
INSTRUCTIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS
“This is a test of imagination. I am going to show you some pictures, one at a
time, and your task will be to make up a story as dramatic and imaginative as
possible.”
• WHAT IS HAPPENING AT THE MOMENT
• WHAT THE CHARACTERS ARE FEELING AND THINKING?
• WHAT WENT BEFORE/ WHAT LED UP TO IT?
• WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN/ WHAT THE OUTCOME WILL BE?
“Speak your thoughts as they come to your mind.”
SCORING:
THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CORPORATION
• FOR EACH OF THE SCORING CATEGORIES, PRACTITIONERS
SHOULD ABBREVIATE THEIR OBSERVATIONS ABOUT THE PERSON.
• IN SOME SECTIONS, PRACTITIONERS ARE ASKED TO INDICATE THE
LEVELS OF IMPORTANCE OR STRENGTH BY PUTTING ONE CHECK
(MERE PRESENCE OF CHARACTERISTICS), TWO CHECKS
(MODERATE) OR THREE CHECKS (STRONG).
• THE ENTIRE SCORING AND INTERPRETATION PROCEDURE
TYPICALLY TAKES A HALF-HOUR.
EVALUATION OF THE FOLLOWING FIVE DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THE
STORIES IS REQUIRED:
 THE HERO. SCORING FOR THE HERO INVOLVES IDENTIFYING WHO IS
CENTRAL CHARACTER(S) IN THE STORY
 NEED OF THE HERO. FOR MURRAY, IT WAS ALSO CRITICAL TO IDENTIFY
THE NEEDS, MOTIVES AND DESIRE OF THE HERO.
 IDENTIFYING THE PRESSES. A PRESS REFER TO ANY IMPORTANT
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR THAT MAY INFLUENCE OR INTERFERE WITH THE
NEED OF THE HERO.
EXAMPLE: (PARENTS OR BOSS), (THE LOCK ON THE DOOR IS BROKEN)
 SCORING FOR THEMES. SCORING FOR THEMES IN TAT STORIES
INVOLVES NOTING THE NATURE OF THE INTERPLAY AND
CONFLICT BETWEEN THE NEEDS AND PRESSES, THE TYPES OF
EMOTION ELICITED BY THIS CONFLICT, AND THE WAY THE
CONFLICT IS RESOLVED.
 SCORING FOR OUTCOME. SCORING FOR THE OUTCOME OF THE
STORY INVOLVES ANALYZING HOW THE STORIES END BY NOTING
A HAPPY VERSUS UNHAPPY ENDING AND ASSESSING THE EXTENT
TO WHICH THE ENDING IS CONTROLLED BY THE STRENGTHS OF
THE HERO AND FORCES IN THE ENVIRONMENT.
MODE OF ANALYSIS INVOLVES
1. CAREFUL READING AND REREADING OF THE SET OF STORY PRODUCTIONS
2. NOTING REPETITIVE THEMES
3. CHARACTERISTIC WAYS IN WHICH THE HERO (USUALLY TAKEN TO
REPRESENT PATIENT HIMSELF) AND OTHER ARE DESCRIBED
4. THE RANGE OF FEELINGS EXPRESSED
5. HOW THE STORIES ARE RESOLVED
6. WHETHER OUTCOMES TEND TO BE HAPPY OR NOT AND REASONABLY
RELATED TO STORY PLOTS
• THE CLINICIANS TASK IS, ULTIMATELY TO CONSTRUCT A SET OF HYPOTHESIS
WHICH CAN BEST EXPLAIN WHY THESE PARTICULAR STORIES WERE TOLD
AND WHAT KIND OF PERSON LIES BEHIND STORY PRODUCTIONS
IMPORTANCE OF THE TEST
• IT IS SECOND ONLY TO RORSCHACH IN POPULARITY AND VOLUME OF PUBLISHED RESEARCH
• IT IS WIDELY USED TEST FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF THE NATURE OF SUBTLE AND DYNAMICS
OF PERSONALITY
• IT MANIFESTS ITSELF IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS AND IN THE APPERCEPTION OR
MEANINGFUL INTERPRETATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTS.
• IT GIVES THE BASIC DATA ON THE TESTEE’S RELATIONSHIP TO MALE OR FEMALE AUTHORITY
FIGURES, TO CONTEMPORARIES OF BOTH SEXES, AND FREQUENTLY IT SHOWS THE GENESIS IN
TERMS OF FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS.
• IT MAY NOT CLEARLY INDICATE THE INTENSITY OF FEARS AS DO THE RORSCHACH, BUT
IT TELLS ONE THE NATURE OF THEM
• THIS TEST CAN BE ADMINISTERED INDIVIDUALLY AND ALSO SELF.
• TAT REQUIRES IMAGINATION --- REVEALS CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE AND CAPACITY
FOR IMAGINATIVE PLAY
• THE ACCURACY WITH WHICH THE PICTURE ELEMENTS IS DESCRIBED IS OF
CONSIDERABLE IMPORTANCE AND PARALLELS CONCEPTUALLY THE FORM LEVEL OF
RORSCHACH
• MORE STRUCTURED THAN RORSCHACH AND SAID TO ADD INFORMATION ABOUT
CONTENT OF PERSONALITY TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF ITS STRUCTURE AND
ORGANIZATION GAINED FROM RORSCHACH
APPLICATIONS
• A DEPRESSED PT PREDICTABLY EMPHASIZES THE PAST, WITH ONLY MINOR
CONCERN WITH THE PRESENT, AND VIRTUALLY NONE WITH FUTURE
• APPREHENSIVE PEOPLE, SUCH AS HYSTERICAL PATIENTS, STAY PRIMARILY IN THE
PRESENT, WITH VAGUE AND ARITFICIALLY HAPPY EVENTS FORECAST AHEAD
• SCHIZOPHRENICS ARE LIKELY TO SHIFT ARBITRARILY BETWEEN PAST, PRESENT
AND FUTURE EVENTS
• EVIDENCE OF INTACT EGO--- PT IS CAPABLE OF FULFILLING THE OBLIGATIONS
OF THE TASK, TELLING A WELL ORGANISED STORY IN REASONABLY GOOD
PROSE SPANNING AN APPROPRIATE TIME PERSPECTIVE, WITH REALISTIC
MEANS.
INDIAN VERSION OF TAT
PICTURE 1:
PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS
• As per description of the subject
following traits may be traced
• Creativity
• Imagination ability
A BOY IS SITTING AND LOOKING AT A TANPURA PLACED IN FRONT OF HIM.
PICTURE 2 : COUNTRY SCENE WITH A WOMAN WORKING IN THE FOREGROUND. IN THE BACKGROUND, A
MAN IS WORKING IN A FIELD WHILE A WOMAN WATCHES.
• As per description of
the subject following
traits may be traced
• Imagination power
• Nature loving
• Aesthetic sense
• Attitude towards life of
different workers
PICTURE 3: :
AN OLDER MAN IS LOOKING AT A YOUNGER MAN.
• THIS CARD IS EXTREMELY USEFUL IN OBTAINING
INFORMATION ABOUT THE AUTHORITY FIGURES
AND, MORE SPECIFICALLY THE SUBJECTS OWN
FATHER.
• THE PICTURE DEALS WITH HIERARCHICAL PERSONAL
RELATIONSHIPS AND USUALLY TAKES THE FORM OF
AN OLDER, MORE EXPERIENCED MAN
INTERACTING WITH THE YOUNGER, LESS
EXPERIENCED ONE.
• THUS, THE CARD CAN CLEARLY SHOW HOW THE
SUBJECT DEALS WITH EXTERNAL DEMANDS AND
ATTITUDES TOWARD AUTHORITY.
PICTURE 4 : A YOUNG GIRL IS SEATED ON A COUCH. BEHIND HER IS AN OLDER WOMAN.
• THE INTENTION HERE IS TO BRING OUT THE STYLE AND
MANNER OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION. WHEN THE
OLDER WOMEN ARE THE SUBJECTS
• THE PICTURE OFTEN ELICITS FEELINGS AND ATTITUDES
TOWARD CHILDREN.
• BECAUSE BOTH FIGURES ARE LOOKING AWAY, EITHER
FIGURE IS SOMETIMES PERCEIVED AS REJECTING THE
OTHER.
• THIS, THE CARD DRAWS OUT NEGATIVE FEELING AND
INTERACTIONS, AND IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE HOW
THESE FEELINGS ARE RESOLVED, EXPRESSED, OR
AVOIDED.
• SOMETIMES THE OLDER WOMAN IS DESCRIBED AS
READING A FAIRY STORY TO THE YOUNGER GIRL.
PICTURE 5 : A WOMAN IS STANDING IN FRONT OF OF A MAN .
• ATTITUDE TOWARDS MALE – FEMALE
RELATIONSHIP
• ATTITUDE OF MALE TOWARDS FEMALE
AND VICE VERSA
• CAPACITY FOR MUTUAL RESPECT
PICTURE 6 : AN WOMAN IS STANDING IN FRONT OF A MAN IN OPPOSITE FACE
• ATTITUDE TOWARDS MALE – FEMALE
RELATIONSHIP
• INFORMATION ABOUT EMOTIONAL ASPECTS
• INFORMATION ABOUT SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP
PICTURE 7 : A WOMAN HAS HER HANDS AROUND THE THROAT OF ANOTHER WOMAN. IN THE BACKGROUND IS A
FLIGHT OF STAIRS.
• THE MANNER IN WHICH THE SUBJECT
HANDLES AGGRESSIVE, HOSTILE
RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE OTHER WOMEN IS
PRIMARY TYPE OF INFORMATION THIS
PICTURE ELICITS.
• PARTICULAR NOTE SHOULD BE MADE OF
WHAT TYPES OF EVENTS TRIGGER THIS
AGGRESSIVENESS, AND OF THE MANNER IN
WHICH THE CONFLICT IS OR IS NOT
RESOLVED
PICTURE 8 : A BEAUTIFUL SCENARIO OF THE VILLAGE. NO HUMAN FIGURES ARE PRESENT.
• THE PICTURE IS DESCRIBING THE
NATURE AND SO IT IS GOOD TEST
OF THE SUBJECTS’ IMAGINATIVE
ABILITIES.
PICTURE 9 : ONE PERSON IS HOLDING HIS OR HER HEAD AGAINST ANOTHER PERSON’S SHOULDER. ONE
WOMAN IS LOOKING FROM WINDOW.
• THIS CARD OFTEN GIVES USEFUL INFORMATION
REGARDING HOW THE SUBJECT PERCEIVES
MALE-FEMALE RELATIONSHIP, PARTICULARLY
THOSE INVOLVING SOME DEGREE OF
CLOSENESS AND INTIMACY.
• IT MIGHT BE HELPFUL TO NOTICE THE RELATIVE
DEGREE OF COMFORT OR DISCOMFORT
EVOKED BY EMOTIONAL CLOSENESS.
• A STORY OF DEPARTURE OR OF TERMINATION
OF THE RELATIONSHIP MAY BE REFLECTIVE OF
EITHER OVERT OR DENIED HOSTILITY ON THE
PART OF THE SUBJECT.
PICTURE 10
ONE YOUNG MAN IS A CLOSE RELATION WITH ONE WOMEN. ANOTHER WOMAN WATCHING
THIS.
• THESE CARD ALSO DEALS WITH FEMALE
PEER RELATIONS AND IS IMPORTANT IN
ELABORATING ON THE ISSUES SUCH AS
CONFLICT RESOLUTION, JEALOUSY,
SIBLING RIVALRY, AND COMPETITIVENESS.
PICTURE 11 : A WOMAN IN FRONT OF A BROKEN HOUSE
• THE PICTURE OFTEN ELICITS INFORMATION
REGARDING A SUBJECT’S ATTITUDES TOWARD
LONELINESS, DARKNESS, AND UNCERTAINTY.
• FEARS MAY BE STATED EXPLICITLY THROUGH
GANGSTER STORIES.
• AS WITH PICTURE, THE METHOD OF HANDLING
THESE FEARS AND THE EXAMINEE’S RESPONSE
TO PHYSICAL DANGER SHOULD BE NOTED.
PICTURE 12 :
A YOUNG MAN IS STANDING IN THE FOREGROUND. IN THE BACKGROUND IS A WOMAN LYING IN A
BED.
• THIS PICTURE IS OFTEN HELPFUL IN REVEALING
SEXUAL CONFLICTS.
• IN A GENERAL WAY, IT PROVIDES
INFORMATION ON THE SUBJECT’S ATTITUDES
AND FEELINGS TOWARD HIS OR HER PARTNER,
IN PARTICULARLY ATTITUDES JUST BEFORE AND
IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING THE SEXUAL
RELATION.
• STORIES IN WHICH THERE ARE OVERT
EXPRESSIONS OF AGGRESSION OR REVULSION
ARE SIGNIFICANT VARIATIONS AND SHOULD
BE NOTED AS RELATIVELY UNUSUAL.
• IN PARTICULAR, THE RELATION BETWEEN A
SUBJECT’S AGGRESSIVE AND SEXUAL
FEELINGS IS FREQUENTLY PORTRAYED.
PICTURE 13 :
A PERSON IS STANDING AGAINST A WINDOW.
• SIGNIFICANT IN THOSE CASES WHERE A SUBJECT’S
PRESENTING PROBLEM IS DEPRESSION, ESPECIALLY IF THERE
IS EVIDENCE OF SUICIDAL IDEATION.
• THIS TYPE OF SUBJECT OFTEN DESCRIBES THE FIGURE IN THE
PICTURE AND, MORE IMPORTANTLY DISCUSSES THE
EVENTS, FEELING, AND ATTITUDES THAT LED UP TO THE
CURRENT SELF-DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOR.
• IT BECOMES IMPORTANT TO INVESTIGATE, DURING THE
INQUIRY PHASE OF EXAMINATION, THE PARTICULAR
METHODS AND STYLES OF PROBLEM SOLVING THAT THE
STORY CHARACTER HAS ATTEMPTED OR IS ATTEMPTING
THIS PICTURE MAY ALSO REVEAL THE SUBJECT’S
AESTHETICS INTEREST AND PERSONAL PHILOSOPHICAL
BELIEFS OR WISH FULFILLMENTS.
DRAW - A - PERSON TEST
DAPT
HISTORICAL ASPECTS
•DEVELOPED ORIGINALLY BY FLORENCE
GOODENOUGH IN 1926, THIS TEST WAS
FIRST KNOWN AS THE GOODENOUGH DRAW-A-
MAN TEST.
DR. DALE B. HARRIS LATER REVISED AND EXTENDED THE TEST AND IT IS NOW
KNOWN AS THE GOODENOUGH-HARRIS DRAWING TEST. THE
REVISION AND EXTENSION IS DETAILED IN HIS BOOK CHILDREN'S DRAWINGS AS
MEASURES OF INTELLECTUAL MATURITY (1963).
TESTING MATERIAL
• JUST THE SHEETS AND PENCILS.
• CAN BE ADMINISTERED ANYWHERE, WHERE THE CHILD IS REQUIRED TO WORK
AS REQUIRED
AGE LIMIT
• DRAW – A – PERSON TEST CAN BE ADMINISTERED FOR THE CHILD FROM 4
YEARS TO 15 YEARS
METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION
• TEST ADMINISTRATION INVOLVES THE ADMINISTRATOR REQUESTING CHILDREN TO COMPLETE
THREE INDIVIDUAL DRAWINGS ON SEPARATE PIECES OF PAPER.
• CHILDREN ARE ASKED TO DRAW A MAN, A WOMAN, AND THEMSELVES.
• NO FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS ARE GIVEN AND THE CHILD IS FREE TO MAKE THE DRAWING IN
WHICHEVER WAY HE/SHE WOULD LIKE.
• BE PARTICULAR IN GETTING THE CHILD’S DESCRIPTION OF THE PICTURE WHEN IT APPEARS
CONFUSING OR OBSCURE.
• THERE IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG TYPE OF DRAWING, ALTHOUGH THE
CHILD MUST MAKE A DRAWING OF A WHOLE PERSON EACH TIME - I.E.
HEAD TO FEET, NOT JUST THE FACE.
• THE TEST HAS NO TIME LIMIT.
• FOLLOWING ARRANGEMENTS ARE MADE
• ROOM WHICH IS LIKELY TO BE LESS DISTURBED.
• REMOVE ALL THE PICTURES, AND POSTURES.
• GIVE A COMFORTABLE PLACE TO WORK.
• PROVIDE ADEQUATE MATERIALS (HB BLACK PENCIL, AVOID CRAYONS, AND
DRAWING SHEETS)
• CHECK THE USE OF ERASERS TO THE MINIMUM.
• ALLOW THE CHILD TO USE OTHER SIDE OF THE SHEET OR PROVIDE A NEW SHEET IF
THE CHILD SPOILS THE SHEET.
SCORING AND INTERPRETATION
• SCORING IS TOTALLY BASED ON HOW EACH PART OF THE BODY IS
DRAWN.
• EACH IS GIVEN POINTS BASED ON THE CRITERIA. AND EVERY THING IS
ADDED UP TO OBTAIN A RAW SCORE AND IT IS COMPARED WITH THE
NORMS FOR THE AGE GROUP OF THE CHILD.
• HARRIS'S BOOK (1963) PROVIDES SCORING SCALES WHICH ARE USED
TO EXAMINE AND SCORE THE CHILD'S DRAWINGS.
INTERPRETATION
• LARGE HEAD- PARANOID, NARCISSISTIC, INTELLECTUALLY
RIGHTEOUS, OR VAIN, ANYTHING HAVING TO DO WITH A
LARGE EGO.
• TIMING- PEOPLE WHO DRAW IT LAST SHOWS DISTURBANCES
WITH INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS.
INTERPRETATION
• FACE
• OMITTING: OMISSION OF FACIAL FEATURES IS AN EXPRESSION OF
AVOIDANCE OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS.
• NECK- THE NECK OFTEN REPRESENTS THE CONNECTION
BETWEEN THE HEAD AND THE BODY.
• AN UNDER EMPHASIS MAY REPRESENT ONE FEELING A
DISCONNECTION BETWEEN THESE TWO THINGS AND COULD
SUGGEST: SCHIZOPHRENIA. HOWEVER, UNDEREMPHASIS COULD
ALSO SUGGESTS FEELINGS OF PHYSICAL INADEQUACY.
INTERPRETATION
• LARGE HEAD- FANTASY IS PRIMARY SOURCE OF SATISFACTION
• SMALL HEAD- FEELINGS OF WEAKNESS AND INTELLECTUAL INFERIORITY
• LONG HAIR- AMBIVELANT SEXUAL FANTASIES
• TINY EYES- STRONG VISUAL CURIOSITY
• LARGE EARS- HYPERSENSITIVITY TO CRITICISMS
• TRIANGLE NOSE- IMMATURITY
• POINTED NOSE- POSSIBLE ACTING OUT TENDENCIES
• TINY MOUTH- DENIAL OF ORAL DEPENDENT NEEDS
• HANDS BEHIND THE BACK- POSSIBLY GUILT FEELINGS FOR MANUAL ACTIVITY
• TINY FEET- INSECURITY
• HIGH HEEL SHOES- POSIBLE HOMOSEXUAL TENDENCIES
• STICK FIGURE- POSSIBE DEPRESSION
• OPPOSITE SEX DRAWN FIRST- CONFLICT WITH SEXUAL IDENTIFICATION.
IMPORTANCE OF THIS TEST
• THE TEST IS COMPLETELY NON-INVASIVE AND NON-THREATENING TO
CHILDREN - WHICH IS PART OF ITS APPEAL..
• IT MAY BE ADMINISTERED TO A SINGLE CHILD AT A TIME OR TO A
GROUP OF CHILDREN.
• USED TO EVALUATE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS FOR NONVERBAL
INTELLIGENCE OR TO SCREEN FOR EMOTIONAL OR BEHAVIOR
DISORDERS
APPLICATIONS
• DAPT In schizophrenia
• PATIENT'S NEGLECT TO INCLUDE "OBVIOUS ANATOMICAL PARTS LIKE HANDS AND EYES," WITH
"BLURRED AND UNCONNECTED LINES," AMBIGUOUS SEXUALITY AND GENERAL DISTORTION.
• THERE HAS BEEN NO VALIDATION OF THIS TEST AS AN INDICANT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA.
DAPT PERFORMANCE OF A PERSON WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA
SENTENCE COMPLETION TEST
HISTORICAL ASPECTS
• SENTENCE COMPLETION TEST WAS DEVELOPED BY JOSEPH M.
SACKS.
TESTING MATERIAL
• THIS TEST WAS DESIGNED TO OBTAIN SIGNIFICANT CLINICAL INFORMATION IN FOUR
REPRESENTATIVE AREAS OF ADJUSTMENT SUCH AS
• FAMILY
• SEX
• INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
• AND SELF – CONCEPT.
• INCLUDES THREE SET OF ATTITUDES, THOSE TOWARDS MOTHER, FATHER AND
FAMILY UNIT.
• EACH OF THESE IS REPRESENTED BY FOUR SENTENCE COMPLETION ITEMS
THE FAMILY AREA
• My mother and I …,
• my family threats me like…………..
THE SEX AREA
• INCLUDES ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN AND TOWARDS HETEROSEXUAL
RELATIONSHIPS.
• EIGHT ITEMS IN THIS AREA ALLOW THE SUBJECT TO EXPRESS HIMSELF
• I think most girls ………..……..
• INCLUDES ATTITUDES TOWARD FRIENDS, ACQUAINTANCES, COLLEAGUES AT WORK OR
SUPERVISORS, AND PEOPLE SUPERVISED.
• THERE ARE SIXTEEN ITEMS IN THIS AREA FOR THE SUBJECT TO EXPRESS HIS FEELINGS
• “When I am not around, my friends …………………….”
• “When I see the boss coming ………………”,
• “The people who work for me ………..”
• “At work I get along best with ……………….”
THE AREA OF
INTERPERSONAL
RELATIONSHIPS
• SELF CONCEPT INVOLVES FEARS, GUILT FEELINGS, GOALS, AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS
ONE’S OWN ABILITIES, PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE.
• CONSISTS OF TWENTY FOUR ITEMS
• “I wish I could lose the fear of ……………”
• “My greatest mistake was ……………….”
• “I believe I have the ability to ……………”
• “When I was a child …………….,”
• “Some day I ………….,”
• “What I want most out of life ……….”
SELF CONCEPT
METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION
• SCT CAN BE ADMINISTERED INDIVIDUALLY OR TO A GROUP AND REQUIRES FROM 20 TO
40 MINUTES COMPLETING THE TEST.
• IT IS EMPHASIZED THAT RESPONSES SHOULD CONSIST OF THE FIRST SPONTANEOUS
REACTION TO EACH STIMULUS ITEM, AND THAT THE SUBJECT SHOULD NOT STOP TO THINK OF A
LOGICAL COMPLETION.
SCORING AND INTERPRETATION
• BY EVALUATING THE ITEMS OF EACH AREA AND THEIR SUB – AREAS
QUALITATIVELY
• AND COMING TO THE CONCLUSION THAT WHAT KIND OF ATTITUDES,
CONFLICTS THE PERSON HAS IN EACH OF THOSE AREAS.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
• COMPREHENSIVE TEXTBOOK OF PSYCHIATRY, VOL , KAPLAN AND SADOCK.
• SYNOPSIS OF PSYCHIATRY, 10TH EDITION - BENJAMIN J SADOCK & VIRGINIA A SADOCK
• COMPREHENSIVE HANDBOOK OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT - VOLUME 1 -INTELLECTUAL
AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT BY GERALD GOLDSTEIN & SUE R. BEERS
• A COMPENDIUM OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS: ADMINISTRATION, NORMS AND
COMMENTARY, THIRD EDITION BY ESTHER STRAUSS, ELISABETH M. S. SHERMAN & OTFRIED SPREEN.
• HANDBOOK OF PSYCHOLOGY (12 VOLUME SET) BY IRVING B. WEINER
• ESSENTIALS OF SCHOOL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL - MILLER, DANIEL C
• SHELDON J. KORCHIN.(1986, FIRST INDIAN EDITION). MODERN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY. CBS
PUBLISHERS & DISTRIBUTORS.
• THE RORSCHACH - BASIC FOUNDATIONS AND PRINCIPLES OF INTERPRETATION BY JOHN E. EXNER
• RORSCHACH ASSESSMENT OF THE PERSONALITY DISORDERS BY STEVEN K. HUPRICH
(BOOKOS.ORG)
• MORGAN AND KING. INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY. TATA MC GRAW HILL
• INTERNET SOURCES
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

Clinical neuropsychological testing
Clinical neuropsychological testingClinical neuropsychological testing
Clinical neuropsychological testingShilpa Prajapati
 
PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)
PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)
PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)MissTiwari
 
Wechsler Intelligence and Memory Scales
Wechsler Intelligence and Memory ScalesWechsler Intelligence and Memory Scales
Wechsler Intelligence and Memory ScalesNanza Gonda
 
neuropsychological assessment in SMI
neuropsychological assessment in SMIneuropsychological assessment in SMI
neuropsychological assessment in SMIhar234
 
MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory)
MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory)MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory)
MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory)Dr.Jeet Nadpara
 
Projective tests dr ali
Projective tests dr aliProjective tests dr ali
Projective tests dr aliOSMAN ALI MD
 
Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS)Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS)ssuser62e5671
 
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological BatteryHalstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Batterystevenscoles
 
Intelligence tests 01
Intelligence tests 01Intelligence tests 01
Intelligence tests 01Palash Mehar
 
SENTENCE COMPLETION TESTS AND DRAWING TESTS
SENTENCE COMPLETION TESTS AND DRAWING TESTSSENTENCE COMPLETION TESTS AND DRAWING TESTS
SENTENCE COMPLETION TESTS AND DRAWING TESTSANCYBS
 
Epidemiological studies in psychiatry in India
Epidemiological studies in psychiatry in IndiaEpidemiological studies in psychiatry in India
Epidemiological studies in psychiatry in IndiaSujit Kumar Kar
 
an introduction to neuropsychology
an introduction to neuropsychologyan introduction to neuropsychology
an introduction to neuropsychologywisha asma
 
Neuropsychological Assessment of Attention
Neuropsychological Assessment of AttentionNeuropsychological Assessment of Attention
Neuropsychological Assessment of AttentionZahiruddin Othman
 
Rorschach's Inkblot Test
Rorschach's Inkblot TestRorschach's Inkblot Test
Rorschach's Inkblot TestAlka V
 

What's hot (20)

Clinical neuropsychological testing
Clinical neuropsychological testingClinical neuropsychological testing
Clinical neuropsychological testing
 
PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)
PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)
PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)
 
Wechsler Intelligence and Memory Scales
Wechsler Intelligence and Memory ScalesWechsler Intelligence and Memory Scales
Wechsler Intelligence and Memory Scales
 
neuropsychological assessment in SMI
neuropsychological assessment in SMIneuropsychological assessment in SMI
neuropsychological assessment in SMI
 
MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory)
MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory)MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory)
MMPI (minnesota multiphasic personality inventory)
 
Bender gestalt test
Bender gestalt testBender gestalt test
Bender gestalt test
 
IDEAS psychiatry
IDEAS psychiatryIDEAS psychiatry
IDEAS psychiatry
 
Projective tests dr ali
Projective tests dr aliProjective tests dr ali
Projective tests dr ali
 
Intelligence
IntelligenceIntelligence
Intelligence
 
Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS)Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS)
Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale (WAIS)
 
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological BatteryHalstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery
 
Intelligence tests 01
Intelligence tests 01Intelligence tests 01
Intelligence tests 01
 
TAT Interpretation
TAT InterpretationTAT Interpretation
TAT Interpretation
 
SENTENCE COMPLETION TESTS AND DRAWING TESTS
SENTENCE COMPLETION TESTS AND DRAWING TESTSSENTENCE COMPLETION TESTS AND DRAWING TESTS
SENTENCE COMPLETION TESTS AND DRAWING TESTS
 
Epidemiological studies in psychiatry in India
Epidemiological studies in psychiatry in IndiaEpidemiological studies in psychiatry in India
Epidemiological studies in psychiatry in India
 
an introduction to neuropsychology
an introduction to neuropsychologyan introduction to neuropsychology
an introduction to neuropsychology
 
Neuropsychological Assessment of Attention
Neuropsychological Assessment of AttentionNeuropsychological Assessment of Attention
Neuropsychological Assessment of Attention
 
Rorschach's Inkblot Test
Rorschach's Inkblot TestRorschach's Inkblot Test
Rorschach's Inkblot Test
 
Sack s sentence completion test report
Sack s sentence completion test reportSack s sentence completion test report
Sack s sentence completion test report
 
Cognition in schizophrenia
Cognition in schizophreniaCognition in schizophrenia
Cognition in schizophrenia
 

Viewers also liked

Neuropsychological Assessment in Psychology
Neuropsychological Assessment in PsychologyNeuropsychological Assessment in Psychology
Neuropsychological Assessment in PsychologyAli Amad Zulfiqar
 
Projective techniques
Projective techniques Projective techniques
Projective techniques kiran paul
 
Behavioral tests
Behavioral testsBehavioral tests
Behavioral testskaderrahman
 
What are dreams [Dr. Subrata Naskar]
What are dreams   [Dr. Subrata Naskar]What are dreams   [Dr. Subrata Naskar]
What are dreams [Dr. Subrata Naskar]Subrata Naskar
 
Aggresion theories & implication for psychiatry (subrata naskar)
Aggresion   theories & implication for psychiatry (subrata naskar)Aggresion   theories & implication for psychiatry (subrata naskar)
Aggresion theories & implication for psychiatry (subrata naskar)Subrata Naskar
 
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART - II
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART - IIINTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART - II
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART - IISubrata Naskar
 
Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)
Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)
Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)Subrata Naskar
 
Management of Schizophrenia (Dr.Subrata Naskar)
Management of Schizophrenia (Dr.Subrata Naskar)Management of Schizophrenia (Dr.Subrata Naskar)
Management of Schizophrenia (Dr.Subrata Naskar)Subrata Naskar
 
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART- I
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART- IINTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART- I
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART- ISubrata Naskar
 
Examination of Caregiver Stress
Examination of Caregiver StressExamination of Caregiver Stress
Examination of Caregiver StressNick Seifert
 
Neuropsychological testing of cognitive domains
Neuropsychological testing of cognitive domainsNeuropsychological testing of cognitive domains
Neuropsychological testing of cognitive domainsDoha Rasheedy
 
Logo lezione 05102007 h 1400
Logo lezione 05102007 h 1400Logo lezione 05102007 h 1400
Logo lezione 05102007 h 1400imartini
 
ECDP2011 Oral Presentation: Working Memory in 5-to-7 Year-Old Children: Its S...
ECDP2011 Oral Presentation: Working Memory in 5-to-7 Year-Old Children: Its S...ECDP2011 Oral Presentation: Working Memory in 5-to-7 Year-Old Children: Its S...
ECDP2011 Oral Presentation: Working Memory in 5-to-7 Year-Old Children: Its S...Robert Reuter
 
Wisciv tech report1-1
Wisciv tech report1-1Wisciv tech report1-1
Wisciv tech report1-1gvalley1
 
Methods of Data collecton
Methods of Data collectonMethods of Data collecton
Methods of Data collectonsarath43
 
Basal ganglia – Neuropsychiatric aspect
Basal ganglia  –  Neuropsychiatric  aspectBasal ganglia  –  Neuropsychiatric  aspect
Basal ganglia – Neuropsychiatric aspectSubrata Naskar
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Neuropsychological Assessment in Psychology
Neuropsychological Assessment in PsychologyNeuropsychological Assessment in Psychology
Neuropsychological Assessment in Psychology
 
Projective techniques
Projective techniques Projective techniques
Projective techniques
 
Behavioral tests
Behavioral testsBehavioral tests
Behavioral tests
 
What are dreams [Dr. Subrata Naskar]
What are dreams   [Dr. Subrata Naskar]What are dreams   [Dr. Subrata Naskar]
What are dreams [Dr. Subrata Naskar]
 
Aggresion theories & implication for psychiatry (subrata naskar)
Aggresion   theories & implication for psychiatry (subrata naskar)Aggresion   theories & implication for psychiatry (subrata naskar)
Aggresion theories & implication for psychiatry (subrata naskar)
 
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART - II
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART - IIINTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART - II
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART - II
 
Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)
Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)
Thought & its disorders (Dr. Subrata Naskar)
 
Management of Schizophrenia (Dr.Subrata Naskar)
Management of Schizophrenia (Dr.Subrata Naskar)Management of Schizophrenia (Dr.Subrata Naskar)
Management of Schizophrenia (Dr.Subrata Naskar)
 
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART- I
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART- IINTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART- I
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY PART- I
 
Gestalt bender report
Gestalt bender reportGestalt bender report
Gestalt bender report
 
Examination of Caregiver Stress
Examination of Caregiver StressExamination of Caregiver Stress
Examination of Caregiver Stress
 
Neuropsychological testing of cognitive domains
Neuropsychological testing of cognitive domainsNeuropsychological testing of cognitive domains
Neuropsychological testing of cognitive domains
 
Beck Depression Inventory
Beck Depression InventoryBeck Depression Inventory
Beck Depression Inventory
 
Logo lezione 05102007 h 1400
Logo lezione 05102007 h 1400Logo lezione 05102007 h 1400
Logo lezione 05102007 h 1400
 
Hypothesis Based Testing: Power + Speed.
Hypothesis Based Testing: Power + Speed.Hypothesis Based Testing: Power + Speed.
Hypothesis Based Testing: Power + Speed.
 
ECDP2011 Oral Presentation: Working Memory in 5-to-7 Year-Old Children: Its S...
ECDP2011 Oral Presentation: Working Memory in 5-to-7 Year-Old Children: Its S...ECDP2011 Oral Presentation: Working Memory in 5-to-7 Year-Old Children: Its S...
ECDP2011 Oral Presentation: Working Memory in 5-to-7 Year-Old Children: Its S...
 
Wisciv tech report1-1
Wisciv tech report1-1Wisciv tech report1-1
Wisciv tech report1-1
 
Test of Memory
Test of MemoryTest of Memory
Test of Memory
 
Methods of Data collecton
Methods of Data collectonMethods of Data collecton
Methods of Data collecton
 
Basal ganglia – Neuropsychiatric aspect
Basal ganglia  –  Neuropsychiatric  aspectBasal ganglia  –  Neuropsychiatric  aspect
Basal ganglia – Neuropsychiatric aspect
 

Similar to NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS PART - 2

NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS PART - 1 - Copy.pptx
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS PART - 1 - Copy.pptxNEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS PART - 1 - Copy.pptx
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS PART - 1 - Copy.pptxSimarKaurMonga
 
NEUROPHYSIOLOCIAL TESTS.pptx
NEUROPHYSIOLOCIAL TESTS.pptxNEUROPHYSIOLOCIAL TESTS.pptx
NEUROPHYSIOLOCIAL TESTS.pptxKokoLila
 
Science-Process-Skills_DepEdCopy.pdf
Science-Process-Skills_DepEdCopy.pdfScience-Process-Skills_DepEdCopy.pdf
Science-Process-Skills_DepEdCopy.pdfLawrenceRuiz2
 
Mehak iqbal
Mehak iqbal Mehak iqbal
Mehak iqbal Hira Khan
 
Sampling Techniques.pptx
Sampling Techniques.pptxSampling Techniques.pptx
Sampling Techniques.pptxMostaque Ahmed
 
The rorschach test1
The rorschach test1The rorschach test1
The rorschach test1aarti520g
 
statistics Sampling distribution_CO_ppt.pptx
statistics Sampling distribution_CO_ppt.pptxstatistics Sampling distribution_CO_ppt.pptx
statistics Sampling distribution_CO_ppt.pptxRodelLaman1
 
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of data
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of dataQuantitative and qualitative analysis of data
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of dataNisha M S
 
Institutional Research and Regression
Institutional Research and RegressionInstitutional Research and Regression
Institutional Research and RegressionColby Stoever
 
National science day 2015 ppt
National science day 2015 pptNational science day 2015 ppt
National science day 2015 pptDrArvind Mishra
 
Early cognitive views of personality
Early cognitive views of personalityEarly cognitive views of personality
Early cognitive views of personalitymmariashp
 
Industrial Psychology
Industrial PsychologyIndustrial Psychology
Industrial PsychologyNigam Dave
 
Building Mathematical Ability Foundation Course PowerPoint Presentation-Data ...
Building Mathematical Ability Foundation Course PowerPoint Presentation-Data ...Building Mathematical Ability Foundation Course PowerPoint Presentation-Data ...
Building Mathematical Ability Foundation Course PowerPoint Presentation-Data ...Parth Nagpal
 
Epsy 1281-lecture-05
Epsy 1281-lecture-05Epsy 1281-lecture-05
Epsy 1281-lecture-05vpletap
 
How to write publish papers in dentistry
How to write publish papers in dentistryHow to write publish papers in dentistry
How to write publish papers in dentistryIDJSR
 

Similar to NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS PART - 2 (20)

NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS PART - 1 - Copy.pptx
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS PART - 1 - Copy.pptxNEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS PART - 1 - Copy.pptx
NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS PART - 1 - Copy.pptx
 
NEUROPHYSIOLOCIAL TESTS.pptx
NEUROPHYSIOLOCIAL TESTS.pptxNEUROPHYSIOLOCIAL TESTS.pptx
NEUROPHYSIOLOCIAL TESTS.pptx
 
Intelligence testing
Intelligence testingIntelligence testing
Intelligence testing
 
Science-Process-Skills_DepEdCopy.pdf
Science-Process-Skills_DepEdCopy.pdfScience-Process-Skills_DepEdCopy.pdf
Science-Process-Skills_DepEdCopy.pdf
 
Mehak iqbal
Mehak iqbal Mehak iqbal
Mehak iqbal
 
Sampling Techniques.pptx
Sampling Techniques.pptxSampling Techniques.pptx
Sampling Techniques.pptx
 
The rorschach test1
The rorschach test1The rorschach test1
The rorschach test1
 
Loubier slide share_qualitative
Loubier slide share_qualitativeLoubier slide share_qualitative
Loubier slide share_qualitative
 
statistics Sampling distribution_CO_ppt.pptx
statistics Sampling distribution_CO_ppt.pptxstatistics Sampling distribution_CO_ppt.pptx
statistics Sampling distribution_CO_ppt.pptx
 
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of data
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of dataQuantitative and qualitative analysis of data
Quantitative and qualitative analysis of data
 
Institutional Research and Regression
Institutional Research and RegressionInstitutional Research and Regression
Institutional Research and Regression
 
National science day 2015 ppt
National science day 2015 pptNational science day 2015 ppt
National science day 2015 ppt
 
Zzz
ZzzZzz
Zzz
 
Early cognitive views of personality
Early cognitive views of personalityEarly cognitive views of personality
Early cognitive views of personality
 
Industrial Psychology
Industrial PsychologyIndustrial Psychology
Industrial Psychology
 
Building Mathematical Ability Foundation Course PowerPoint Presentation-Data ...
Building Mathematical Ability Foundation Course PowerPoint Presentation-Data ...Building Mathematical Ability Foundation Course PowerPoint Presentation-Data ...
Building Mathematical Ability Foundation Course PowerPoint Presentation-Data ...
 
Epsy 1281-lecture-05
Epsy 1281-lecture-05Epsy 1281-lecture-05
Epsy 1281-lecture-05
 
Spatial thinking in STEM
Spatial thinking in STEMSpatial thinking in STEM
Spatial thinking in STEM
 
How to write publish papers in dentistry
How to write publish papers in dentistryHow to write publish papers in dentistry
How to write publish papers in dentistry
 
Psychometric assessment.drjma
Psychometric assessment.drjmaPsychometric assessment.drjma
Psychometric assessment.drjma
 

More from Subrata Naskar

ANXIETY DISORDERS & MANAGEMENT
ANXIETY DISORDERS & MANAGEMENTANXIETY DISORDERS & MANAGEMENT
ANXIETY DISORDERS & MANAGEMENTSubrata Naskar
 
TREATMENT RESISTANT DEPRESSION
TREATMENT RESISTANT DEPRESSIONTREATMENT RESISTANT DEPRESSION
TREATMENT RESISTANT DEPRESSIONSubrata Naskar
 
NEUROIMAGING IN PSYCHIATRY
NEUROIMAGING IN PSYCHIATRYNEUROIMAGING IN PSYCHIATRY
NEUROIMAGING IN PSYCHIATRYSubrata Naskar
 
Electroconvulsive therapy and its present status
Electroconvulsive therapy and its present statusElectroconvulsive therapy and its present status
Electroconvulsive therapy and its present statusSubrata Naskar
 
THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF PSYCHOSIS AND THE ROLE OF ANTIPSYCHOTICS
THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF PSYCHOSIS AND THE ROLE OF ANTIPSYCHOTICSTHE NEUROBIOLOGY OF PSYCHOSIS AND THE ROLE OF ANTIPSYCHOTICS
THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF PSYCHOSIS AND THE ROLE OF ANTIPSYCHOTICSSubrata Naskar
 
Dissociative spectrum disorder
Dissociative spectrum disorderDissociative spectrum disorder
Dissociative spectrum disorderSubrata Naskar
 

More from Subrata Naskar (8)

ANXIETY DISORDERS & MANAGEMENT
ANXIETY DISORDERS & MANAGEMENTANXIETY DISORDERS & MANAGEMENT
ANXIETY DISORDERS & MANAGEMENT
 
TREATMENT RESISTANT DEPRESSION
TREATMENT RESISTANT DEPRESSIONTREATMENT RESISTANT DEPRESSION
TREATMENT RESISTANT DEPRESSION
 
HISTORY OF PSYCHIATRY
HISTORY OF PSYCHIATRYHISTORY OF PSYCHIATRY
HISTORY OF PSYCHIATRY
 
NEUROIMAGING IN PSYCHIATRY
NEUROIMAGING IN PSYCHIATRYNEUROIMAGING IN PSYCHIATRY
NEUROIMAGING IN PSYCHIATRY
 
Electroconvulsive therapy and its present status
Electroconvulsive therapy and its present statusElectroconvulsive therapy and its present status
Electroconvulsive therapy and its present status
 
THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF PSYCHOSIS AND THE ROLE OF ANTIPSYCHOTICS
THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF PSYCHOSIS AND THE ROLE OF ANTIPSYCHOTICSTHE NEUROBIOLOGY OF PSYCHOSIS AND THE ROLE OF ANTIPSYCHOTICS
THE NEUROBIOLOGY OF PSYCHOSIS AND THE ROLE OF ANTIPSYCHOTICS
 
Delirium
DeliriumDelirium
Delirium
 
Dissociative spectrum disorder
Dissociative spectrum disorderDissociative spectrum disorder
Dissociative spectrum disorder
 

Recently uploaded

Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...Dr. Dheeraj Kumar
 
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...Badalona Serveis Assistencials
 
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdfCCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdfMyThaoAiDoan
 
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!ibtesaam huma
 
Phytochemical Investigation of Drugs PDF.pdf
Phytochemical Investigation of Drugs PDF.pdfPhytochemical Investigation of Drugs PDF.pdf
Phytochemical Investigation of Drugs PDF.pdfDivya Kanojiya
 
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)MohamadAlhes
 
SGK HÓA SINH ENZYM 2006 CHỊ THU RẤT HAY.pdf
SGK HÓA SINH ENZYM 2006 CHỊ THU RẤT HAY.pdfSGK HÓA SINH ENZYM 2006 CHỊ THU RẤT HAY.pdf
SGK HÓA SINH ENZYM 2006 CHỊ THU RẤT HAY.pdfHongBiThi1
 
Valproic Acid. (VPA). Antiseizure medication
Valproic Acid.  (VPA). Antiseizure medicationValproic Acid.  (VPA). Antiseizure medication
Valproic Acid. (VPA). Antiseizure medicationMohamadAlhes
 
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptxCulture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptxDr. Dheeraj Kumar
 
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of ...
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID  Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of  ...Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID  Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of  ...
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of ...sdateam0
 
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptxHypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptxAkshay Shetty
 
HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of: N...
HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of:  N...HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of:  N...
HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of: N...Divya Kanojiya
 
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptxSHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptxAbhishek943418
 
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPresentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPrerana Jadhav
 
The next social challenge to public health: the information environment.pptx
The next social challenge to public health:  the information environment.pptxThe next social challenge to public health:  the information environment.pptx
The next social challenge to public health: the information environment.pptxTina Purnat
 
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxCOVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxBibekananda shah
 
Nutrition of OCD for my Nutritional Neuroscience Class
Nutrition of OCD for my Nutritional Neuroscience ClassNutrition of OCD for my Nutritional Neuroscience Class
Nutrition of OCD for my Nutritional Neuroscience Classmanuelazg2001
 
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdfRole of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdfDivya Kanojiya
 
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxPresentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxpdamico1
 

Recently uploaded (20)

JANGAMA VISHA .pptx-
JANGAMA VISHA .pptx-JANGAMA VISHA .pptx-
JANGAMA VISHA .pptx-
 
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
Units of Radiation Measurements, Quality Specification, Half-Value Thickness,...
 
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
Presentació "Real-Life VR Integration for Mild Cognitive Impairment Rehabilit...
 
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdfCCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
CCSC6142 Week 3 Research ethics - Long Hoang.pdf
 
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
Biomechanics- Shoulder Joint!!!!!!!!!!!!
 
Phytochemical Investigation of Drugs PDF.pdf
Phytochemical Investigation of Drugs PDF.pdfPhytochemical Investigation of Drugs PDF.pdf
Phytochemical Investigation of Drugs PDF.pdf
 
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein antibody associated disease (MOGAD)
 
SGK HÓA SINH ENZYM 2006 CHỊ THU RẤT HAY.pdf
SGK HÓA SINH ENZYM 2006 CHỊ THU RẤT HAY.pdfSGK HÓA SINH ENZYM 2006 CHỊ THU RẤT HAY.pdf
SGK HÓA SINH ENZYM 2006 CHỊ THU RẤT HAY.pdf
 
Valproic Acid. (VPA). Antiseizure medication
Valproic Acid.  (VPA). Antiseizure medicationValproic Acid.  (VPA). Antiseizure medication
Valproic Acid. (VPA). Antiseizure medication
 
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptxCulture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
Culture and Health Disorders Social change.pptx
 
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of ...
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID  Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of  ...Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID  Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of  ...
Big Data Analysis Suggests COVID Vaccination Increases Excess Mortality Of ...
 
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptxHypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
Hypersensitivity and its classification .pptx
 
HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of: N...
HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of:  N...HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of:  N...
HERBS AS HEALTH FOOD - Brief introduction and therapeutic applications of: N...
 
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptxSHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
SHOCK (Medical SURGICAL BASED EDITION)).pptx
 
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous SystemPresentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
Presentation on Parasympathetic Nervous System
 
The next social challenge to public health: the information environment.pptx
The next social challenge to public health:  the information environment.pptxThe next social challenge to public health:  the information environment.pptx
The next social challenge to public health: the information environment.pptx
 
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptxCOVID-19  (NOVEL CORONA  VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE PANDEMIC ).pptx
 
Nutrition of OCD for my Nutritional Neuroscience Class
Nutrition of OCD for my Nutritional Neuroscience ClassNutrition of OCD for my Nutritional Neuroscience Class
Nutrition of OCD for my Nutritional Neuroscience Class
 
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdfRole of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy PDF.pdf
 
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptxPresentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
Presentation for Bella Mahl 2024-03-28-24-MW-Overview-Bella.pptx
 

NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS PART - 2

  • 1. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS – PART - II DR.SUBRATA NASKAR MD Psychiatry Trainee Email: nsubrata09@gmail.com
  • 2. PLAN OF PRESENTATION continued from Part- I … • INTELLIGENCE TESTS • PERSONALITY TESTS • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 3. INTELLIGENCE • "THE GLOBAL CAPACITY OF A PERSON TO ACT PURPOSEFULLY, TO THINK RATIONALLY, AND TO DEAL EFFECTIVELY WITH HIS/HER ENVIRONMENT.” - DAVID WECHSLER
  • 4. INTELLIGENCE TESTS – HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE • LATE 1800 – SIR FRANCIS GALTON – 1ST ATTEMPT TO DEVELOP A SCALE • 1905 – ALFRED BINET & THEOPHILE SIMON – BINET’S INTELLIGENCE SCALE • 1916 – LEWIS TERMAN OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY – STANFORD BINET’S INTELLIGENCE SCALE • LAST MODIFIED IN 2003 • NO IQ BUT STANDARDIZED SCORE • INTERPRETED IN TERMS OF PERCENTILES
  • 5. • 1939 – DAVID WECHSLER – WECHSLER’S ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE. • 1958 – DAVID WECHSLER – WECHSLER’S INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN.
  • 6. INTELLIGENCE TEST • WECHSLER’S TESTS: • WECHSLER’S ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE 4TH ED • WECHSLER’S INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN 5TH ED • WECHSLER ABBREVIATED SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE (WASI) • WECHSLER PRESCHOOL AND PRIMARY SCALE OF INTELLIGENCE, THIRD EDITION (WPPSI-III), • WECHSLER TEST OF ADULT READING (WTAR) • STANFORD BINET’S INTELLIGENCE SCALE 5TH ED • SHIPLEY SCALE • THE TEST OF NONVERBAL INTELLIGENCE—3 (TONI-3) • NATIONAL ADULT READING SCALE • THE SPEED AND CAPACITY OF LANGUAGE PROCESSING TEST (SCOLP) • SEGUIN FORM BOARD TEST
  • 7. WECHSLER’S ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE • 2 MAJOR SCALES: • VERBAL SCALE • PERFORMANCE SCALE
  • 8. VERBAL SCALE • INFORMATION • QUESTIONS TO TAP A GENERAL RANGE OF INFORMATION, FOR EXAMPLE, ‘WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF INDIA/ITALY?’ • COMPREHENSION TESTS • PRACTICAL INFORMATION AND ABILITY TO EVALUATE PAST EXPERIENCE, FOR EXAMPLE, ‘WHY DO WE PUT STAMPS ON A LETTER TO BE MAILED?’ • ARITHMETIC • VERBAL PROBLEMS TESTING ARITHMETIC REASONING. • SIMILARITIES • ASKS IN WHAT WAY TWO OBJECTS OR CONCEPTS (FOR EXAMPLE, RECIPE AND MAP) ARE SIMILAR; ASSESSES ABSTRACT THINKING.
  • 9. VERBAL SCALE • DIGIT SPAN • A SERIES OF DIGITS PRESENTED AUDITORILY (FOR EXAMPLE, 7–5–6–3–8) IS REPEATED IN A FORWARD OR BACKWARD DIRECTION , TESTS ATTENTION AND REMOTE MEMORY. • VOCABULARY • ASSESSES WORD KNOWLEDGE. • LETTER NUMBER SEQUENCING • ORALLY PRESENTED LETTERS AND NUMBERS IN A MIXED-UP ORDER MUST BE REORDERED AND REPEATED, FIRST WITH THE NUMBERS IN ASCENDING ORDER AND THEN WITH THE LETTERS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER.
  • 10. PERFORMANCE SCALE • DIGIT SYMBOL • A TIMED CODING TASK IN WHICH NUMBERS MUST BE ASSOCIATED WITH MARKS OF VARIOUS SHAPES • ASSESSES SPEED OF LEARNING AND WRITING.
  • 11. PICTURE COMPLETION • THE MISSING PART OF AN INCOMPLETELY DRAWN PICTURE MUST BE DISCOVERED AND NAMED • ASSESSES VISUAL ALERTNESS, VISUAL MEMORY, AND PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION.
  • 12. BLOCK DESIGN • PICTURED DESIGNS MUST BE COPIED WITH BLOCKS • ASSESSES ABILITY TO PERCEIVE AND ANALYZE PATTERNS.
  • 13. PICTURE ARRANGEMENT • A SERIES OF COMIC-STRIP PICTURES MUST BE ARRANGED IN THE RIGHT SEQUENCE TO TELL A STORY • ASSESSES UNDERSTANDING OF SOCIAL SITUATIONS.
  • 14. MATRIX REASONING • A GEOMETRIC SHAPE THAT IS SIMILAR IN SOME WAY TO A SAMPLE SHAPE MUST BE SELECTED FROM A SET OF POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES • ASSESSES PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION.
  • 15. OBJECT ASSEMBLY • PUZZLE PIECES MUST BE ASSEMBLED TO FORM A COMPLETE OBJECT • ASSESSES ABILITY TO DEAL WITH PART–WHOLE RELATIONSHIPS
  • 16. SYMBOL SEARCH • A SERIES OF PAIRED GROUPS OF SYMBOLS ARE PRESENTED, A TARGET GROUP OF TWO SYMBOLS AND A SEARCH GROUP. • EXAMINEE MUST DETERMINE IF EITHER TARGET SYMBOL APPEARS IN THE SEARCH GROUP • ASSESSES PROCESSING SPEED.
  • 17. WHATS NEW IN WAIS IV ? • 4 SUBTESTS DROPPED • OBJECT ASSEMBLY • PICTURE ARRANGEMENT • CODING RECALL (DIGIT SYMBOL-INCIDENTAL LEARNING) • CODING COPY (DIGIT SYMBOL-COPY) • 12 SUBTESTS RETAINED WITH MODIFICATIONS • 3 NEW SUBTESTS • VISUAL PUZZLES • FIGURE WEIGHTS • CANCELLATION
  • 18. VISUAL PUZZLES “WHICH 3 OF THESE PIECES GO TOGETHER TO MAKE THIS PUZZLE?”
  • 19. FIGURE WEIGHTS “WHICH ONE OF THESE GOES HERE TO BALANCE THE SCALE?”
  • 20. CANCELLATION “WHEN I SAY GO, DRAW A LINE THROUGH EACH RED SQUARE AND YELLOW TRIANGLE.”
  • 22. • VERBAL REASONING • VOCABULARY DEFINES WORDS, SUCH AS ‘VIRTUE’ AND ‘ENVELOPE’. • COMPREHENSION • ANSWERS QUESTIONS, SUCH AS ‘WHERE DO PEOPLE BUY FOOD?’ AND ‘WHY DO PEOPLE COMB THEIR HAIR?’ • ABSURDITIES • IDENTIFIES THE ‘FUNNY’ ASPECT OF A PICTURE, SUCH AS A GIRL RIDING A BICYCLE ON A LAKE OR A BALD MAN COMBING HIS HAIR. • VERBAL RELATIONS • TELLS HOW THE FIRST THREE ITEMS IN A SEQUENCE ARE ALIKE AND HOW THEY DIFFER FROM THE FOURTH: SCARF, TIE, MUFFLER, SHIRT. • QUANTITATIVE REASONING • QUANTITATIVE PERFORMS SIMPLE ARITHMETIC TASKS, SUCH AS SELECTING A DIE WITH SIX SPOTS BECAUSE THE NUMBER OF SPOTS EQUALS THE COMBINATION OF A TWO-SPOT DIE AND A FOUR-SPOT DIE. • NUMBER SERIES • GIVES THE NEXT TWO NUMBERS IN A SERIES, SUCH AS 20 16 12 8 ___ ___. • EQUATION BUILDING • BUILDS AN EQUATION FROM THE FOLLOWING ARRAY: 2 3 5 + =. ONE CORRECT RESPONSE WOULD BE 2 + 3 = 5.
  • 23. ABSTRACT/VISUAL REASONING • PATTERN ANALYSIS • COPY A SIMPLE DESIGN WITH BLOCKS. • COPYING • COPY A GEOMETRICAL DRAWING DEMONSTRATED BY THE EXAMINER, SUCH AS A RECTANGLE INTERSECTED BY TWO DIAGONALS.
  • 24. SHORT-TERM MEMORY • BEAD MEMORY • SHOWN A PICTURE OF DIFFERENT-SHAPED BEADS STACKED ON A STICK. REPRODUCES THE SEQUENCE FROM MEMORY BY PLACING REAL BEADS ON A STICK. • MEMORY FOR SENTENCES • REPEATS AFTER THE EXAMINER SENTENCES SUCH AS ‘IT IS TIME TO GO TO SLEEP’. • MEMORY FOR DIGITS • REPEATS AFTER EXAMINER A SERIES OF DIGITS, SUCH AS 5–7–8–3, FORWARD AND BACKWARD. • MEMORY FOR OBJECTS • SHOWN PICTURES OF INDIVIDUAL OBJECTS, SUCH AS A CLOCK AND AN ELEPHANT, ONE AT A TIME. • IDENTIFIES THE OBJECTS IN THE CORRECT ORDER OF THEIR APPEARANCE IN A PICTURE THAT ALSO INCLUDES EXTRANEOUS OBJECTS; FOR EXAMPLE, A BUS, A CLOWN, AN ELEPHANT, EGGS, AND A CLOCK.
  • 25. INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT / I.Q. • SUGGESTED BY THE GERMAN PSYCHOLOGIST WILLIAM STERN. • THIS INDEX (IQ), EXPRESSES INTELLIGENCE AS A RATIO OF MENTAL AGE TO CHRONOLOGICAL AGE: IQ = MA/CA X 100
  • 26. CLASSIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE BY IQ RANGE CLASSIFICATION IQ RANGE VERY SUPERIOR 130 AND ABOVE SUPERIOR 120-130 BRIGHT NORMAL 110-120 NORMAL 90-110 DULL NORMAL 80-90 BORDERLINE 70-79 MILD MR 55-70 MODERATE MR 35-55 SEVERE MR 20-35 PROFOUND MR BELOW 20
  • 27. SEGUIN FORM BOARD • A CRUDE TEST - USED UPTO 7 YR • PERFORMANCE BASED TEST • BLOCKS ARE PUT JUST BELOW THE LOWER BORDER OF THE BOARD TOWARDS THE SUBJECT’S SIDE • USUALLY THREE TRIALS ARE GIVEN
  • 28. A SEGUIN FORM BOARD
  • 29. INSTRUCTION “here are the pieces taken out. you have to keep the block on their original position. work as fast as you can” I.Q. CALCULATION: • SHORTEST TIME OUT OF THE THREE TRIALS • MEAN OF THE THREE TRIALS • SEE THE MENTAL AGE FROM THE MANUAL
  • 30. • A MULTI-TEST BATTERY (I.E., MULTI-FACTORED EVALUATION) SHOULD BE USED AS LEARNING PROBLEMS, ATTENTION, AND EMOTIONAL DIFFICULTIES CAN HAVE SIMILAR SYMPTOMS, CO-OCCUR, OR RECIPROCALLY INFLUENCE EACH OTHER. IN CHILDRENS
  • 32. WHAT IS PERSONALITY ? “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment.” - (ALLPORT, 1937)
  • 33. WHAT ARE PERSONALITY TESTS ? PERSONALITY TESTS ARE STANDARDIZED INSTRUMENTS DESIGNED TO MEASURE OBJECTIVELY ONE OR MORE ASPECTS OF A TOTAL PERSONALITY BY MEANS OF SAMPLE OF VERBAL OR NON VERBAL RESPONSES OR BY MEANS OF OTHER BEHAVIOR.
  • 34. INDICATIONS • PERSONALITY DISORDERS • PERSONS WHO HAD RECOVERED FROM PSYCHOSIS • PROFILING OF CRIMINALS • ADJUSTMENT ISSUES • PROGNOSIS AND THERAPY
  • 35. INSTRUMENTS TO ASSESS PERSONALITY • TO ASSESS INDIVIDUAL TRAITS, COLLECTION OF TRAITS, CONSTELLATIONS OF TRAITS. • METHODS- 1. SELF-REPORT INVENTORIES.(SRI) 2. SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS.(SSI) 3. PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES.
  • 36. SELF-REPORT INVENTORIES  CONSIST OF WRITTEN STATEMENTS OR QUESTIONS TRUE-FALSE, AGREE-DISAGREE, YES-NO ETC.  MOST POPULAR METHOD  LESS EXPENSIVE, LESS TIME.  EASY TO ADMINISTER  VAST SAMPLES.  HIGH RELIABILITY DUE TO HIGH DEGREE OF STRUCTURE.
  • 37. SELF-REPORT INVENTORIES • 16 PERSONALITY FACTORS QUESTIONNAIRE : T/F • MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY-2 (MMPI-2) 567 ITEMS; TRUE–FALSE; SELF-REPORT FORMAT • IOWA PERSONALITY DISORDER SCREEN: Y/N, 5 MIN,11 SCREENING INSTRUMENTS. • MILLON CLINICAL MULTI-AXIAL INVENTORY, MCMI, DSM-IIIR,175 QUESTIONS, 20-30 MIN. • PDQ-R : 152 QUESTIONS, 30 MIN.
  • 38. SELF-REPORT INVENTORIES • SCHEDULE FOR NORMAL & ABNORMAL PERSONALITY DISORDERS OR SNAP—106 QUESTIONS, 10 MIN. • TRI-DIMENSIONAL PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE ,100 QUESTIONS,20-30 MIN. • WISCONSIN PERSONALITY INVENTORY ,360 QUESTIONS, 20 MIN.
  • 40. SEMI STRUCTURES INTERVIEWS • DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEW FOR P.D. (DIPD)- ZANARINI -101Q, 60-120 MIN. • INTERNATIONAL PERSONALITY DISORDER EXAMINATION- IPDE - LORANGER ET AL.-157Q, 150 MIN. • PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT SCHEDULE – PAS - TYRER ET AL- 24Q, 60MIN.
  • 41. SEMI STRUCTURES INTERVIEWS • PERSONALITY INTERVIEW QUESTIONS - II, WIDIGER-375Q, 60-120 MIN. • STANDARDIZED ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY, MANN ET AL.,10- 15MIN. • STRUCTURED CLINICAL INTERVIEW FOR DSM-IIIR PD — SCID-II, SPITZER& WILLIAMS,120 Q ,60-90MIN. • SIPD ---- PFOHL ETAL.,136Q, 90MIN.
  • 42. MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY • THE MMPI, A SELF-REPORT INVENTORY, IS THE MOST WIDELY USED AND MOST THOROUGHLY RESEARCHED OBJECTIVE PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT. • THE MMPI WAS DEVELOPED IN 1937 BY : • STARKE HATHAWAY, A PSYCHOLOGIST • J. CHARNLEY MCKINLEY, A PSYCHIATRIST.
  • 43. • IT IS AN OBJECTIVE TYPE OF PERSONALITY TEST • THE ITEMS FOR EACH SCALE WERE SELECTED FOR THEIR ABILITY TO SEPARATE MEDICAL AND PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS FROM NORMAL CONTROL SUBJECTS.
  • 44. SCALE TYPES • VALIDITY SCALE • CLINICAL SCALE • SUPPLEMENTARY SCALE
  • 45. VALIDITY SCALE • ? CANNOT SAY SCALE. • ? CANNOT SAY SCALE IS NOT ACTUALLY A SCALE BUT SIMPLY THE NUMBER OF TEST ITEMS EITHER OMITTED OR DOUBLE MARKED • L: LIE SCALE. • A NONEMPIRICALLY DERIVED SOCIAL DESIRABILITY SCALE. • ITEMS TEND TO REFLECT BEHAVIORS THAT ARE CONSIDERED SOCIALLY DESIRABLE BUT RARELY PRACTICED. • THE SCORE CAN SUGGEST DEFENSIVENESS, ILLITERACY, PSYCHOSIS, OR PERSONALITY PROCESSES, DEPENDING ON VARIOUS FACTORS.
  • 46. • F: INFREQUENCY SCALE. • MEASURES A TENDENCY TO ENDORSE SELECTED ITEMS THAT ARE STATISTICALLY RARE RESPONSES (LESS THAN 10 PERCENT OF THE ORIGINAL NORMAL SAMPLE). • USEFUL IN IDENTIFYING ILLITERACY, MALINGERING, PANIC, CONFUSION, PSYCHOSIS, AND PERSONALITY PROCESSES. • K: SUPPRESSOR SCALE. • USED TO ADJUST MATHEMATICALLY CERTAIN CLINICAL SCALES TO DECREASE FALSE POSITIVES AND FALSE NEGATIVES. • THE SCALE IS ALSO USEFUL IN DETERMINING OVERALL TEST-TAKING ATTITUDE AND IS AN INDICATION OF PERSONALITY VARIABLES.
  • 48. MMPI-2 - WHAT IS NEW ? • ORIGINAL ITEMS OBSOLETE, POLITICALLY INCORRECT, OR OFFENSIVE • ELIMINATED AND/OR REWORDED ITEMS; ADDED ITEMS TO INCLUDE AREAS SUCH AS SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MARITAL RELATIONSHIPS TO GET POOL OF 704 ITEMS • THERE ARE OVER 115 TRANSLATIONS OF THE MMPI-2
  • 49. MMPI-2 • NEW SAMPLE • AGE 18-90 • WIDE GEOGRAPHIC AREA • GENERALLY COMPARES WELL WITH US CENSUS DATA
  • 50. MMPI-2 • FINAL VERSION CONSISTS OF 567 ITEMS • ORIGINAL 4 VALIDITY SCALES AND 10 CLINICAL SCALES (ALL IN FIRST 370 ITEMS) IN ADDITION TWO NEW VALIDITY SCALES • BACKPAGE INFREQUENCY (Fb) SCALE • VARIABLE RESPONSE INCONSISTENCY SCALE (VRIN) • RESULTS ARE EXPRESSED AS UNIFORM T SCORES
  • 51. MMPI-2 • ADMINISTRATION • RECOMMENDED FOR USE WITH PERSONS 18 YEARS OLD OR OLDER • NEED AT LEAST 8 YEARS OF EDUCATION • MOST ITEMS WRITTEN 6TH-8TH GRADE READING LEVEL • NORMAL TESTING TIME 60-90 MINUTES
  • 52. MMPI-2 • SUBECTS SHOULD BE INFORMED WHY THE TEST IS BEING ADMINISTERED • AVOID PROVIDING DIRECT HELP • EMPHASIZE THAT THEY SHOULD RESPOND IN WAY THAT REFLECTS THEIR CURRENT THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, BEHAVIORS, AND EXPERIENCES
  • 53. MMPI-2 • SCORING • ANALYSIS LOOKS AT RELATIVE ELEVATION OF FACTORS COMPARED TO THE VARIOUS NORM GROUPS STUDIED. • RAW SCORES ON THE SCALES ARE TRANSFORMED INTO A STANDARDIZED METRIC KNOWN AS T-SCORES
  • 54. FURTHER MODIFICATIONS • MMPA – A • DESIGNED FOR ADOLESCENTS AGES 14 TO 18, THE MMPI-A, WAS RELEASED IN 1992 • MMPA – 2 – RF • PUBLISHED IN 2008 • CONTAINS 338 ITEMS; CONSEQUENTLY IT TAKES LESS TIME TO ADMINISTER. • NEWER SCALES TO ASSESS OTHER AREAS LIKE SOMATIC COMPLAINS, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS.
  • 55. 16 PERSONALITY FACTOR MODEL (16PF) • DEVELOPED IN THE 1940S BY Raymond B. Cattell AND REFINED IN THE 60S • ATTEMPTS TO DEFINE THE BASIC UNDERLYING PERSONALITY • MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONNAIRE • ANALYSIS USING 16 PERSONALITY FACTORS
  • 56. Factor Descriptors A Warmth Reserved Outgoing B Reasoning Less Intelligent More Intelligent C Emotional Stability Affected by feelings Emotionally stable E Dominance Humble Assertive F Liveliness Sober Happy-go-lucky G Rule Consciousness Expedient Conscientious H Social Boldness Shy Venturesome I Sensitivity Tough-minded Tender-minded L Vigilance Trusting Suspicious M Abstractedness Practical Imaginative N Privateness Straightforward Shrewd O Apprehension Self-Assured Apprehensive Q1 Openness to Change Conservative Experimenting Q2 Self-Reliance Group- dependent Self-sufficient Q3 Perfectionism Self-conflict Self-control Q4 Tension Relaxed Tense THE 16 FACTORS WITH THEIR WORD DESCRIPTORS OF EACH SCALE
  • 57. 16 PF IS USED FOR: • CLINICAL DIAGNOSIS, PROGNOSIS & THERAPY PLANNING • EXECUTIVE COACHING • TEAMBUILDING • MARITAL COMPATIBILITY OR SATISFACTION
  • 59. OBJECTIVE/DIRECT/PAPER PENCIL VS PROJECTIVE TESTS RESPONSES ARE ANALYSED ACCORDING TO UNIVERSAL STANDARD (FOR EXAMPLE, A MULTIPLE CHOICE EXAM) CONTENT ANALYZED FOR MEANING RATHER THAN BEING BASED ON PRESUPPOSITION ABOUT MEANING
  • 60. PROJECTIVE TESTS • IS A PERSONALITY TEST DESIGNED TO LET A PERSON RESPOND TO AMBIGUOUS STIMULI, PRESUMABLY REVEALING HIDDEN EMOTIONS AND INTERNAL CONFLICTS • DESIGNED TO EVOLVE HIGHLLY INDIVIDUAL ,VARIETY RESPONSE WITH LESS CONSCIOUS CONTROL • SCORING PROCEDURED IS LESS STRUCTURED AND INTERPRETER MUST OFTEN RELY HEAVILY ON A SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF RESPONSE
  • 61. PROJECTION DEFENSE MECHANISM (SIGMUND FREUD) • PROJECTION IS THE UNCONSCIOUS ACT OF DENIAL OF A PERSON'S OWN ATTRIBUTES, THOUGHTS, AND EMOTIONS, WHICH ARE THEN ASCRIBED TO THE OUTSIDE WORLD, OR TO OTHER PEOPLE. • IT INVOLVES IMAGINING OR PROJECTING THAT OTHERS HAVE THOSE FEELINGS
  • 62. TYPES OF PROJECTIVE TEST DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF TASK INVOLVED ( LIINDZEY, 1961) • ASSOCIATION TECHNIQUE: ASK THE SUBJECT TO TELL WHAT IS SUGGESTED BY A VERBAL, VISUAL, OR AUDITORY STIMULI • WORD ASSOCIATION, RORSCHACH • CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE INVOLVE THE CREATING OF AN IMAGINAL PRODUCTION FOR WHICH THE TEST MATERIALS PROVIDE A FRAME WORK • TAT, MAKE A PICTURE STORY
  • 63. • COMPLETION TECHNIQUE • REQUIRES THAT SUBJECTS COMPLETE A STATEMENT OR STORY; THEY ARE MORE STRUCTURED CONSTRUCTURED PROCEDURE (SEMISTRUCTURED) • ROSENZWEIG PICTURE-FRUSTATION STUDY, SENTENCE COMPLETION TESTS • CHOICE OR ORDERING TECHNIQUE • INVOLVE ARRANGING MATERIAL IN STORY TELLING SEQUENCES, IN ORDER OF CHOICE, ETC, OFTEN WITH NO VERBAL ELABORATION • TOMKINS-HORN PICTURE ARRANGEMENT TEST, SZONDI • EXPRESSIVE TECHNIQUE • DO NOT DEPEND ON TEST STIMULI, BUT RATHER ASK THE SUBJECT TO PERFORM AN ARITISTIC OR CREATIVE ACTION • DRAW A PERSON, FINGER PAINTING, PLAY, PSYCHODRAMA
  • 64. THEORETICAL BASIS • PROJECTIVE TESTS HAVE THEIR ORIGINS IN PSYCHOANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGY, WHICH ARGUES THAT HUMANS HAVE CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS ATTITUDES AND MOTIVATIONS THAT ARE BEYOND OR HIDDEN FROM CONSCIOUS AWARENESS
  • 65. THE PROJECTIVE HYPOTHESIS (LAWRENCE FRANK, 1939) “when people try to understand vague or ambiguous unstructured stimuli, the interpretation they produce reflects their needs, feelings, experience, prior conditioning, thought processes”
  • 66. • WHENEVER A SPECIFIC QUESTION IS ASKED, THE RESPONSE WILL BE CONSCIOUSLY-FORMULATED AND SOCIALLY DETERMINED. THESE RESPONSES DO NOT REFLECT THE RESPONDENT'S UNCONSCIOUS OR IMPLICIT ATTITUDES OR MOTIVATIONS. • THE RESPONDENT'S DEEP-SEATED MOTIVATIONS MAY NOT BE CONSCIOUSLY RECOGNIZED BY THE RESPONDENT OR THE RESPONDENT MAY NOT BE ABLE TO VERBALLY EXPRESS THEM IN THE FORM DEMANDED BY THE QUESTIONER. • AMBIGUITY OF THE STIMULI PRESENTED WITHIN THE TESTS ALLOW SUBJECTS TO EXPRESS THOUGHTS THAT ORIGINATE ON A DEEPER LEVEL THAN TAPPED BY EXPLICIT QUESTIONS.
  • 67. RORSCHACH - INK BLOT TEST
  • 68. HISTORICAL ASPECTS DEVELOPOED SWISS PSYCHOLOGIST HERMANN RORSCHACH IN 1921 BEFORE RORSCHACH -- LEONARDO DAVINCI ( 15TH CENTURY) J. KERNER'S (1857), ALFRED BINET(1896) AFTER RORSCHACH– DAVID LEVY, SAMUEL BECK, JOHN EXNER
  • 69. TESTING MATERIAL • CONSISTS OF TEN SYMMETRICAL INKBLOTS APPEAR ON SEPARATE CARDS • BLACK AND WHITE(5) • TWO COLOURED (2) • MULTICOLOURED(3)
  • 70. • FAIRLY LARGE OVER-ALL BLACK- GRAY BLOT • MORE IMAGINATIVE AND LESS CONSTRICTED • SUBJECTS USE IN MANY DIFFERENT WAYS CARD-1 ANY CREATURE WITH WINGS AT THE SIDE (P-1) When seeing card I, subjects often inquire on how they should proceed, and questions on what they are allowed to do with the card (e.g. turning it) AND are not very significant. Being the first card, it can provide clues about how subjects tackle a new and stressful task. It is not, however, a card that is usually difficult for the subject to handle, having readily available popular responses.
  • 71. CARD - 2 • FIRST BLOT WITH A COLOR • FACILITATES MORE THAN ONE RESPONSES RATHER THAN TAKING IN THE ENTIRE BLOT • SUBJECTS WHO HAVE ORGANIZATIONAL INTEREST OR ABILITY GIVE WHOLE RESPONSE • SEXUAL RESPONSES ARE QUITE LIKELY (CENTER AND LOWER PART) • THE RED DETAILS ARE OFTEN SEEN AS BLOOD, AND ARE THE MOST DISTINCTIVE FEATURES. • RESPONSES TO THEM CAN PROVIDE INDICATIONS ABOUT HOW A SUBJECT IS LIKELY TO MANAGE FEELINGS OF ANGER OR PHYSICAL HARM. POPULAR RESPONSE: WHOLE OR PART OF AN ANIMAL (BEARS OR DOGS) (P-2)
  • 72. CARD - 3 • VERY DISTINCT AREAS, CLEARLY SEPARATED AND HIGHLY SUGGESTIVE • VERY UNUSUAL TO ATTEMPT TO USE BLACK AND RED AREAS FOR ONE CONCEPT • MAY PROVIDE INFORMATION ABOUT HOW THE SUBJECT RELATES WITH OTHER PEOPLE (SPECIFICALLY, RESPONSE LATENCY MAY REVEAL STRUGGLING SOCIAL INTERACTIONS). POPOLAR RESPONSES: TWO HUMAN BEINGS OR ANIMALS DRESSED AS HUMANS (MUST BE SEEN IN ACTION) (P-3) AND, BOW TIE, HAIR RIBBON, BUTTERFLY (P-4)
  • 73. CARD - 4 • MASSIVE, COMPACT, DENSELY SHADED • GIANT, APE OR MONSTER • THE COMMON IMPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT BEING IN AN INFERIOR POSITION ("LOOKING UP") TO IT, THIS SERVES TO ELICIT A SENSE OF AUTHORITY. • THE HUMAN OR ANIMAL CONTENT SEEN IN THE CARD IS ALMOST INVARIABLY CLASSIFIED AS MALE RATHER THAN FEMALE • THE QUALITIES EXPRESSED BY THE SUBJECT MAY INDICATE ATTITUDES TOWARD MEN AND AUTHORITY. BECAUSE OF THIS CARD IV IS OFTEN CALLED "THE FATHER CARD".
  • 74. CARD - 5 • DEFINITE OUTLINE, EASY FOR MOST • TYPICALLY INSTIGATES A "CHANGE OF PACE" IN THE TEST, AFTER THE PREVIOUS MORE CHALLENGING CARDS. • REALITY TESTING CARD ANY WINGED CREATURE (P-5)
  • 75. CARD - 6 • CALLED SEX CARD BECAUSE THE UPPER PART IS INTERPRETED AS PHALLIC SYMBOL • FREQUENTLY SEEN AS WHOLE, BUT UPPER AND LOWER PORTIONS MAY BE PERCEIVED AS SEPARATE UNITS • TEXTURE IS THE DOMINANT CHARACTERISTIC OF CARD VI, WHICH OFTEN ELICITS ASSOCIATION RELATED TO INTERPERSONAL CLOSENESS SKIN OF AN ANIMAL OR A PIECE OF FUR (P
  • 76. CARD - 7 • LIGHT AND AIRY, ONLY SMALL DARKER AREA IN THE BOTTOM • OFTEN CLOUDS, SMOKE, MAPS OR HUMAN FIGURE IN ACTION • DIFFICULTIES IN RESPONDING MAY BE RELATED TO CONCERNS WITH THE FEMALE FIGURES IN THE SUBJECT'S LIFE. • THE CENTRE DETAIL IS RELATIVELY OFTEN (THOUGH NOT POPULARLY) IDENTIFIED AS A VAGINA, WHICH MAKES THIS CARD ALSO RELATE TO FEMININE SEXUALITY IN PARTICULAR. • REFERRED TO AS MOTHER CARD NO UNIVERSAL POPULAR RESPONSE
  • 77. CARD - 8 • FIRST OF THE THREE ENTIRELY COLORED CARDS • SEVERAL DEFINITE AND DISTINCT AREAS • COLORED BUTTERFLY, ANATOMICAL CHART, EMBLEM ETC. • PEOPLE OFTEN EXPRESS RELIEF ABOUT CARD VIII, WHICH LETS THEM RELAX AND RESPOND EFFECTIVELY. SIMILAR TO CARD V, IT REPRESENTS A "CHANGE OF PACE” • PEOPLE WHO FIND PROCESSING COMPLEX SITUATIONS OR EMOTIONAL STIMULI DISTRESSING OR DIFFICULT MAY BE UNCOMFORTABLE WITH THIS CARD. ANY FOUR-LEGGED ANIMAL IN MOTION (P-7)
  • 78. CARD - 9 • LARGE BUT VAGUE IN OUTLINE WITH NO CLEARLY DISTINGUISHABLE SMALL PORTIONS, COLORS RUN INTO ONE ANOTHER • DIFFICULT TO RESPOND EITHER WHOLE OR PART • OFTEN WITCHES, HUMAN HEAD, BOMB EXPLOSION • HAVING DIFFICULTY WITH PROCESSING THIS CARD MAY INDICATE TROUBLE DEALING WITH UNSTRUCTURED DATA • NO UNIVERSAL POPULAR RESPONSE
  • 79. CARD - 10 • MORE COLOR THAN ANY OTHER CARD, COLORS ARE LARGELY DISTRIBUTED • WHOLE RESPONSE IS DIFFICULT HENCE GENERATE MORE RESPONSES, FACILITATE NUMBER OF ANIMAL RESPONSES MOSTLY IN ACTION • STRUCTURALLY SIMILAR TO CARD VIII, BUT ITS UNCERTAINTY AND COMPLEXITY ARE REMINISCENT OF CARD IX • PEOPLE WHO FIND IT DIFFICULT TO DEAL WITH MANY CONCURRENT STIMULI MAY NOT PARTICULARLY LIKE THIS OTHERWISE PLEASANT CARD. • BEING THE LAST CARD, IT MAY PROVIDE AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE SUBJECT TO "SIGN OUT" BY INDICATING WHAT THEY FEEL THEIR SITUATION IS LIKE, OR WHAT THEY DESIRE TO KNOW.  ANY MANY LEGGED ANIMAL SPIDER, CRAB, OCTOPUS (P-8)  ANY ELONGATED GREENISH (COLOR MUST BE USED) ANIMAL SUCH AS GARDEN SNAKE, CATERPILLAR ON LEAVES (P-9)  HEAD OF AN ANIMAL WITH LONG EARS OR HORNS EG. RABBIT’S HEAD (P-10)
  • 80. ADMINISTRATION • THE PERSON WHO IS TESTING THE TEST SUBJECT SITS NEXT TO THE PERSON WHO IS BEING TESTED, ONLY SLIGHTLY BEHIND THEM. • THE CARDS ARE SHOWN IN A SPECIFIC ORDER. • THE EXAMINER TAKES NOTES OF EVERYTHING. THEIR BREATHING, THE WAY THEY MOVE THE CARD, WHAT THEY SAY, HOW THEY MOVE. • SUBJECT SHOULD BE MADE COMFORTABLE AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE BEFORE STARTING THE TEST, ALSO DURING THE TEST EXAMINER SHOULD NOT OPENLY TAKE HIS NOTES
  • 81. PHASES • FREE ASSOCIATION PHASE • SUBJECTS ARE PRESENTED WITH THE CARDS, ONE AT A TIME AND ASKED QUESTIONS SUCH AS • “What might this be?” • “What does this remind you of?” • - Hermann Rorschach • Modified : “ People see all sorts of things in these inkblots; now tell me what you see, what it might be for you, what it makes you think of ?” • EXAMINER WRITES DOWN AS MANY ANSWERS AS THE SUBJECT CARES TO GIVE, EACH BLOT • POINTS TO BE NOTED: • CARD TURNING • RESPONSE TIME • RESPONSES • VERBALIZATION • BEHAVIOUR
  • 82. INQUIRY PHASE • EXAMINER GOES BACK THROUGH THE SET ASKING THE SUBJECT FOR MORE DETAILS, INCLUDING WHAT IT WAS ABOUT THE BLOT THAT DETERMINED THE SUBJECTS RESPONSE • WHAT, WHERE & WHY OF EACH RESPONSE
  • 83. THIRD PHASE– TESTING OF LIMITS • WHETHER THE SUBJECT IS CAPABLE OF OTHER SORT OF RESPONSES BY CALLING ATTENTION TO PARTICULAR AREAS, HINTING OR ASKING OUTRIGHT “ Might this also be ?”
  • 84. WHAT TO NOTE ? • TIME UNTIL THE FIRST RESPONSE, AND TOTAL TIME FOR EACH CARD IS NOTED • GROSS AND SUBTLE BEHAVIOUR • INCIDENTAL COMMENT AND VISIBLE FEELINGS ARE CAREFULLY OBSERVED • THE AVERAGE RECORD HAS ABOUT 25 RESPOSNES
  • 85. SCORING AND INTERPRETATION • JOHN EXNER’S COMPREHENSIVE SYSTEM IS THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED SYSTEM FOR INTERPRETING THE RORSCHACH INKBLOT TEST, WHICH IS INTEGRATION OF - FIVE COMPETING INTERPRETATIVE SYSTEMS • BECK (SAMUEL BECK) • HERTZ (MARGUERITE HERTZ) • KLOPFER (BRUNO KLOPFER) • PIOTROWSKI (ZIGMUND PIOTROWSKI) • RAPPAPORT (DAVID RAPPAPORT) • EACH RESPONSE IS SCORED IN TERMS OF 1. ITS LOCATION 2. THE DETERMINANTS USED IN FORMING THE RESPONSE 3. THE LEVEL OF ACCURACY OF PERCEPT 4. ITS CONTENT, INCLUDING THE CONNECTIVITY OR ORIGINALITY SHOWN
  • 86. LOCATION • THE AREA CHOSEN INDICATES, IN GENERAL, THE SUBJECT’S COGNITIVE ORIENTATION ( I.E. WHETHER HE INTEGRATES OR SEGREGATES EXPERIENCES, DEADS IN MORE ABSTRACT WAY OR IS LIMITED TO CONVENTIONAL CATEGORIES OR WHETHER HE IS DRAW TO THE TRIVIAL AN UNUSUAL) • RESPOND TO WHOLE BLOT (W) • MANY W RESPONSES– SHOW A CAPACITY FOR ABSTRACTION AND INTEGRATION • EASY OR VAGUE W– IS OFTEN GIVEN BY MENTALLY RETARDED • TO LARGE AND COMMONLY SUGGESTED AREAS (D) • IS THE MARK OF CONVENTIONAL THOUGHT • TINY OR RARE DETAILS (Dd) • THE SUBJECT CAN RESPOND TO THE WHITE SPACE INSTEAD OF INK (S )– MORE THAN ONE OR TWO IN A RECORD (>5%) OFTEN INDICATES OPPOSITIONAL OR NEGATIVISTIC TENDENCIES AND IS FOUND IN PASSIVE-AGGRESSIVE PEOPLE, THEY MAY HOWEVER ALSO FOUND IN CREATIVE AND ORIGINAL THINKERS
  • 87. DETERMINANTS  FORM  COLOR  MOVEMENT  SHADING
  • 88. FORM • REPRESENTS THE INDIVIDUALS CONCERN WITH EXTERNAL REALITIES • IN GENERAL SENSE IT INDEXES EGO CONTROL • VERY HIGH PROPORTION OF F RESPONSES • LITERAL AND FACTUAL • A COLOUR LESS PERSON WITH LITTLE CAPACITY FOR SPONTANIETY, EMOTIONAL WARMTH, OR FANTASY • AT THE EXMTREME, RIGID AND UNFEELING • VERY LOW PROPORTION OF F RESPONSES • IMPULSIVITY • EMOTIONAL DOMINANCE • LOW CAPACITY FOR LOGICAL THINKING
  • 89. F = ORDINARY ACCURACY F+ = UNUSUAL OR CLEAR PERCEPT F- = POOR FORM PERCEPT F + %= F + (F+) + (F-) HIGH F+ % : GOOD REALITY CONTACT STRONG EGO STRENGTH
  • 90. COLOUR 1. RESPONSES ARE RELATED TO 1. THE EMOTIONAL LIFE OF THE INDIVIDUAL 2. HIS RESPONSIVITY AND READINESS TO DISCHARGE RATHER DELAY TENSION INTO ACTION 2. NEUROTICS SEEMED TO BE PARTICULARLY PRONE TO COLOR SHOCK TO BE DISCOURTED AND DISORGANISED WHEN FIRST CONFRONTED WITH CLOUR BLOTS 3. PURE COLOUR RESPONSE( C ) : LACK OF INDIVIDUAL CONTROL AND CORRESPONDINGLY READINESS FOR INTENSELY IMPULSIVE ACTS, HYPERSTIMULATIVITY, AND MININAL THOUGHT OR LOGIC BEFORE LEAPING 4. FORM IS INVOLVED, BUT COLOUR IS MORE IMPORTANT ( CF ) - egocentric 5. FORM IS INVOLVED, BUT SHAPE IS MORE IMPORTANT ( FC ) THE AFFECTS ARE MODULATED AND SOCIALIZED
  • 91. MOVEMENT • LIVING MOVING HUMAN BEING (M) • ANIMAL (FM) • INANIMATE (m)
  • 92.  WISH FULFILLING ACTIVITIES AND FANTASY LIFE  M+ CREATIVITY AND IMAGINATION  M- DELUSIONS, AUTISTIC IMAGINATION, DEFECTIVE EGO ORGANIZATION  EMPATHY WITH OTHERS.  HIGHLY DIFFERENTIATED AND WELL-INTEGRATED INTELLIGENCE  INNER-STABILITY  m- AWARENESS OF FORCES OUTSIDE ONE’S CONTROL SIGNIFICANCE OF MOVEMENT
  • 93. • PRIMARY SECURITY NEED/NEED FOR AFFECTION AND BELONGINGNESS • ANXIETY /FRUSTRATION SHADING
  • 94. • PERSPECTIVE OF DEPTH = (V) VISTA + GOOD - BAD ADJUSTMENT • TEXTURE RESPONSE : NEED FOR LOVE OR AFFECTION
  • 95. • HUMAN H • HUMAN DETAIL Hd • ANIMAL A • ANIMAL DETAIL Ad • PLANT/TREE/ Bt • INNER BODY An • ABSRTACTION Ab • ARCHITECTURAL Ar • FIRE Fi • BLOOD Bl • MYTHOLOGY My • NATURE NA • SEX Sex CODING OF RESPONSES
  • 96.  VARIATIONS IN FORM ACCURACY WITH DECREASE IN F%.  POOR FORM LEVEL RATING.  CONTAMINATION : THE ACCIDENTAL ASSOCIATION OF PARTS OF THE BLOTS IS TAKEN TO INDICATE REAL CONNECTIONS.  CONFABULATION: TO GENERALIZE FROM ONE DETAIL OF THE CARD.  PERSEVERATION  BIZARRE AND UNUSUAL RESPONSES  MANY M RESPONSES OF POOR QUALITY  C AND CF HIGH  F% - LOW  TOTAL RESPONSES <15  EDGING RESPONSES-UNUSUALLY HOLDING AND RESPONDING. SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • 97.  POSITION RESPONSES  COLOUR NAMING  COLOUR SYMBOLISM  REDUCTION IN TOTAL RESPONSES  LESS THAN 4 POPULAR RESPONSES  M< 3  NO COLOUR RESPONSES AND ABSENCE OF SHADING AND SHADING INSENSITIVITY  PERSONALIZATION  SEXUAL, BLOOD AND ANATOMICAL CONTENT.(BROKEN BODIES HALF MAN, PELVIS, BUTTOCKS, BREASTS, SEXUAL ACTS, DEHUMANIZATION, CARTOON FIGURES)  ESOTERIC OR ARTISTIC RESPONSES.
  • 98. • REJECTION OF CARDS MORE THAN ONE • SHADING SHOCK / COLOUR SHOCK • < 1 M • OVER 50% ANIMAL AND ANATOMICAL RESPONSES • FM > M • SHADING PREOCCUPATION • MOVEMENT OF INANIMATE OBJECTS. • CF > FC NEUROTIC INDICATORS
  • 99. • PROLONGED REACTION TIME • FEW RESPONSES • ABSENCE OF COLOUR RESPONSE OR INSENSITIVITY TO COLOURS • COLOUR PRIME RESPONSES ARE HIGH. • ANIMAL % HIGH • REDUCTION IN W RESPONSES • CONTENT OF DEPRESSIVE OR DYSPHORIC QUALITY. • EMPHASIS ON D AND DD REPONSES. • A% IS HIGH • FEW W RESPONSES • FEW M RESPONSES. DEPRESSION
  • 100. • POOR QUALITY OF RESPONSES • INCREASE IN M AND C RESPONSES • ANIMAL % WITH FM RESPONSES • DECREASED REACTION TIME • CONFABULATORY WHOLE RESPONSES • CONTENT ANALYSIS • OVERINCLUSIVENESS • DECREASE IN D RESPONSES • MANY ORIGINAL RESPONSES MANIA
  • 101. • RIGID SUCCESSION • METHODICAL APPROACH –W-D-Dd • MANY D AND Dd • HIGH F% -CONSTRICTIVE CONTROL • DOUBTFUL IN RESPONDING TO PARTICULAR PARTS OF BLOTS. • COLOUR NAMING • FEW POPULAR RESPONSES • BLOCKING • STEREOTYPIC RESPONSES OBSESSIVE –COMPULSIVE
  • 102. INTERPRETATION • F + % Low > F20 F30 F00 • F + % High > good -- intelligence good -- emotional control good – reality touch
  • 103. • C = F20,F30,F00 • CF = diss. adolescent • FC = adult mature • Y = depression • M+ = rich fantasy life • M+ C+ = superior, creative • M+ Co = rich inner life • M few C++ = extrovert • Human (3-4) = indicate autism • Animal = dull • Anatomical = hypochondriasis • Sex = preoccupation • Original = intelligence
  • 104. LIMITATION • SUBJECTIVE TECHNIQUE NEEDS SKILLED AND EXPERIENCED CLINICIAN FOR ANALYSIS. • NO SATISFACTORY STATISTICAL METHOD • RATING AND SCORING INVOLVE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENT
  • 105. MERITS • STIMULUS MATERIALS ARE UNSTRUCTURED AND VAGUE FOR WHICH SUBJECTS DON’T FIND DIFFICULTY FOR PROJECTION • PROJECTION OCCUR WITHOUT THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUBJECT • GIVES A HOLISTIC VIEW OF PERSONALITY • HELPS IN DIAGNOSIS OF ORGANICITY • ACT AS A SHOCK ABSORBER- UNCONSCIOUS VENTILATION RELIEVES ANXIETY • HELPS TO FIND GUIDELINE FOR PSYCHOTHERAPY
  • 107. HISTORICAL ASPECTS DEVELOPED BY HENRY A. MORGAN AND HIS HARVARD COLLEAGUE CHRISTIAN D. MURRAY IN 1935. IT IS BASED ON MURRAYS THEORY OF NEEDS –IT IS DESIGNED TO FERRET OUT PEOPLE’S BASIC NEEDS BY HAVING THEM TO TELL STORIES
  • 108. TESTING MATERIAL • IN THE PRESENT FORM, IT CONSISTS OF A SERIES OF 32 PICTURES ONE OF WHICH IS BLANK • THE PRESENT TAT PICTURES ARE THE THIRD SET TO BE USED SINCE 1935. • ASIDE FROM ADDITIONS AND OMISSIONS MADE SINCE THE FIRST SERIES WAS ISSUED, THE CARDS IN THE SECOND AND THIRD SERIES ARE DISTINGUISHED BY BEING TWICE THE ORIGINAL SIZE. • TAT WAS STANDARDIZED FOR INDIAN CONDITIONS BY UMA CHOUDARY(1974) FOR THE CLINICAL USAGE.
  • 123. ONE CARD IS BLANK
  • 124. METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION • IN THE RECOMMENDED ADMINISTRATION 20 CARDS ARE USED, SELECTED ACCORDING TO PATIENTS AGE AND SEX, HALF OF WHICH ARE SHOWN ON ONE OCCASION AND OTHER HALF A LATER TIME (HA MURRAY,1943) • LIMIT TESTING TO ONE-HOUR LONG DURATION
  • 125. INSTRUCTIONS ARE AS FOLLOWS “This is a test of imagination. I am going to show you some pictures, one at a time, and your task will be to make up a story as dramatic and imaginative as possible.” • WHAT IS HAPPENING AT THE MOMENT • WHAT THE CHARACTERS ARE FEELING AND THINKING? • WHAT WENT BEFORE/ WHAT LED UP TO IT? • WHAT IS GOING TO HAPPEN/ WHAT THE OUTCOME WILL BE? “Speak your thoughts as they come to your mind.”
  • 126. SCORING: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CORPORATION • FOR EACH OF THE SCORING CATEGORIES, PRACTITIONERS SHOULD ABBREVIATE THEIR OBSERVATIONS ABOUT THE PERSON. • IN SOME SECTIONS, PRACTITIONERS ARE ASKED TO INDICATE THE LEVELS OF IMPORTANCE OR STRENGTH BY PUTTING ONE CHECK (MERE PRESENCE OF CHARACTERISTICS), TWO CHECKS (MODERATE) OR THREE CHECKS (STRONG). • THE ENTIRE SCORING AND INTERPRETATION PROCEDURE TYPICALLY TAKES A HALF-HOUR.
  • 127. EVALUATION OF THE FOLLOWING FIVE DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF THE STORIES IS REQUIRED:  THE HERO. SCORING FOR THE HERO INVOLVES IDENTIFYING WHO IS CENTRAL CHARACTER(S) IN THE STORY  NEED OF THE HERO. FOR MURRAY, IT WAS ALSO CRITICAL TO IDENTIFY THE NEEDS, MOTIVES AND DESIRE OF THE HERO.  IDENTIFYING THE PRESSES. A PRESS REFER TO ANY IMPORTANT ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR THAT MAY INFLUENCE OR INTERFERE WITH THE NEED OF THE HERO. EXAMPLE: (PARENTS OR BOSS), (THE LOCK ON THE DOOR IS BROKEN)
  • 128.  SCORING FOR THEMES. SCORING FOR THEMES IN TAT STORIES INVOLVES NOTING THE NATURE OF THE INTERPLAY AND CONFLICT BETWEEN THE NEEDS AND PRESSES, THE TYPES OF EMOTION ELICITED BY THIS CONFLICT, AND THE WAY THE CONFLICT IS RESOLVED.  SCORING FOR OUTCOME. SCORING FOR THE OUTCOME OF THE STORY INVOLVES ANALYZING HOW THE STORIES END BY NOTING A HAPPY VERSUS UNHAPPY ENDING AND ASSESSING THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE ENDING IS CONTROLLED BY THE STRENGTHS OF THE HERO AND FORCES IN THE ENVIRONMENT.
  • 129. MODE OF ANALYSIS INVOLVES 1. CAREFUL READING AND REREADING OF THE SET OF STORY PRODUCTIONS 2. NOTING REPETITIVE THEMES 3. CHARACTERISTIC WAYS IN WHICH THE HERO (USUALLY TAKEN TO REPRESENT PATIENT HIMSELF) AND OTHER ARE DESCRIBED 4. THE RANGE OF FEELINGS EXPRESSED 5. HOW THE STORIES ARE RESOLVED 6. WHETHER OUTCOMES TEND TO BE HAPPY OR NOT AND REASONABLY RELATED TO STORY PLOTS • THE CLINICIANS TASK IS, ULTIMATELY TO CONSTRUCT A SET OF HYPOTHESIS WHICH CAN BEST EXPLAIN WHY THESE PARTICULAR STORIES WERE TOLD AND WHAT KIND OF PERSON LIES BEHIND STORY PRODUCTIONS
  • 130. IMPORTANCE OF THE TEST • IT IS SECOND ONLY TO RORSCHACH IN POPULARITY AND VOLUME OF PUBLISHED RESEARCH • IT IS WIDELY USED TEST FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF THE NATURE OF SUBTLE AND DYNAMICS OF PERSONALITY • IT MANIFESTS ITSELF IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS AND IN THE APPERCEPTION OR MEANINGFUL INTERPRETATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTS. • IT GIVES THE BASIC DATA ON THE TESTEE’S RELATIONSHIP TO MALE OR FEMALE AUTHORITY FIGURES, TO CONTEMPORARIES OF BOTH SEXES, AND FREQUENTLY IT SHOWS THE GENESIS IN TERMS OF FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS.
  • 131. • IT MAY NOT CLEARLY INDICATE THE INTENSITY OF FEARS AS DO THE RORSCHACH, BUT IT TELLS ONE THE NATURE OF THEM • THIS TEST CAN BE ADMINISTERED INDIVIDUALLY AND ALSO SELF. • TAT REQUIRES IMAGINATION --- REVEALS CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE AND CAPACITY FOR IMAGINATIVE PLAY • THE ACCURACY WITH WHICH THE PICTURE ELEMENTS IS DESCRIBED IS OF CONSIDERABLE IMPORTANCE AND PARALLELS CONCEPTUALLY THE FORM LEVEL OF RORSCHACH • MORE STRUCTURED THAN RORSCHACH AND SAID TO ADD INFORMATION ABOUT CONTENT OF PERSONALITY TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF ITS STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION GAINED FROM RORSCHACH
  • 132. APPLICATIONS • A DEPRESSED PT PREDICTABLY EMPHASIZES THE PAST, WITH ONLY MINOR CONCERN WITH THE PRESENT, AND VIRTUALLY NONE WITH FUTURE • APPREHENSIVE PEOPLE, SUCH AS HYSTERICAL PATIENTS, STAY PRIMARILY IN THE PRESENT, WITH VAGUE AND ARITFICIALLY HAPPY EVENTS FORECAST AHEAD • SCHIZOPHRENICS ARE LIKELY TO SHIFT ARBITRARILY BETWEEN PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE EVENTS • EVIDENCE OF INTACT EGO--- PT IS CAPABLE OF FULFILLING THE OBLIGATIONS OF THE TASK, TELLING A WELL ORGANISED STORY IN REASONABLY GOOD PROSE SPANNING AN APPROPRIATE TIME PERSPECTIVE, WITH REALISTIC MEANS.
  • 133. INDIAN VERSION OF TAT PICTURE 1: PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS • As per description of the subject following traits may be traced • Creativity • Imagination ability A BOY IS SITTING AND LOOKING AT A TANPURA PLACED IN FRONT OF HIM.
  • 134. PICTURE 2 : COUNTRY SCENE WITH A WOMAN WORKING IN THE FOREGROUND. IN THE BACKGROUND, A MAN IS WORKING IN A FIELD WHILE A WOMAN WATCHES. • As per description of the subject following traits may be traced • Imagination power • Nature loving • Aesthetic sense • Attitude towards life of different workers
  • 135. PICTURE 3: : AN OLDER MAN IS LOOKING AT A YOUNGER MAN. • THIS CARD IS EXTREMELY USEFUL IN OBTAINING INFORMATION ABOUT THE AUTHORITY FIGURES AND, MORE SPECIFICALLY THE SUBJECTS OWN FATHER. • THE PICTURE DEALS WITH HIERARCHICAL PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND USUALLY TAKES THE FORM OF AN OLDER, MORE EXPERIENCED MAN INTERACTING WITH THE YOUNGER, LESS EXPERIENCED ONE. • THUS, THE CARD CAN CLEARLY SHOW HOW THE SUBJECT DEALS WITH EXTERNAL DEMANDS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD AUTHORITY.
  • 136. PICTURE 4 : A YOUNG GIRL IS SEATED ON A COUCH. BEHIND HER IS AN OLDER WOMAN. • THE INTENTION HERE IS TO BRING OUT THE STYLE AND MANNER OF MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION. WHEN THE OLDER WOMEN ARE THE SUBJECTS • THE PICTURE OFTEN ELICITS FEELINGS AND ATTITUDES TOWARD CHILDREN. • BECAUSE BOTH FIGURES ARE LOOKING AWAY, EITHER FIGURE IS SOMETIMES PERCEIVED AS REJECTING THE OTHER. • THIS, THE CARD DRAWS OUT NEGATIVE FEELING AND INTERACTIONS, AND IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE HOW THESE FEELINGS ARE RESOLVED, EXPRESSED, OR AVOIDED. • SOMETIMES THE OLDER WOMAN IS DESCRIBED AS READING A FAIRY STORY TO THE YOUNGER GIRL.
  • 137. PICTURE 5 : A WOMAN IS STANDING IN FRONT OF OF A MAN . • ATTITUDE TOWARDS MALE – FEMALE RELATIONSHIP • ATTITUDE OF MALE TOWARDS FEMALE AND VICE VERSA • CAPACITY FOR MUTUAL RESPECT
  • 138. PICTURE 6 : AN WOMAN IS STANDING IN FRONT OF A MAN IN OPPOSITE FACE • ATTITUDE TOWARDS MALE – FEMALE RELATIONSHIP • INFORMATION ABOUT EMOTIONAL ASPECTS • INFORMATION ABOUT SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP
  • 139. PICTURE 7 : A WOMAN HAS HER HANDS AROUND THE THROAT OF ANOTHER WOMAN. IN THE BACKGROUND IS A FLIGHT OF STAIRS. • THE MANNER IN WHICH THE SUBJECT HANDLES AGGRESSIVE, HOSTILE RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE OTHER WOMEN IS PRIMARY TYPE OF INFORMATION THIS PICTURE ELICITS. • PARTICULAR NOTE SHOULD BE MADE OF WHAT TYPES OF EVENTS TRIGGER THIS AGGRESSIVENESS, AND OF THE MANNER IN WHICH THE CONFLICT IS OR IS NOT RESOLVED
  • 140. PICTURE 8 : A BEAUTIFUL SCENARIO OF THE VILLAGE. NO HUMAN FIGURES ARE PRESENT. • THE PICTURE IS DESCRIBING THE NATURE AND SO IT IS GOOD TEST OF THE SUBJECTS’ IMAGINATIVE ABILITIES.
  • 141. PICTURE 9 : ONE PERSON IS HOLDING HIS OR HER HEAD AGAINST ANOTHER PERSON’S SHOULDER. ONE WOMAN IS LOOKING FROM WINDOW. • THIS CARD OFTEN GIVES USEFUL INFORMATION REGARDING HOW THE SUBJECT PERCEIVES MALE-FEMALE RELATIONSHIP, PARTICULARLY THOSE INVOLVING SOME DEGREE OF CLOSENESS AND INTIMACY. • IT MIGHT BE HELPFUL TO NOTICE THE RELATIVE DEGREE OF COMFORT OR DISCOMFORT EVOKED BY EMOTIONAL CLOSENESS. • A STORY OF DEPARTURE OR OF TERMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP MAY BE REFLECTIVE OF EITHER OVERT OR DENIED HOSTILITY ON THE PART OF THE SUBJECT.
  • 142. PICTURE 10 ONE YOUNG MAN IS A CLOSE RELATION WITH ONE WOMEN. ANOTHER WOMAN WATCHING THIS. • THESE CARD ALSO DEALS WITH FEMALE PEER RELATIONS AND IS IMPORTANT IN ELABORATING ON THE ISSUES SUCH AS CONFLICT RESOLUTION, JEALOUSY, SIBLING RIVALRY, AND COMPETITIVENESS.
  • 143. PICTURE 11 : A WOMAN IN FRONT OF A BROKEN HOUSE • THE PICTURE OFTEN ELICITS INFORMATION REGARDING A SUBJECT’S ATTITUDES TOWARD LONELINESS, DARKNESS, AND UNCERTAINTY. • FEARS MAY BE STATED EXPLICITLY THROUGH GANGSTER STORIES. • AS WITH PICTURE, THE METHOD OF HANDLING THESE FEARS AND THE EXAMINEE’S RESPONSE TO PHYSICAL DANGER SHOULD BE NOTED.
  • 144. PICTURE 12 : A YOUNG MAN IS STANDING IN THE FOREGROUND. IN THE BACKGROUND IS A WOMAN LYING IN A BED. • THIS PICTURE IS OFTEN HELPFUL IN REVEALING SEXUAL CONFLICTS. • IN A GENERAL WAY, IT PROVIDES INFORMATION ON THE SUBJECT’S ATTITUDES AND FEELINGS TOWARD HIS OR HER PARTNER, IN PARTICULARLY ATTITUDES JUST BEFORE AND IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING THE SEXUAL RELATION. • STORIES IN WHICH THERE ARE OVERT EXPRESSIONS OF AGGRESSION OR REVULSION ARE SIGNIFICANT VARIATIONS AND SHOULD BE NOTED AS RELATIVELY UNUSUAL. • IN PARTICULAR, THE RELATION BETWEEN A SUBJECT’S AGGRESSIVE AND SEXUAL FEELINGS IS FREQUENTLY PORTRAYED.
  • 145. PICTURE 13 : A PERSON IS STANDING AGAINST A WINDOW. • SIGNIFICANT IN THOSE CASES WHERE A SUBJECT’S PRESENTING PROBLEM IS DEPRESSION, ESPECIALLY IF THERE IS EVIDENCE OF SUICIDAL IDEATION. • THIS TYPE OF SUBJECT OFTEN DESCRIBES THE FIGURE IN THE PICTURE AND, MORE IMPORTANTLY DISCUSSES THE EVENTS, FEELING, AND ATTITUDES THAT LED UP TO THE CURRENT SELF-DESTRUCTIVE BEHAVIOR. • IT BECOMES IMPORTANT TO INVESTIGATE, DURING THE INQUIRY PHASE OF EXAMINATION, THE PARTICULAR METHODS AND STYLES OF PROBLEM SOLVING THAT THE STORY CHARACTER HAS ATTEMPTED OR IS ATTEMPTING THIS PICTURE MAY ALSO REVEAL THE SUBJECT’S AESTHETICS INTEREST AND PERSONAL PHILOSOPHICAL BELIEFS OR WISH FULFILLMENTS.
  • 146. DRAW - A - PERSON TEST DAPT
  • 147. HISTORICAL ASPECTS •DEVELOPED ORIGINALLY BY FLORENCE GOODENOUGH IN 1926, THIS TEST WAS FIRST KNOWN AS THE GOODENOUGH DRAW-A- MAN TEST. DR. DALE B. HARRIS LATER REVISED AND EXTENDED THE TEST AND IT IS NOW KNOWN AS THE GOODENOUGH-HARRIS DRAWING TEST. THE REVISION AND EXTENSION IS DETAILED IN HIS BOOK CHILDREN'S DRAWINGS AS MEASURES OF INTELLECTUAL MATURITY (1963).
  • 148. TESTING MATERIAL • JUST THE SHEETS AND PENCILS. • CAN BE ADMINISTERED ANYWHERE, WHERE THE CHILD IS REQUIRED TO WORK AS REQUIRED AGE LIMIT • DRAW – A – PERSON TEST CAN BE ADMINISTERED FOR THE CHILD FROM 4 YEARS TO 15 YEARS
  • 149. METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION • TEST ADMINISTRATION INVOLVES THE ADMINISTRATOR REQUESTING CHILDREN TO COMPLETE THREE INDIVIDUAL DRAWINGS ON SEPARATE PIECES OF PAPER. • CHILDREN ARE ASKED TO DRAW A MAN, A WOMAN, AND THEMSELVES. • NO FURTHER INSTRUCTIONS ARE GIVEN AND THE CHILD IS FREE TO MAKE THE DRAWING IN WHICHEVER WAY HE/SHE WOULD LIKE. • BE PARTICULAR IN GETTING THE CHILD’S DESCRIPTION OF THE PICTURE WHEN IT APPEARS CONFUSING OR OBSCURE.
  • 150. • THERE IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG TYPE OF DRAWING, ALTHOUGH THE CHILD MUST MAKE A DRAWING OF A WHOLE PERSON EACH TIME - I.E. HEAD TO FEET, NOT JUST THE FACE. • THE TEST HAS NO TIME LIMIT. • FOLLOWING ARRANGEMENTS ARE MADE • ROOM WHICH IS LIKELY TO BE LESS DISTURBED. • REMOVE ALL THE PICTURES, AND POSTURES. • GIVE A COMFORTABLE PLACE TO WORK. • PROVIDE ADEQUATE MATERIALS (HB BLACK PENCIL, AVOID CRAYONS, AND DRAWING SHEETS) • CHECK THE USE OF ERASERS TO THE MINIMUM. • ALLOW THE CHILD TO USE OTHER SIDE OF THE SHEET OR PROVIDE A NEW SHEET IF THE CHILD SPOILS THE SHEET.
  • 151. SCORING AND INTERPRETATION • SCORING IS TOTALLY BASED ON HOW EACH PART OF THE BODY IS DRAWN. • EACH IS GIVEN POINTS BASED ON THE CRITERIA. AND EVERY THING IS ADDED UP TO OBTAIN A RAW SCORE AND IT IS COMPARED WITH THE NORMS FOR THE AGE GROUP OF THE CHILD. • HARRIS'S BOOK (1963) PROVIDES SCORING SCALES WHICH ARE USED TO EXAMINE AND SCORE THE CHILD'S DRAWINGS.
  • 152. INTERPRETATION • LARGE HEAD- PARANOID, NARCISSISTIC, INTELLECTUALLY RIGHTEOUS, OR VAIN, ANYTHING HAVING TO DO WITH A LARGE EGO. • TIMING- PEOPLE WHO DRAW IT LAST SHOWS DISTURBANCES WITH INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS.
  • 153. INTERPRETATION • FACE • OMITTING: OMISSION OF FACIAL FEATURES IS AN EXPRESSION OF AVOIDANCE OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS. • NECK- THE NECK OFTEN REPRESENTS THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE HEAD AND THE BODY. • AN UNDER EMPHASIS MAY REPRESENT ONE FEELING A DISCONNECTION BETWEEN THESE TWO THINGS AND COULD SUGGEST: SCHIZOPHRENIA. HOWEVER, UNDEREMPHASIS COULD ALSO SUGGESTS FEELINGS OF PHYSICAL INADEQUACY.
  • 154. INTERPRETATION • LARGE HEAD- FANTASY IS PRIMARY SOURCE OF SATISFACTION • SMALL HEAD- FEELINGS OF WEAKNESS AND INTELLECTUAL INFERIORITY • LONG HAIR- AMBIVELANT SEXUAL FANTASIES • TINY EYES- STRONG VISUAL CURIOSITY • LARGE EARS- HYPERSENSITIVITY TO CRITICISMS • TRIANGLE NOSE- IMMATURITY • POINTED NOSE- POSSIBLE ACTING OUT TENDENCIES • TINY MOUTH- DENIAL OF ORAL DEPENDENT NEEDS • HANDS BEHIND THE BACK- POSSIBLY GUILT FEELINGS FOR MANUAL ACTIVITY • TINY FEET- INSECURITY • HIGH HEEL SHOES- POSIBLE HOMOSEXUAL TENDENCIES • STICK FIGURE- POSSIBE DEPRESSION • OPPOSITE SEX DRAWN FIRST- CONFLICT WITH SEXUAL IDENTIFICATION.
  • 155. IMPORTANCE OF THIS TEST • THE TEST IS COMPLETELY NON-INVASIVE AND NON-THREATENING TO CHILDREN - WHICH IS PART OF ITS APPEAL.. • IT MAY BE ADMINISTERED TO A SINGLE CHILD AT A TIME OR TO A GROUP OF CHILDREN. • USED TO EVALUATE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS FOR NONVERBAL INTELLIGENCE OR TO SCREEN FOR EMOTIONAL OR BEHAVIOR DISORDERS
  • 156. APPLICATIONS • DAPT In schizophrenia • PATIENT'S NEGLECT TO INCLUDE "OBVIOUS ANATOMICAL PARTS LIKE HANDS AND EYES," WITH "BLURRED AND UNCONNECTED LINES," AMBIGUOUS SEXUALITY AND GENERAL DISTORTION. • THERE HAS BEEN NO VALIDATION OF THIS TEST AS AN INDICANT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA.
  • 157. DAPT PERFORMANCE OF A PERSON WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA
  • 159. HISTORICAL ASPECTS • SENTENCE COMPLETION TEST WAS DEVELOPED BY JOSEPH M. SACKS.
  • 160. TESTING MATERIAL • THIS TEST WAS DESIGNED TO OBTAIN SIGNIFICANT CLINICAL INFORMATION IN FOUR REPRESENTATIVE AREAS OF ADJUSTMENT SUCH AS • FAMILY • SEX • INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS • AND SELF – CONCEPT.
  • 161. • INCLUDES THREE SET OF ATTITUDES, THOSE TOWARDS MOTHER, FATHER AND FAMILY UNIT. • EACH OF THESE IS REPRESENTED BY FOUR SENTENCE COMPLETION ITEMS THE FAMILY AREA • My mother and I …, • my family threats me like…………..
  • 162. THE SEX AREA • INCLUDES ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN AND TOWARDS HETEROSEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS. • EIGHT ITEMS IN THIS AREA ALLOW THE SUBJECT TO EXPRESS HIMSELF • I think most girls ………..……..
  • 163. • INCLUDES ATTITUDES TOWARD FRIENDS, ACQUAINTANCES, COLLEAGUES AT WORK OR SUPERVISORS, AND PEOPLE SUPERVISED. • THERE ARE SIXTEEN ITEMS IN THIS AREA FOR THE SUBJECT TO EXPRESS HIS FEELINGS • “When I am not around, my friends …………………….” • “When I see the boss coming ………………”, • “The people who work for me ………..” • “At work I get along best with ……………….” THE AREA OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS
  • 164. • SELF CONCEPT INVOLVES FEARS, GUILT FEELINGS, GOALS, AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONE’S OWN ABILITIES, PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE. • CONSISTS OF TWENTY FOUR ITEMS • “I wish I could lose the fear of ……………” • “My greatest mistake was ……………….” • “I believe I have the ability to ……………” • “When I was a child …………….,” • “Some day I ………….,” • “What I want most out of life ……….” SELF CONCEPT
  • 165. METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION • SCT CAN BE ADMINISTERED INDIVIDUALLY OR TO A GROUP AND REQUIRES FROM 20 TO 40 MINUTES COMPLETING THE TEST. • IT IS EMPHASIZED THAT RESPONSES SHOULD CONSIST OF THE FIRST SPONTANEOUS REACTION TO EACH STIMULUS ITEM, AND THAT THE SUBJECT SHOULD NOT STOP TO THINK OF A LOGICAL COMPLETION.
  • 166. SCORING AND INTERPRETATION • BY EVALUATING THE ITEMS OF EACH AREA AND THEIR SUB – AREAS QUALITATIVELY • AND COMING TO THE CONCLUSION THAT WHAT KIND OF ATTITUDES, CONFLICTS THE PERSON HAS IN EACH OF THOSE AREAS.
  • 167. BIBLIOGRAPHY • COMPREHENSIVE TEXTBOOK OF PSYCHIATRY, VOL , KAPLAN AND SADOCK. • SYNOPSIS OF PSYCHIATRY, 10TH EDITION - BENJAMIN J SADOCK & VIRGINIA A SADOCK • COMPREHENSIVE HANDBOOK OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT - VOLUME 1 -INTELLECTUAL AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT BY GERALD GOLDSTEIN & SUE R. BEERS • A COMPENDIUM OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS: ADMINISTRATION, NORMS AND COMMENTARY, THIRD EDITION BY ESTHER STRAUSS, ELISABETH M. S. SHERMAN & OTFRIED SPREEN. • HANDBOOK OF PSYCHOLOGY (12 VOLUME SET) BY IRVING B. WEINER • ESSENTIALS OF SCHOOL NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL - MILLER, DANIEL C • SHELDON J. KORCHIN.(1986, FIRST INDIAN EDITION). MODERN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY. CBS PUBLISHERS & DISTRIBUTORS. • THE RORSCHACH - BASIC FOUNDATIONS AND PRINCIPLES OF INTERPRETATION BY JOHN E. EXNER • RORSCHACH ASSESSMENT OF THE PERSONALITY DISORDERS BY STEVEN K. HUPRICH (BOOKOS.ORG) • MORGAN AND KING. INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY. TATA MC GRAW HILL • INTERNET SOURCES