Deconstructive Architecture and Its Pioneer Architects


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The concept of deconstructive architecture and main pioneers of deconstructive architecture. Town hall finland, Jacques Derrida ,Frank O Gehry , Bernard Tschumi, Zaha Hadid,Galaxy Soho, JVC entertainment Centre, Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.BMW Central Building.

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Deconstructive Architecture and Its Pioneer Architects

  1. 1. Part of the Deconstructivist philosophy was therefore to detacharchitecture from function as such and to allow a free play of design.In a sense to make architecture/design a pure art. It might solve someof the functional problems but that was not its main purpose.Town Hall Finland ,Alvar AaltoDancing House ,Frank Gehry
  2. 2.  1. Explodes architectural form into loose collections of related fragments. 2. Destroys the dominance of the right angle and the cube by using thediagonal line and the `slice of space. 3. Uses ideas and images from Russian Revolutionary architecture and design-Russian Constructivism 4. Searches for more DYNAMIC spatial possibilities and experiences notexplored (or forbidden) by the Modern Movement. 5. Provokes shock, uncertainty, unease, disquiet, disruption, distortion bychallenging familiar ideas about space, order and regularity in theenvironment. 6. Rejects the idea of the `perfect form for a particular activity and rejects thefamiliar relationship between certain forms and certain activities. Note that while Memphis designs attack the lack of colour, texture, pattern orsensuality of the Modern Movement, Deconstructivism attacks the closed andprecise forms and spaces of the Modern Movement. The same design attitudesare simply directed at different aspects of the design of space.
  3. 3. There is a fairly clear source for the origins ofsuch a movement and this comes fromOUTSIDE the area of architecture anddesign . The real origins of Deconstructivism lie inthe work of the Austrian psychologistSigmund Freud (c.1890). In other words Freud set out todeconstruct the speech of his patients inorder to find the repressed source of theiranxiety which, once identified and openedup for discussion would resolve theproblem. Deconstruction in this psychologicalsense simply means a method ofinterpretation and analysis of a speech ora text.Austrian psychologist Sigmund Freud
  4. 4. To pretend, I actually do the thing: I have therefore only pretended to pretend.Jacques Derrida ,July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004In the 1960s the French philosopher, Jacques Derrida who hadstudied the work of Freud, developed and began to apply thisdeconstructive technique to the study of philosophical texts.Derrida’s approach was as follows:1. Whereas Freud had listened to what his patients had to say,Derrida analyzed what other people WROTE, but with the samepurpose in mind. That is to reveal the repressed ideas whichunderlay the apparently smooth, elegant and well-constructedarguments put forward by other philosophers.2. He wanted to find the inconsistencies in their ideas by analyzingthe way they wrote them: again the figures of speech they used andthe way they avoided certain topics which might contradict thecoherence of the model of experience which they had put forward.3. Derrida believed that no theory could pretend to be absolutelyconsistent, logical or present itself as a self-contained and wholesystem. If it did, it could only do so by hiding or repressingsomething which did not fit its view of things.
  5. 5. Collaborations: Philosophy and ArchitectureIn 1983, the architect Bernard Tschumi invited thephilosopher Derrida to collaborate with New Yorkarchitect Peter Eisenman on a garden for La Villette.Derrida was working on Platos Timaeus.DECONSTRUCTIVISM INTO ARCHITECTURE
  6. 6. Frank O Gehry Zaha HadidBernard Tschumi
  7. 7. an introduction to minimalism & decnstructivism.....
  8. 8.  Minimalism describes movements invarious forms of art and design, especiallyvisual art and music, where the work is set outto expose the essence or identity of a subjectthrough eliminating all non-essential forms,features or concepts. First is minimalism, which is theoreticly basedupon Mies van der Rohes quote "less is more".That is somehow correct, but rare are those whomaster design so well, that can achieve highlevel of expression and aesthetics with suchminimum. Not everyone is Mies.
  9. 9. Deconstructivism and was founded by Bernard Tschumi.They deny completly everything... Even the orthogonal geometry that wasso obvious for the whole history now breakes down and is completlyirrelavant .The term de-construct-ivism describes what happens in someones head;the basic idea of an object (like house, for example) is smashed[=deconstructed] into smallest possible pieces, each of them is carefullythaught over and then re-constructed back with new logic. A deconstrictivistic arist will ask himself; is this necessary or can it bedone differently. If it can, then how?
  10. 10. Rejection of right anglesThere was an equally obsessive attempt to destroy thepredominance of the right angle in architecture – thatsign of rationalist order and of the predetermined.Galaxy Soho, Zaha Hadid
  11. 11. New possibilities….To reveal those forms, possibilities and approachesthat Modern Architecture had repressed in order tobecome perfect.Villa SavoyeCleveland Clinic for Brain Health, LasVegas, designed by Frank Gehry
  12. 12. They deconstructed the forms of ModernArchitecture by creating apparently illogical clashes ofgrids, spaces and volumes - breaking open the form ofbuildings.Civil court,Valdebebas ,Zaha hadid
  13. 13. They used diagonal lines to destroy the perfect right-angled geometries of the Modern Movement.
  14. 14. They left beams projecting/unfinished/incomplete,walls broken and slanted, windows turned at angles,rough materials, exposed construction methods andso on.JVC Entertainment Centre
  15. 15. Another part of the Modern philosophy was that architectureand buildings were serious issues. Every part of the building hadto be based on a functional problem and solution. This was akind of scientific approach to design. The results of this were,in general, that many buildings in the 1950s and early 1960slooked faceless and boring.They were unable to express the joy, sensuality, tactility orpleasure which earlier architectures had shown.These human expressions and sensory needs had beenrepressed in favour of scientific rationality. Form, after all, inthe Modern sense was merely an effect of function. It had noother emotional or sensory purpose of its own.
  16. 16. February 28, 1929Take what comes your way. Do the best with it. Beresponsible as you can and something good willhappen, and it has.
  17. 17. Gehry at the start….Gehry was born Frank Owen Goldbergon February 28, 1929, in Toronto,Ontario to parents, Irwin and Thelma (née Thelma Caplan) Goldberg.In 1947 Gehry moved to California, got a job driving a delivery truck,and studied at Los Angeles City College, eventually to graduate from theUniversity of Southern Californias School of Architecture.Gehry graduated at the top of his class with a Bachelor of Architecturedegree from USC in 1954. Afterwards, he spent time away from the fieldof architecture in numerous other jobs, including service in the UnitedStates Army.In the fall of 1956, he moved his family to Cambridge, where he studiedcity planning at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. In 2004, he designed the trophy for the World Cup of Hockey. Gehry holds dual citizenship in Canada and the United States.
  18. 18. Gehrys work falls in the style of Deconstructivism, which is often referred to aspost-structuralist in nature for its ability to go beyond current modalities ofstructural definition.Because of this, unlike early modernist structures, Deconstructivist structuresare not required to reflect specific social or universal ideas, such as speed oruniversality of form, and they do not reflect a belief that form follows function.Gehry’s style at times seems unfinished or even crude.He mainly featured the use of inexpensive found objects and non-traditionalmedia such as clay to make serious art.Gehry has been called "the apostle of chain-link fencing and corrugated metalsiding“. However, a retrospective exhibit at New Yorks Whitney Museum in 1988revealed that he is also a sophisticated classical artist, who knows European arthistory and contemporary sculpture and painting.
  19. 19. Gehry is very much inspired by fish. Not only do they appear inhis buildings. His colleagues are recreating Greek temples. Hesaid, "Three hundred million years before man was fish..Standing Glass Fish is just one of many works featuring fishwhich Gehry has created.The gigantic fish is made of glass plates and silicone, with theinternal supporting structure of wood and steel clearly visible.It soars above a reflecting pool in a glass building builtespecially for it, in the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden.
  20. 20.  Gehry has gained a reputation for taking the budgets of his clients seriously, inan industry where complex and innovative designs like Gehrys typically go overbudget. Sydney Opera House, which has been compared with the Guggenheim MuseumBilbao in terms of architectural innovation, had a cost overrun of 1,400 percent. Gehry explained how he did it. First, he ensured that what he calls the "organization of the artist" prevailedduring construction, in order to prevent political and business interests frominterfering with the design. Second, he made sure he had a detailed and realistic cost estimate beforeproceeding . Third, he used CATIA (computer-aided three-dimensional interactiveapplication) and close collaboration with the individual building trades tocontrol costs during construction. However, not all of Gehrys projects have gone smoothly. The Walt DisneyConcert Hall in downtown Los Angeles resulted in over bedget building.
  21. 21.  In addition to architecture, Gehry has madea line of furniture, jewelry for Tiffany & Co.,various household items, sculptures, andeven a glass bottle for Wyborowa Vodka. His first line of furniture, produced from1969 to 1973, was called "Easy Edges",constructed out of cardboard. Another line of furniture released in thespring of 1992 is "Bentwood Furniture". Eachpiece is named after a different hockey term. He was first introduced to making furniturein 1954 while serving in the U.S. Army,where he designed furniture for the enlistedsoldiers. Gehry claims that making furnitureis his "quick fix"
  22. 22. Corrugated steel sheetsChain link fencingPlywood
  23. 23. Guggenheim Museum Bilbao · Bilbao, SpainFrank Gehry’s design for theGuggenheim Museum in Bilbao,Spain is so completely unhinderedby traditional rules that regulatearchitectural design that thebuilding has a sculptural appearancethat is totally independent of anyschool of architecture from history.
  24. 24. Guggenheim Museum at nightEstablished October 18, 1997Location Abando, Bilbao, SpainType Art museumDirector Juan Ignacio Vidarte
  25. 25. Exterior inspired by fish…Gehry designed on a computer the moving and opencurvilinear forms that are reminiscent of an openingflower. The small titanium singles that sheath theexterior of the building, shimmering in the sunlightand reflecting the changing colors in the atmosphere,further emphasize the high tech origins of the design.
  26. 26. InteriorsThe interior is as excitingas the exterior, havingrooms in various shapesand sizes. The hugeatrium has a network ofskylights above withcatwalks and elevatorcages runningthroughout the spacebelow it..
  27. 27. Interior Details..Under the chaotic appearance created by the opposition offragmented regular forms with covered stone, curvedforms coated in titanium and large glass walls, thebuilding is built around a central axis; the hall, 50 metershigh, a monumental empty space topped by a metal dome.Around it, a system of curved bridges, glass elevators andstair towers connecting the 19 galleries spread over threefloors, which combine classic rectangular space with otherunique forms and proportions, all lit by the dome zenith.Temporary exhibitions and large-format works have aplace in a gallery of about 30 m. wide and nearly 130 m.long, free of columns, located on the volume that passesunder the La Salve Bridge.
  28. 28. It is very curvy, has a spider sculpture outside of it, a lot ofshapes put together, no windows.
  29. 29. Seen from the river, the form resembles a boat, but seen from above itresembles a flower.Built of limestone, glass and titanium, the museum used 33,000 pieces of titaniumhalf a millimeter thick. As these pieces are so thin, a perfect fit to the curves isnecessary. The glass has a special treatment to let in the suns light, but not its
  30. 30. The building is built with load-bearingwalls and ceilings, which have aninternal structure of metal rods thatform grids with triangles. The shapes ofthe museum could not have succeededif it did not use load-bearing walls andceilings. Catia determined the numberof bars required in each location, as wellas the bars positions and orientations.In addition to this structure, the wallsand ceilings have several insulatinglayers and an outer coating of titanium.Each piece is unique and exclusive tothe place, determined by Catia
  31. 31. Dancing House, PragueThe Dancing House or Fred andGinger is the nickname given to theNationale-Nederlanden building inPrague, Czech Republic, atRašínovo nábřeží.Construction started: 1992Opened: 1996Architecturalstyle:DeconstructivismThe building is located on thestreet RESSLOVA Street, on theright bank of the Vltava.
  32. 32. Dancing House at night…..
  33. 33. Concept…The Dancing House has two central bodies. The first is a tower ofglass that is close to half height and is supported by curved pillars, thesecond runs parallel to the river, which is characterized by themoldings that follow a wavy motion and distributed through thewindows so the non-aligned .This solution has been driven mainly by a kind of aestheticconsideration: the windows lined evidenciarían that the building hastwo windows, although they have the same height as the two adjacentbuildings of the nineteenth century. They also do not have to beperceived in the will of the designer, as simple forms on a flat surface,but must achieve the effect of three-dimensionality, hence the idea offrames as outgoing frames of paintings. Also the winding moldings onthe facade make it more confusing perspective, diminishing thecontrast with the buildings that surround it.
  34. 34. SpacesOn the ground floor arelocated and coffee shops areconnected directly alongthe river and the publicplaza in front.The spaces of the second tothe seventh floor areoccupied, however, byoffices, while in the lastlevel houses a restaurantwith a panoramic view ofthe city and the nearbycastle.
  35. 35. Building Materials used…The building, which stretches over an area of 5,400m2, has been constructed of steel, glass and precastconcrete Clad revoked.The dome is made of metal tubes and covered with amesh of stainless steel.
  36. 36. ReferencesBlogspotA Simple GuideOrigins, Sources and IntentionsBy ALEX BROWNSUBMITTED BY:Shilpa KarwaPreeti AgarwalAbhishek UdayLalit Agarwal
  37. 37. BORN-31 October 1950 (age 62) BAGHDAD(IRAQ)
  38. 38. INTRODUCTIONDame Zaha Mohammad Hadid, (born 31 October1950) is an Iraqi-British architect.She received the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 2004—the first woman to do so—and the Stirling Prize in2010 and 2011. Her buildings are distinctively futuristic,characterized by the "powerful, curving forms of herelongated structures"[1]with "multiple perspectivepoints and fragmented geometry to evoke the chaosof modern life".
  39. 39. Early life and educationShe grew up in one of Baghdads first Bauhaus-inspiredbuildings during an era in which "modernism connoted glamorand progressive thinking" in the Middle East.She received a degree in mathematics from theAmerican University of Beirut before moving to study at theArchitectural Association School of Architecture in London.She worked for her former professors, Koolhaas and Zenghelis,at the Office for Metropolitan Architecture, in Rotterdam, theNetherlands; she became a partner in 1977.Peter Rice, the engineer who gave her support andencouragement early on at a time when her work seemeddifficult. In 1980, she established her own London-basedpractice. During the 1980s, she also taught at the ArchitecturalAssociation.
  40. 40. International recognitionIn 2002, she won the international design competition todesign Singapores one-north master plan. In 2005, herdesign won the competition for the new city casino ofBasel, Switzerland. She is a member of the editorial board of theEncyclopædia Britannica.Her architectural design firm, Zaha Hadid Architects,employs more than 350 people, and is headquartered in aVictorian former school building in Clerkenwell, London.In 2008, she ranked 69th on the Forbes list of "The Worlds 100 Most Powerful Women“In 2008, she ranked 69th on the Forbes list of "The Worlds 100 Most Powerful Women“
  41. 41. COMPLETED PROJECTS Vitra Fire Station (1994), Weil am Rhein, Germany Bergisel Ski Jump (2002), Innsbruck, Austria Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art (2003), Cincinnati, Ohio, USA Hotel Puerta America (2003-2005), Madrid, Spain BMW Central Building (2005), Leipzig, Germany Ordrupgaard annexe (2005), Copenhagen, Denmark Phaeno Science Center (2005), Wolfsburg, Germany Maggies Centres at the Victoria Hospital (2006), Kirkcaldy, Scotland Hungerburgbahn new stations (2007), Innsbruck, Austria Chanel Mobile Art Pavilion (Worldwide) Tokyo, Hong Kong, New York, London, Paris, Moscow, (2006–08) Bridge Pavilion (2008), Zaragoza, Spain Pierresvives (2002–12), Montpellier, France, project architect: Stephane Hof MAXXI - National Museum of the 21st Century Arts (1998–2010), Rome, Italy.[13]Stirling Prize 2010 winner. Guangzhou Opera House (2010), Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China. London Aquatics Centre (2011), 2012 Summer Olympics, London, UK. Riverside Museum (2007–11) development of Glasgow Transport Museum, Scotland CMA CGM Tower (2004–11), Marseilles, France Evelyn Grace Academy (2006–10) in Brixton, London, UK. Stirling Prize 2011 winner. Roca London Gallery (2009–11) in Chelsea Harbour, London, UK. Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre (2007–12) in Baku, Azerbaijan.[14] Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum (2010–12), East Lansing, Michigan, USA[15]
  43. 43. INTRODUCTIONThe BMW Central Building Located inLeipzig, Germany was the winning design submittedfor competition by Pritzker Prizewinning architect, Zaha Hadid. The central buildingis the nerve center for BMWs new $1.55 billioncomplex built to manufacture the BMW 3 SeriesVehicle.
  44. 44. CONCEPTThe BMW factory prior to the construction of the centralbuilding existed as three disconnected buildings, acompetition was held for the design of a central buildingto function as the physical connection of the three units. Hadids design took this idea of connectivity and used itto inform every aspect of the new building. Designed as a series of overlapping and interconnectinglevels and spaces, it blurs the separation between parts ofthe complex and creates a level ground for both blue andwhite collar employees, visitors, and the cars.
  45. 45. THE BUILDINGThe BMW Central building is a 270,000 square feet (25,000 m2)foot facility that makes up only 250,000 square feet (23,000 m2)of the 540-acre (2.2 km2) campus. Serving 5,500 employees, thebuilding functions as the most important piece of the factory,connecting the three production sheds. The offices, meeting rooms, and public relations facilities[8]areall built around these elevated conveyors, creating aninteresting relationship between the employees, the cars, andthe public. All of the load-bearing walls, floors, and office levels are madeof cast-in-place concrete. While the roof structure is composed of structural steel beamsand space frame construction.The facade is clad in simple materials of like corrugated metal,channel glass, and glass curtain walls .
  46. 46. The buildings has received numerousarchitectural awards, including a 2006 RIBAEuropean Award,