SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 122
Download to read offline
+
THEORY AND HISTORY
Introduction to
Architecture
+
What is “theory”?
What is “history”?1.
what is the difference?
Theory
istoria (grk) :learning with asking
chronological/causal questions
aristoteles : systematic analysis
about some natural
phenomenon
1: the analysis of a set of facts in their
relation to one another
2 : abstract thought
3 : the general or abstract principles
of a body of fact, a science, or an art
Source: Meriam Webster Dictionary Online
History
+
What is “the aim” of
learning history and theory ?
2.
+
what has happened
what is happening
what should happen
SCIENTIFICALLY
KNOWING
Man learn about his(her)-self for the
better process of being and to be..
+
Studying architectural history relates to
our need to understand the present. … for
it is only by studying the past that we can
hope to understand how we have arrived
at today.
+
as an Closed Text
as an Open Text ?
or
History always taking sides, depend on
the writers / theoritician
History is always freehave to be re-
interprete
How to look at history ???
+
Milestone of
Architectural History
+
ModernA
rchitect..as a
Milestone
After
Modern
Before
Modern
cut off from history
back to history
depend
on history
cut off from
history
500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 2000 AD
Belanda (1800-1942)
Sriwijaya (abad ke-7 – ke-13)
Mataram (1500-1700)
Majapahit (1293-1500)
Portugis (1512-1800)
VOC (1600 -1800)
Jepang (1942-1945)
Tarumanegara (358-669)
Small Tribal Groups (10.000 BC- 200 AD)
Tradingslink India – China (200-600)
Independence (1945-…)
+
ARCHITECTURE
Autobiography of the
human race
+ Pre Historic
architecture
2500 B.C.
1500 B.C.
+
Pyramids
PERMANENCE and IMMORTALITY
+ 800 AD
+
Parthenon, Greece, Post & Lintel
Function as temple for the Gods, Sculptural Form, Rectangular
Vitruvius
Architecture is…
 Utilitas
 Firmitas
 Venustas
Vitruvius :
TEN BOOKS on ARCHITECTURE
Pantheon, Rome, Arc, Vault, Dome.
+
Pantheon
Greek Philosophy
Gladiator, Rome
+ 1140-1500
+ 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 2000 AD
Belanda (1800-1942)
Sriwijaya (abad ke-7 – ke-13)
Mataram (1500-1700)
Majapahit (1293-1500)
Portugis (1512-1800)
VOC (1600 -1800)
Jepang (1942-1945)
Tarumanegara (358-669)
Small Tribal Groups (10.000BC- 200 AD)
Tradingslink India – China (200-600)
Independence (1945-…)
500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 2000 AD
+ Leon Battista Alberti
1443 De re aedificatoria
(English: On the Art of
Building)
a concise version of
sociology of architecture
and tells architect how
buildings should be built,
not how they were built.
De Re Aedificatoria remained the classic
treatise on architecture from the 16th
until the 18th century.
Pazzi Chapel
Golden Section
Leonardo da Vinci
Brunelleschi, Santa Maria Del Fiore, Florence
RENAISSANCE (1420-1600)
Louis XIV
Jean Nicolas Louis Durand
Ecole des Beaux-Arts
1. Ecole des Beaux Arts (1666) is the final period of Before Modern
era, as well as the beginning of Modern era.
2. Ecole des Beaux Arts is the first school that elevated architecture
into an atonomous discipline
3. Ecole des Beaux Arts is the oldest architectural school who spread
the school’s pedagogical system and arch. style to places around the
globe
+
Condition for
Modern
[philosophy]
Cogito Ergo Sum
+
created 1816 as a
merger of :
academie de peinture et de sculpture [1648]
academie de musique [1699]
academie d’architecture [1671]
+
back to main
Under supervision of The Great
Jean-Pierre Colbert, France
reached prosperity so did
education.
At 1840, he established de
sociale centrale des architect:
organization that make
architecture similar to
profession, law and medicine. So
E de BA elevatred architecture
into autonomous discipline.
The early stage of E des BA
Claude Nicolas Ledoux
+
atelier
Ecole de Beaux-Arts
+
Learning from precedent
+
principles
God is in the detail
Architecture need sculpture
Eclecticism
Hierarchy of space
symmetric
Henry Labrouste
details
sculpture
eclectic
hierachcyofspaces
symmetri
Rational
Effective Efficient
Standard
Mass Production
Viollet Le Duc
Arc de Triomphe (1806-1836) . Napoleon I has the ambition to make his capital the most beautiful city in the world.
The architect :Jean-Francois-Therese Chalgrin, Jean-Arnaud Raymond, Louis-Robert Goust, Jean-Nicolas Huyot, Guillaume-Abel
Blouet. The design was a Neoclassical version of ancient Roman architecture.
The Influence
Baron van Haussmann
interpenetrating paths to the city
of Paris
back to main
+
Ecole de Beaux -
Arts
All of these young architects carried into
practice the Ecole’s method of both a
‘preesquisse’ to find an appropriate
parti, and the esquisse, which expressed
the essence of the organization. Along
with skills in design theory and
rendering, these factors affected
architects’ process for many years to
come.
Drawing techniques such as eliminating
background conveyed a specific
message, free of unnecessary details.
Ledoux’s fantasy architecture consisted
of simple geometry and primarily
displayed function.
The sketch by Henri
Labrouste, who was trained
at the Ecole, reveals early
sketch diagram techniques
to find compositional
direction.
+
Adolf Loos :
ornament and crime
•Exemplifies the contrasts and contradictions
of the years leading toward modernism and
the international style.
•Respected traditional architecture but
experimented with sleek volumes.
•Actually better known for his writing.
•Beginning the sketch with ruled lines may
have reflected his interest to study simple
geometries, but he may have also seen the
definitive lines as a base for subsequent
evaluation practiced in verbal criticism and
irony, he may have purposefully put forth a
visual hypothesis, expecting it to be altered
through critical dialogue.
+
The Amsterdam school
The architects of the Amsterdam School rejected classicism, concentrating instead on relationships
between ‘functionalism and beauty’ (Bock, Johannisse and Stissi, 1997, p. 9). Beginning in the early 1900s,
this movement stemmed from the common belief system of architects such as H. P. Berlage, J. M. van der
May, M.de Klerk, and Piet Kramer. Fueled by political policy governing city expansion and mandates for
workers’ housing, these architects searched for sculptural forms that could be economically efficient and,
thus, respond to social needs (Bock, Johannisse and Stissi, 1997; Casciato, 1996). Concerned with materials
and construction methods, the architects of the Amsterdam School used sketches and drawings to envision
building systems and massing.
de Klerk, Michel(1884–1923)Sketch of
design for a water tower with service
buildings in reinforced concrete, Pencil on
tracing paper
+
De Stijl
De Stijl architects also built with masonry and explored
massive geometric forms made from concrete.
In contrast to the Amsterdam School, however, they
eliminated decoration and most color, and
assembled rectangular forms (de Wit, 1983).
Naturally, their drawings and sketches had a minimal,
abstract expression.
Rietveld, Gerrit Thomas(1888–1964)Rough draft variation
of zigzag child’s chair, Crayon, ink on paper. Originally a
furniture builder, GerritRietveld was partially responsible
for the architectural ideals of the De Stijl movement of the
early 1920s. His Schröder House epitomized many of the
movement’s beliefs, including simplicity of form, verticals
and horizontals that intersect and penetrate each other,
primary colors, asymmetrical balance, and elements
separated by space (Brown, 1958).
+
Le Corbusier
Considering the briefness of the sketch, it is clear that Le Corbusier
depended upon additional written messages to later recall his design
intention.The sketchbooks were for him a discussion about design and
also represented memory devices.
Plate #322, Sketchbook
18, Volume 2, sketch of
Notre-Dame-du-Haut,
Ronchamp,
February1951, Ink on
sketchbook paper
Five Points of Architecture:
Pilotis
Free Façade
Open Floor Plan
Un-disturbed Views
Roof Garden
+
+
Modern Architecture
+
Bauhaus
Gropius was transforming the former art school Staatliches
Bauhaus in Weimar. Based on the theory of the ‘artist as
exalted craftsman,’ the Bauhaus attempted to unify the
building and a whole, integrating its various elements
(Conrads,1970). Gropius advocated bringing together
sculpture, painting, and crafts into the design of the built
environment.
The masters of the Bauhaus were concerned with teaching
craftsmanship in a workshop setting; besides craft,
science, and theory, the school also provided instruction
in drawing, painting, life drawing, composition, technical
and perspective drawing, and ornament and industrial
design (Conrads, 1970).
These studios taught the techniques of sketching from
memory and imagination (Conrads, 1970). They also
employed axonometric drawings. These two-dimensional
projections showed three sides of the object or building
equally, and were comprised of parallel lines which could
be constructed with straight edges. They suggested the
preciseness of the machine and reveled in the abstraction
(Naylor,1968)
+
Walter Gropius
Obviously concerned about the material thickness of walls, he also differentiated the floor surfaces by
shading certain areas and crosshatching others. These visual indicators help to emphasize that the
house was to be built using local materials, fieldstone, and wood. The careful control of proportion and
the consideration for spatial relationships indicate that Gropius used this sketch for concentrated and
deliberate thinking.
+Gropius’ reputation for efficiency would support a theory that he was concerned with the
economical delivery of food and the distances of travel through the space.
+
+
Mies van de Rohe
At the Bauhaus, Mies encouraged his students to develop their
projects with vast numbers of sketches before committing to
final drawings (Cohen, 1996). Mies’ sketches show mostly plans
accompanied by interior perspectives and elaborate
construction details that show connections (Drexler, 1986). An
unusual technique Mies employed was that of collage. They
may be considered sketches since they present a basic outline,
pertain to conceptual thinking and provide little pictorial
orientation. Pieces of cut paper were pasted in juxtaposition so
as to make a semblance of a parti. He used bright yellow paper
drawn over with a grid, resembling fenestration or an abstract
pattern. In the center has been placed a very dark rectangle
surrounded with light gray, tan, and white pieces. This collaged
sketch is really about precise and imprecise. This collage from
1909, early in his career as an architect, reveals Mies’ penchant
for the De Stijl-like juxtaposition of horizontals and verticals
+
‘less is more’
The forms reflect Mies’ bold and simple
rectangles which act as planes slicing through
space. In contrast, the composition of pieces is
simultaneously imprecise.
Karl Marx
Three Mucisians, 1912
Walter Gropius, “March of the DEAD”
Schroder House: Gerrit Rietveld
+
VITRUVIAN MAN
Leonardo Da Vinci
+Congres Internationaux dí Architecture
Moderne
(Deklarasi CIAM, 1928)
1. Gagasan arsitektur modern menyertakan hub. fenomena arsitektur& sistem ekonomi umum.
2. Gagasan efisiensi ekonomi tidaklah berarti produksi yang menghasilkan keuntungan komersial maksimum, tapi produksi yang menuntut upaya kerja
minimum.
3. Kebutuhan akan efisiensi ekonomi max. adalah hasil dari keadaan ekonomi umum yg termiskin.
4. Metoda produksi yang paling efisien adalah yang timbul dari rasionalisasi dan standardisasi, yang berakibat langsung pada metoda kerja dalam arsitektur
modern (konsepsi) dan industri gedung (realisasi).
5. Rasionalisasi dan standardisasi bereaksi dalam cara berlapis:
 tuntutan konsep arsitektur yg menyederhanakan metoda kerja di situs dan di pabrik.
 bagi perusahaan bangunan, hal ini berarti mengurangi angkatan kerja terampil, menambah buruh yang kurang terampil di bawah arahan teknisi yang
sangat terampil.
 harapan akan konsumer yang memesan rumah di mana ia tinggal; suatu penyesuaian kembali pada kondisi kehidupan sosial yang baru.
From artistic point of view, the new method
of building has to be accepted.
Standardization of the building elements
will result in new housing units and sections
of cities having a uniform character. There
is no danger in monotony, for if the basic
requirement is fulfilled that only the
building units are standardized, the
structures built thereof will vary.
Their “beauty” will be
assured by properly used
material and clear, simple
construction.
It will largely depend on the creative ability
of the architect to what extent the
arrangement of the “giant building blocks”
will form well-designed space in these
structures.
… There is enough scope for individual and
national characteristics to express
themselves and yet everything bears the
mark of our time.
Walter Gropius.
From the language of modern architecture: Bruno Zevi
… creative freedom was the climate which permeated
everything and was imparted to all masters and students.
Intimate contact with the present, service to mankind and
society, in a word, humanism is what gave bauhaus its vital
impetus.
1933
to be continued

More Related Content

What's hot

Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture 9 Styles
Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture 9 StylesArchitectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture 9 Styles
Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture 9 StylesGalala University
 
Fue theory 4 2018 lecture 3 - architectural timeline
Fue theory 4 2018   lecture 3 - architectural timelineFue theory 4 2018   lecture 3 - architectural timeline
Fue theory 4 2018 lecture 3 - architectural timelineGalala University
 
Cities, cultural theory, architecture
Cities, cultural theory, architectureCities, cultural theory, architecture
Cities, cultural theory, architectureAngel Ferrer
 
MASTER BUILDERS ARCHITECTURAL THEORY; Frank Lloyd Wright & Le Corbusier
MASTER BUILDERS ARCHITECTURAL THEORY; Frank Lloyd Wright & Le CorbusierMASTER BUILDERS ARCHITECTURAL THEORY; Frank Lloyd Wright & Le Corbusier
MASTER BUILDERS ARCHITECTURAL THEORY; Frank Lloyd Wright & Le CorbusierMorroZorro
 
Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture Architectur...
Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture   Architectur...Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture   Architectur...
Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture Architectur...Galala University
 
Deconstructivism
DeconstructivismDeconstructivism
Deconstructivismazimkhtr
 
Theory of architecture
Theory of architectureTheory of architecture
Theory of architectureKrishna Jhawar
 
Fue theory 4 2018 lecture 2 - history of theory
Fue theory 4 2018   lecture 2 - history of theoryFue theory 4 2018   lecture 2 - history of theory
Fue theory 4 2018 lecture 2 - history of theoryGalala University
 
05 architectural analysis_post_modernism and beyond
05 architectural analysis_post_modernism and beyond05 architectural analysis_post_modernism and beyond
05 architectural analysis_post_modernism and beyondMarialuisa Palumbo
 
Lec 5 issues in theory of architecture
Lec 5 issues in theory of architectureLec 5 issues in theory of architecture
Lec 5 issues in theory of architectureMuhammad Muhyuddin
 
Lec 4 introducing architectural theories
Lec 4 introducing architectural theoriesLec 4 introducing architectural theories
Lec 4 introducing architectural theoriesMuhammad Muhyuddin
 
Interior care architecture
Interior care architectureInterior care architecture
Interior care architectureAshrafulIslam292
 
Deconstructive architecture
Deconstructive architectureDeconstructive architecture
Deconstructive architecturekunal singh
 

What's hot (20)

Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture 9 Styles
Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture 9 StylesArchitectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture 9 Styles
Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture 9 Styles
 
Fue theory 4 2018 lecture 3 - architectural timeline
Fue theory 4 2018   lecture 3 - architectural timelineFue theory 4 2018   lecture 3 - architectural timeline
Fue theory 4 2018 lecture 3 - architectural timeline
 
Cities, cultural theory, architecture
Cities, cultural theory, architectureCities, cultural theory, architecture
Cities, cultural theory, architecture
 
Theory of Architecture
Theory  of ArchitectureTheory  of Architecture
Theory of Architecture
 
Theories of Architecture
Theories of ArchitectureTheories of Architecture
Theories of Architecture
 
Theory of architecture
Theory of architectureTheory of architecture
Theory of architecture
 
History part2
History part2History part2
History part2
 
MASTER BUILDERS ARCHITECTURAL THEORY; Frank Lloyd Wright & Le Corbusier
MASTER BUILDERS ARCHITECTURAL THEORY; Frank Lloyd Wright & Le CorbusierMASTER BUILDERS ARCHITECTURAL THEORY; Frank Lloyd Wright & Le Corbusier
MASTER BUILDERS ARCHITECTURAL THEORY; Frank Lloyd Wright & Le Corbusier
 
Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture Architectur...
Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture   Architectur...Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture   Architectur...
Architectural Design 1 Lectures by Dr. Yasser Mahgoub - Lecture Architectur...
 
Lec 2 thematic theories
Lec 2 thematic theoriesLec 2 thematic theories
Lec 2 thematic theories
 
1996 rafael moneo
1996 rafael moneo1996 rafael moneo
1996 rafael moneo
 
Deconstructivism
DeconstructivismDeconstructivism
Deconstructivism
 
Theory of architecture
Theory of architectureTheory of architecture
Theory of architecture
 
Fue theory 4 2018 lecture 2 - history of theory
Fue theory 4 2018   lecture 2 - history of theoryFue theory 4 2018   lecture 2 - history of theory
Fue theory 4 2018 lecture 2 - history of theory
 
05 architectural analysis_post_modernism and beyond
05 architectural analysis_post_modernism and beyond05 architectural analysis_post_modernism and beyond
05 architectural analysis_post_modernism and beyond
 
Lec 5 issues in theory of architecture
Lec 5 issues in theory of architectureLec 5 issues in theory of architecture
Lec 5 issues in theory of architecture
 
Lec 4 introducing architectural theories
Lec 4 introducing architectural theoriesLec 4 introducing architectural theories
Lec 4 introducing architectural theories
 
Interior care architecture
Interior care architectureInterior care architecture
Interior care architecture
 
Deconstructive architecture
Deconstructive architectureDeconstructive architecture
Deconstructive architecture
 
Deconstructivism
DeconstructivismDeconstructivism
Deconstructivism
 

Viewers also liked (19)

Reading
ReadingReading
Reading
 
Creating space
Creating spaceCreating space
Creating space
 
review ptpa2015
review ptpa2015review ptpa2015
review ptpa2015
 
arch101 review before uts
arch101 review before utsarch101 review before uts
arch101 review before uts
 
Basic Theory of Architecture
Basic Theory of Architecture Basic Theory of Architecture
Basic Theory of Architecture
 
Sesion03 red opt
Sesion03 red optSesion03 red opt
Sesion03 red opt
 
14479 bruno zevi
14479 bruno  zevi14479 bruno  zevi
14479 bruno zevi
 
History of India
History of IndiaHistory of India
History of India
 
Task of architect
Task of architectTask of architect
Task of architect
 
Toa unit 4 analysing architecture
Toa unit 4 analysing architectureToa unit 4 analysing architecture
Toa unit 4 analysing architecture
 
Ensuring d.s
Ensuring d.sEnsuring d.s
Ensuring d.s
 
Elementary elements
Elementary elementsElementary elements
Elementary elements
 
Mughal Renaissance
Mughal RenaissanceMughal Renaissance
Mughal Renaissance
 
Ntroduction to ar f.l.wright
Ntroduction to ar f.l.wrightNtroduction to ar f.l.wright
Ntroduction to ar f.l.wright
 
Alex Haw Lecture 130803 - South Bank Centre - Active Architecture -196
Alex Haw Lecture 130803 - South Bank Centre - Active Architecture -196Alex Haw Lecture 130803 - South Bank Centre - Active Architecture -196
Alex Haw Lecture 130803 - South Bank Centre - Active Architecture -196
 
Intro peng ars
Intro peng arsIntro peng ars
Intro peng ars
 
Theory of architecture 2
Theory of architecture 2Theory of architecture 2
Theory of architecture 2
 
01 introduction & definition
01 introduction & definition01 introduction & definition
01 introduction & definition
 
Peter zumthor
Peter zumthorPeter zumthor
Peter zumthor
 

Similar to Historyand theory

Structuralism is a mode of thinking .pptx
Structuralism is a mode of thinking .pptxStructuralism is a mode of thinking .pptx
Structuralism is a mode of thinking .pptxseyefeselasse
 
Fue theory 4 lecture 2 - history of theory
Fue theory 4   lecture 2 - history of theoryFue theory 4   lecture 2 - history of theory
Fue theory 4 lecture 2 - history of theoryGalala University
 
Modern era architecture
Modern era architectureModern era architecture
Modern era architectureCheska Marie
 
The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...
The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...
The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
 
How Did Architecture Influence Greek Architecture
How Did Architecture Influence Greek ArchitectureHow Did Architecture Influence Greek Architecture
How Did Architecture Influence Greek ArchitectureDawn Robertson
 
The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...
The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...
The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...Journal of Contemporary Urban Affairs
 
Modern Architecture Essays
Modern Architecture EssaysModern Architecture Essays
Modern Architecture EssaysAshley Lott
 
Architecture style
Architecture styleArchitecture style
Architecture styleHaf Bedagh
 
Class 6 introduction to post modernist architecture
Class 6 introduction to post modernist architectureClass 6 introduction to post modernist architecture
Class 6 introduction to post modernist architectureBhartendu Vimal
 
Theory_of_Architecture_2_Concepts.pptx
Theory_of_Architecture_2_Concepts.pptxTheory_of_Architecture_2_Concepts.pptx
Theory_of_Architecture_2_Concepts.pptxBunnyMarkMango
 
Defining Role of Art in promoting Chandigarh architecture
 Defining  Role of Art in promoting  Chandigarh architecture   Defining  Role of Art in promoting  Chandigarh architecture
Defining Role of Art in promoting Chandigarh architecture JIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
What Is Mies Van Der Rohe
What Is Mies Van Der RoheWhat Is Mies Van Der Rohe
What Is Mies Van Der RoheTammy Lacy
 
Modern Architecture - Lecture 2
Modern Architecture - Lecture 2Modern Architecture - Lecture 2
Modern Architecture - Lecture 2Sewar Khasawneh
 

Similar to Historyand theory (20)

Structuralism is a mode of thinking .pptx
Structuralism is a mode of thinking .pptxStructuralism is a mode of thinking .pptx
Structuralism is a mode of thinking .pptx
 
Reflection Of The Bauhaus
Reflection Of The BauhausReflection Of The Bauhaus
Reflection Of The Bauhaus
 
Fue theory 4 lecture 2 - history of theory
Fue theory 4   lecture 2 - history of theoryFue theory 4   lecture 2 - history of theory
Fue theory 4 lecture 2 - history of theory
 
Modern era architecture
Modern era architectureModern era architecture
Modern era architecture
 
The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...
The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...
The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...
 
How Did Architecture Influence Greek Architecture
How Did Architecture Influence Greek ArchitectureHow Did Architecture Influence Greek Architecture
How Did Architecture Influence Greek Architecture
 
Expressionism
ExpressionismExpressionism
Expressionism
 
The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...
The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...
The Influence of Le Corbusier On the emergence of the Aesthetic Values in the...
 
Modern Architecture Essays
Modern Architecture EssaysModern Architecture Essays
Modern Architecture Essays
 
Architecture style
Architecture styleArchitecture style
Architecture style
 
Class 6 introduction to post modernist architecture
Class 6 introduction to post modernist architectureClass 6 introduction to post modernist architecture
Class 6 introduction to post modernist architecture
 
Theory_of_Architecture_2_Concepts.pptx
Theory_of_Architecture_2_Concepts.pptxTheory_of_Architecture_2_Concepts.pptx
Theory_of_Architecture_2_Concepts.pptx
 
Art and architecture
 Art and architecture Art and architecture
Art and architecture
 
Defining Role of Art in promoting Chandigarh architecture
 Defining  Role of Art in promoting  Chandigarh architecture   Defining  Role of Art in promoting  Chandigarh architecture
Defining Role of Art in promoting Chandigarh architecture
 
What Is Mies Van Der Rohe
What Is Mies Van Der RoheWhat Is Mies Van Der Rohe
What Is Mies Van Der Rohe
 
Postmodernism
PostmodernismPostmodernism
Postmodernism
 
Modernarch.2
Modernarch.2Modernarch.2
Modernarch.2
 
Modern Architecture - Lecture 2
Modern Architecture - Lecture 2Modern Architecture - Lecture 2
Modern Architecture - Lecture 2
 
Interior architectural
Interior architecturalInterior architectural
Interior architectural
 
toa notes.docx
toa notes.docxtoa notes.docx
toa notes.docx
 

Recently uploaded

TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Denish Jangid
 
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17Celine George
 
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...Krashi Coaching
 
How to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 InventoryHow to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 InventoryCeline George
 
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismDabee Kamal
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxneillewis46
 
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFThe Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFVivekanand Anglo Vedic Academy
 
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Mohamed Rizk Khodair
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...EduSkills OECD
 
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppImproved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppCeline George
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxMarlene Maheu
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjMohammed Sikander
 
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital ManagementMBA Assignment Experts
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnershipsexpandedwebsite
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMELOISARIVERA8
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................MirzaAbrarBaig5
 

Recently uploaded (20)

TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdfIncluding Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
Including Mental Health Support in Project Delivery, 14 May.pdf
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering, Modes of Transpo...
 
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
How to Analyse Profit of a Sales Order in Odoo 17
 
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
 
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
MSc Ag Genetics & Plant Breeding: Insights from Previous Year JNKVV Entrance ...
 
How to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 InventoryHow to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Manage Closest Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design: Named Entity Recognition"
 
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
 
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFThe Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
 
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
Dementia (Alzheimer & vasular dementia).
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
 
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppImproved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
 
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptxPSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
PSYPACT- Practicing Over State Lines May 2024.pptx
 
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjStl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Stl Algorithms in C++ jjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
 
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
8 Tips for Effective Working Capital Management
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
 
male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................male presentation...pdf.................
male presentation...pdf.................
 

Historyand theory

  • 2. + What is “theory”? What is “history”?1.
  • 3. what is the difference? Theory istoria (grk) :learning with asking chronological/causal questions aristoteles : systematic analysis about some natural phenomenon 1: the analysis of a set of facts in their relation to one another 2 : abstract thought 3 : the general or abstract principles of a body of fact, a science, or an art Source: Meriam Webster Dictionary Online History
  • 4. + What is “the aim” of learning history and theory ? 2.
  • 5. + what has happened what is happening what should happen SCIENTIFICALLY KNOWING Man learn about his(her)-self for the better process of being and to be..
  • 6. + Studying architectural history relates to our need to understand the present. … for it is only by studying the past that we can hope to understand how we have arrived at today.
  • 7. + as an Closed Text as an Open Text ? or History always taking sides, depend on the writers / theoritician History is always freehave to be re- interprete How to look at history ???
  • 9. + ModernA rchitect..as a Milestone After Modern Before Modern cut off from history back to history depend on history cut off from history
  • 10.
  • 11. 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 2000 AD Belanda (1800-1942) Sriwijaya (abad ke-7 – ke-13) Mataram (1500-1700) Majapahit (1293-1500) Portugis (1512-1800) VOC (1600 -1800) Jepang (1942-1945) Tarumanegara (358-669) Small Tribal Groups (10.000 BC- 200 AD) Tradingslink India – China (200-600) Independence (1945-…)
  • 14.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. +
  • 22. Function as temple for the Gods, Sculptural Form, Rectangular
  • 23. Vitruvius Architecture is…  Utilitas  Firmitas  Venustas Vitruvius : TEN BOOKS on ARCHITECTURE
  • 24. Pantheon, Rome, Arc, Vault, Dome.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
  • 32.
  • 34.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37.
  • 38.
  • 39. + 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 2000 AD Belanda (1800-1942) Sriwijaya (abad ke-7 – ke-13) Mataram (1500-1700) Majapahit (1293-1500) Portugis (1512-1800) VOC (1600 -1800) Jepang (1942-1945) Tarumanegara (358-669) Small Tribal Groups (10.000BC- 200 AD) Tradingslink India – China (200-600) Independence (1945-…) 500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 2000 AD
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42. + Leon Battista Alberti 1443 De re aedificatoria (English: On the Art of Building) a concise version of sociology of architecture and tells architect how buildings should be built, not how they were built. De Re Aedificatoria remained the classic treatise on architecture from the 16th until the 18th century.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45.
  • 47.
  • 48.
  • 49.
  • 51. Brunelleschi, Santa Maria Del Fiore, Florence RENAISSANCE (1420-1600)
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63. Ecole des Beaux-Arts 1. Ecole des Beaux Arts (1666) is the final period of Before Modern era, as well as the beginning of Modern era. 2. Ecole des Beaux Arts is the first school that elevated architecture into an atonomous discipline 3. Ecole des Beaux Arts is the oldest architectural school who spread the school’s pedagogical system and arch. style to places around the globe
  • 65. + created 1816 as a merger of : academie de peinture et de sculpture [1648] academie de musique [1699] academie d’architecture [1671]
  • 66. + back to main Under supervision of The Great Jean-Pierre Colbert, France reached prosperity so did education. At 1840, he established de sociale centrale des architect: organization that make architecture similar to profession, law and medicine. So E de BA elevatred architecture into autonomous discipline. The early stage of E des BA
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 74.
  • 75.
  • 76. + principles God is in the detail Architecture need sculpture Eclecticism Hierarchy of space symmetric Henry Labrouste
  • 80.
  • 81.
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 84.
  • 85.
  • 86. Arc de Triomphe (1806-1836) . Napoleon I has the ambition to make his capital the most beautiful city in the world. The architect :Jean-Francois-Therese Chalgrin, Jean-Arnaud Raymond, Louis-Robert Goust, Jean-Nicolas Huyot, Guillaume-Abel Blouet. The design was a Neoclassical version of ancient Roman architecture.
  • 87. The Influence Baron van Haussmann interpenetrating paths to the city of Paris back to main
  • 88.
  • 89.
  • 90. + Ecole de Beaux - Arts All of these young architects carried into practice the Ecole’s method of both a ‘preesquisse’ to find an appropriate parti, and the esquisse, which expressed the essence of the organization. Along with skills in design theory and rendering, these factors affected architects’ process for many years to come. Drawing techniques such as eliminating background conveyed a specific message, free of unnecessary details. Ledoux’s fantasy architecture consisted of simple geometry and primarily displayed function. The sketch by Henri Labrouste, who was trained at the Ecole, reveals early sketch diagram techniques to find compositional direction.
  • 91. + Adolf Loos : ornament and crime •Exemplifies the contrasts and contradictions of the years leading toward modernism and the international style. •Respected traditional architecture but experimented with sleek volumes. •Actually better known for his writing. •Beginning the sketch with ruled lines may have reflected his interest to study simple geometries, but he may have also seen the definitive lines as a base for subsequent evaluation practiced in verbal criticism and irony, he may have purposefully put forth a visual hypothesis, expecting it to be altered through critical dialogue.
  • 92. + The Amsterdam school The architects of the Amsterdam School rejected classicism, concentrating instead on relationships between ‘functionalism and beauty’ (Bock, Johannisse and Stissi, 1997, p. 9). Beginning in the early 1900s, this movement stemmed from the common belief system of architects such as H. P. Berlage, J. M. van der May, M.de Klerk, and Piet Kramer. Fueled by political policy governing city expansion and mandates for workers’ housing, these architects searched for sculptural forms that could be economically efficient and, thus, respond to social needs (Bock, Johannisse and Stissi, 1997; Casciato, 1996). Concerned with materials and construction methods, the architects of the Amsterdam School used sketches and drawings to envision building systems and massing. de Klerk, Michel(1884–1923)Sketch of design for a water tower with service buildings in reinforced concrete, Pencil on tracing paper
  • 93. + De Stijl De Stijl architects also built with masonry and explored massive geometric forms made from concrete. In contrast to the Amsterdam School, however, they eliminated decoration and most color, and assembled rectangular forms (de Wit, 1983). Naturally, their drawings and sketches had a minimal, abstract expression. Rietveld, Gerrit Thomas(1888–1964)Rough draft variation of zigzag child’s chair, Crayon, ink on paper. Originally a furniture builder, GerritRietveld was partially responsible for the architectural ideals of the De Stijl movement of the early 1920s. His Schröder House epitomized many of the movement’s beliefs, including simplicity of form, verticals and horizontals that intersect and penetrate each other, primary colors, asymmetrical balance, and elements separated by space (Brown, 1958).
  • 94. + Le Corbusier Considering the briefness of the sketch, it is clear that Le Corbusier depended upon additional written messages to later recall his design intention.The sketchbooks were for him a discussion about design and also represented memory devices. Plate #322, Sketchbook 18, Volume 2, sketch of Notre-Dame-du-Haut, Ronchamp, February1951, Ink on sketchbook paper
  • 95. Five Points of Architecture: Pilotis Free Façade Open Floor Plan Un-disturbed Views Roof Garden
  • 96.
  • 97. +
  • 99. + Bauhaus Gropius was transforming the former art school Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar. Based on the theory of the ‘artist as exalted craftsman,’ the Bauhaus attempted to unify the building and a whole, integrating its various elements (Conrads,1970). Gropius advocated bringing together sculpture, painting, and crafts into the design of the built environment. The masters of the Bauhaus were concerned with teaching craftsmanship in a workshop setting; besides craft, science, and theory, the school also provided instruction in drawing, painting, life drawing, composition, technical and perspective drawing, and ornament and industrial design (Conrads, 1970). These studios taught the techniques of sketching from memory and imagination (Conrads, 1970). They also employed axonometric drawings. These two-dimensional projections showed three sides of the object or building equally, and were comprised of parallel lines which could be constructed with straight edges. They suggested the preciseness of the machine and reveled in the abstraction (Naylor,1968)
  • 100. + Walter Gropius Obviously concerned about the material thickness of walls, he also differentiated the floor surfaces by shading certain areas and crosshatching others. These visual indicators help to emphasize that the house was to be built using local materials, fieldstone, and wood. The careful control of proportion and the consideration for spatial relationships indicate that Gropius used this sketch for concentrated and deliberate thinking.
  • 101. +Gropius’ reputation for efficiency would support a theory that he was concerned with the economical delivery of food and the distances of travel through the space.
  • 102.
  • 103. +
  • 104. + Mies van de Rohe At the Bauhaus, Mies encouraged his students to develop their projects with vast numbers of sketches before committing to final drawings (Cohen, 1996). Mies’ sketches show mostly plans accompanied by interior perspectives and elaborate construction details that show connections (Drexler, 1986). An unusual technique Mies employed was that of collage. They may be considered sketches since they present a basic outline, pertain to conceptual thinking and provide little pictorial orientation. Pieces of cut paper were pasted in juxtaposition so as to make a semblance of a parti. He used bright yellow paper drawn over with a grid, resembling fenestration or an abstract pattern. In the center has been placed a very dark rectangle surrounded with light gray, tan, and white pieces. This collaged sketch is really about precise and imprecise. This collage from 1909, early in his career as an architect, reveals Mies’ penchant for the De Stijl-like juxtaposition of horizontals and verticals
  • 105. + ‘less is more’ The forms reflect Mies’ bold and simple rectangles which act as planes slicing through space. In contrast, the composition of pieces is simultaneously imprecise.
  • 106.
  • 108.
  • 110. Walter Gropius, “March of the DEAD”
  • 111.
  • 114.
  • 115.
  • 116.
  • 117.
  • 118. +Congres Internationaux dí Architecture Moderne (Deklarasi CIAM, 1928) 1. Gagasan arsitektur modern menyertakan hub. fenomena arsitektur& sistem ekonomi umum. 2. Gagasan efisiensi ekonomi tidaklah berarti produksi yang menghasilkan keuntungan komersial maksimum, tapi produksi yang menuntut upaya kerja minimum. 3. Kebutuhan akan efisiensi ekonomi max. adalah hasil dari keadaan ekonomi umum yg termiskin. 4. Metoda produksi yang paling efisien adalah yang timbul dari rasionalisasi dan standardisasi, yang berakibat langsung pada metoda kerja dalam arsitektur modern (konsepsi) dan industri gedung (realisasi). 5. Rasionalisasi dan standardisasi bereaksi dalam cara berlapis:  tuntutan konsep arsitektur yg menyederhanakan metoda kerja di situs dan di pabrik.  bagi perusahaan bangunan, hal ini berarti mengurangi angkatan kerja terampil, menambah buruh yang kurang terampil di bawah arahan teknisi yang sangat terampil.  harapan akan konsumer yang memesan rumah di mana ia tinggal; suatu penyesuaian kembali pada kondisi kehidupan sosial yang baru.
  • 119. From artistic point of view, the new method of building has to be accepted. Standardization of the building elements will result in new housing units and sections of cities having a uniform character. There is no danger in monotony, for if the basic requirement is fulfilled that only the building units are standardized, the structures built thereof will vary. Their “beauty” will be assured by properly used material and clear, simple construction. It will largely depend on the creative ability of the architect to what extent the arrangement of the “giant building blocks” will form well-designed space in these structures. … There is enough scope for individual and national characteristics to express themselves and yet everything bears the mark of our time. Walter Gropius. From the language of modern architecture: Bruno Zevi
  • 120. … creative freedom was the climate which permeated everything and was imparted to all masters and students. Intimate contact with the present, service to mankind and society, in a word, humanism is what gave bauhaus its vital impetus.
  • 121.