The Cultural Logic Of The Remix

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Lecture slides used from a presentation to Level 3 students on the Popular Music course as the University of Sunderland

Lecture slides used from a presentation to Level 3 students on the Popular Music course as the University of Sunderland

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  • 1. MAC351 [email_address]
  • 2.
    • Web 2.0 and ‘remix culture’
    • The origins of the remix
    • Creativity or piracy? A war of words
    • The ‘mash-up’
    • Legal threats
  • 3.
    • harness/exploit the collective wisdom and effort of their users
    • trust and respect users; treat them as co–developers rather than consumers
    • are open to — and encourage — remixing, hacking and sharing, with permissive licensing, open standards and programming languages, freely available application programming interfaces (APIs) etc
      • (O’Reilly cited in Allen, 2008)
  • 4. Democratising tools which throw the old rules into disarray (Lasica, 2005: 2)
  • 5.
    • D e mographic born between 1977-1996
    • First to ‘ grow up in a digital age … bathed in bits ’
      • (Tapsoctt & Williams, 2008: 47)
    • Driven by a desire ‘ for choice, convenience, customization and control by designing, producing and distributing products themselves ’
      • (ibid: 52)
  • 6.
    • ‘ The ability to remix media, hack products, or otherwise tamper with consumer culture is their birthright, and they won't let outmoded intellectual property laws stand in their way’
      • (Tapscott & Williams, 2008: 52)
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
    • 19% of online teens
    • 18% of online adults
    • remixed content gathered from other sources into a new creation
      • (Lenhart and Madden, 2005)
  • 11.
    • Film
    • The Phantom Edit
    • Raiders of the Lost Ark: The Adaptation
    • Fan-made trailers?
  • 12.
    • Fashion
  • 13.
    • Art
    Nick Út Banksy
  • 14.
    • Video Games
  • 15.
    • Pro-sumers (Toffler, 1980)
    • User Generated Content
      • Mash-up/mix compilations?
      • Blog posts?
      • Presentations?
      • Photos?
      • Machinima?
      • Video?
  • 16.
  • 17. See also M a tt Mason, 2008, The Pirate’s Dilemma for details
  • 18. ‘ All any prime minister had to do to gauge the winds was to listen closely to the week’s 45 rpm single releases; they were like political polls set to melody and riddim’ (Jeff Chang, 2005: 31).
  • 19.
    • 1962 – Jamaican independence
    • 1964 – Reid built recording studio
    • 1967 – The Paragons
    Rudolph ‘Ruddy’ Redwood & Byron Smith
  • 20.
    • 1972 – Botel club, Fire Island, New York
  • 21.
    • 1967 – Clive Campbell arrives in the Bronx
    • AKA DJ Kool Herc
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qjnc-X-Vfyg
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31.
    • John Shiga, 2007, ‘Copy and Persist’
    • Good Copy, Bad Copy (2007, Denmark)
      • http://www.goodcopybadcopy.net/
  • 32.
  • 33.
    • The ‘cult of the amateur’ (Carr, 2005)
    • “ mass culture provides the building blocks for the stuff we create” (Lessig in Lasica, 2005)
  • 34.
    • ‘ a culture of contempt for intellectual property’
    • IFPI (2007): cost to the US music industry = $12.6 billion
  • 35.
    • lobbying for legislative changes
    • court actions
    • education and propaganda campaigns
    • technological means
    • For more info see Allen (2008) and L e ssig (2004)
  • 36. Copyright Term Extension Act
  • 37.
  • 38. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VlPkIS-uNMk
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 42.
  • 43.
    • Less than 2% of works have any continuing commercial value (Lessig, 2004)
    • CTEA = Mickey Mouse act?
    • ‘ Rent-seeking’?
    • Stifling creativity?
  • 44.
    • Is the remix a cultural norm and if so, is it under threat?
    • Is there any value or significance to the remix as a cultural practice?
    • Does existent copyright law restrict creativity?
    • Does copyright law go far enough?
  • 45.
    • B. Alexander, 2006. “Web 2.0: A new wave of innovation for teaching and Learning?” EDUCAUSE Review , volume 41, number 2, pp. 32–44 , http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/erm0621.pdf
    • Peter J Allen, 2008, ‘Rip, mix, burn … sue … ad infinitum: The effects of deterrence vs voluntary cooperation on non-commercial online copyright infringing behaviour’, First Monday , Vol 13, No 9, http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/issue/view/269
    • N. Carr, 2005. “The amorality of Web 2.0,” Rough Type, http://www.roughtype.com/archives/2005/10/the_amorality_o.php
    • Jeff Chang, 2005, Can’t Stop Won’t Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation , St. Martin's Press
    • J. D. Lasica, 2005, Darknet: Hollywood’s war against the digital generation, Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
    • Lawrence Lessig, 2004, Free Culture: The nature and future of creativity, London: Penguin, http://www.free-culture.cc/freeculture.pdf
    • J. Litman, 2000. “The demonization of piracy,” Proceedings of CFP 2000: Challenging the Assumptions. The Tenth Conference on Computers, Freedom & Privacy (6 April, Toronto, Canada), at http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jdlitman/papers/demon.pdf
    • Matt Mason, 2008, The Pirates Dilemma: How hackers, punk capitalists and graffiti millionaires are remixing our culture and changing the world , London: Allen Lane, http://thepiratesdilemma.com/download-the-book
    • T. O’Reilly, 2005. “What is Web 2.0? Design patterns and business models for the next generation of software, http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-is-web-20.html
    • Simon Reynolds, 2006, Rip It Up & Start Again , London: Faber
    • Barry Sandywell & David Beer, 2005, ‘Stylistic Morphing: Notes on the Digitisation of Contemporary Music Culture’, Convergence , Vol 11, No 4.
    • žJohn Shiga, 2007, ‘Copy-and-Persist: The Logic of Mash-Up Culture’ in Critical Studies in Media Communication , Volume 24, Number 2, pp. 93-114
    • Don Tapscott & Anthony D Williams, 2008, Wikinomics: How mass collaboration changed everything , London: Atlantic Books
    • A l vin Toffler, 1980, The Third Wave , Morrow.