Creativity & Remix Culture - 28th March 2011


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This is my powerpoint charting the historical development of the remix in four parts:

1) Historical introduction
2) Music: Birth of sampling and the remix
3) Remixing the Web - The Mashup
4) The Future of the Creative Remix

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Creativity & Remix Culture - 28th March 2011

  1. 1. Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  Embedded  music  file:  1)  A  FiHh  of  Beethoven  –  Walter  Murphy  2)  Also  Sprach  Zarathustra  -­‐  Deodato   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  2. 2. Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture   1.     Historical  introduc%on  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  3. 3. The  Old  Testament  “The  thing  that  hath  been,  it  is  that  which  shall  be:    And  that  which  is  done  is  that  which  shall  be  done:    And  there  is  nothing  new  under  the  sun.”  Ecclesiastes   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  4. 4. Early  20th  Century  Art   Duchamp   Picasso  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  5. 5. 1920s:  Dada  –  Collage  and  Photomontage   Raoul  Hausmann   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  6. 6. 1930s:  Poli%cal  Photomontage   John  HearZield  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  7. 7. 1950s:  Cut-­‐up  technique   Bowie  (1970s),  Burroughs  (1950s)  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  8. 8. 1950s:  Cut-­‐up  technique   Embedded  William  Burroughs  voice  and  text  video  William  Burroughs  cut-­‐up   William  Burroughs  example   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  9. 9. 1960’s:  Pop  Art  Warhol  Lichtenstein   Hamilton   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  10. 10. Recent  Poli%cal  Photomontage   Peter  Kennard  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  11. 11. C20th  Braun  and  C21st  Apple  Design  Designers  –  Dieter  Rams,  Braun  (top)  and  Jonathan  Ive,  Apple  (bodom)   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  12. 12. Regency  TR-­‐1  transistor  radio  (1954)  -­‐  iPod  mini  (2004)     “One  is  a  groundbreaking  consumer  electronics  device  released  in  a   range  of  catchy  colours,  enabling  a  hugely  addic%ve  portable  listening   experience  —  the  other  is  the  iPod  mini.”  —  John  Ousby   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  13. 13. Remixing  History  According  to  Wired   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  14. 14. Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture   2.    Music:  Birth  of  sampling  and  the  remix  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  15. 15. The  Remix  is  Born   Accidental  omission  of  the  vocals  created  a  ‘Dub’  version  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  16. 16. Music  Remix  defined   Three  Types  of  Remixes  1)  Extended  remix   •  Longer  than  the  original  2)  Selec%ve  remix     •  Adds  or  subtracts  material  from  the  original  song.  DJ  as  producer  3)  Reflexive  remix   •  Challenges  the  characteris%cs  of  the  original  and  claims  autonomy   even  when  it  carries  the  name  of  the  original.     •  Can  also  lead  to  a  "remix"  in  which  the  only  thing  that  is   recognizable  from  the  original  is  the  %tle.     Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  17. 17. The  Adventures  Of  Grandmaster  Flash  and  the  Wheels  Of  Steel,  1981   Embedded  music  file:  The  Adventures  Of  Grandmaster  Flash  On  The  Wheels  Of  Steel  -­‐  Grandmaster  Flash     Uses  10  music  samples  including:     Good  Times  –  Chic,  Another  One  Bites  the  Dust  –  Queen,  Rapture  –  Blondie     plus  spoken  word  vocals  from  the  movie  Flash  Gordon     Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  18. 18. Sampling   Made  easier  with  the  advent  of  digital  technology  Sampling  is  “the  uninhibited  use  of  digital  sound  recording  as  a  central  element  of  composi%on.  Sampling  thus  becomes  an  aesthe%c  programme.”  (Goodwin,  1998)   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  19. 19. Sampling   Made  easier  with  the  advent  of  digital  technology  Sampling  is  “the  uninhibited  use  of  digital  sound  recording  as  a  central  element  of  composi%on.  Sampling  thus  becomes  an  aesthe%c  programme.”  (Goodwin  1998)   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  20. 20. Sampling   M|A|R|R|S  -­‐  Pump  up  the  Volume  -­‐  1987  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  21. 21. Sampling   M|A|R|R|S  -­‐  Pump  up  the  Volume  -­‐  1987  Embedded  music  file:    Pump  up  the  Volume  -­‐  MARRS   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  22. 22. 1990s  Music  SoHware  Development  for  Home  Use   Affordable  and  easy  to  use   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  23. 23. Danger  Mouse  –  The  Grey  Album,  2004   Embedded  music  file:  Moment  of  Clarity  -­‐  Danger  Mouse   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  24. 24. Remix  Paradox  “We  are  leH  with  an  interes%ng  paradox:  while  in  the  realm  of  commercial  music  remixing  is  officially  accepted  ,  in  other  cultural   areas   it   is   seen   as   viola%ng   the   copyright   and  therefore  as  stealing.”  (Manovich,  2007).   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  25. 25. Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture   3.     Remixing  the  Web  -­‐  The  Mashup  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  26. 26. Lev  Manovich’s  Language  of  New  Media    “A  new  media  object  consists  of  independent  parts  which  consist  of  smaller  independent  parts,  and  so  on,  up  to  the  level  of  smallest  “atoms”  such  as  pixels,  3D  points  or  characters”  (Manovich,  2001:31).     Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  27. 27. Rip,  Remix,  Share  and  Collaborate   The  birth  of  a  new  ‘remix  culture’  The  Internet,  Web  2.0  technology  and  the  distribu%on  of  and  access  to  user-­‐generated   content   has   enabled   non-­‐professionals   to   collaborate  with  each  other  across  organisa%onal  or  geographic  boundaries.  Yochai   Benkler   describes   this   phenomenon   as   "commons-­‐based   peer  produc%on"  (CBPP).    It  is  characterised  as  a  means  of  organising  loosely  connected  individuals  to   openly   share   resources   and   cooperate   without   tradi%onal   hierarchy  nor  financial  compensa%on.   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  28. 28. Rip,  Remix,  Share  and  Collaborate   The  birth  of  a  new  ‘remix  culture’  The   ability   to   share   and   reuse   content   is   bound   together   by   some  common  objec%ves:  1  Personal  expression  through  the  crea%on  of  content  2  Building  social  rela%onships  through  the  crea%ve  process  3  Furthering  the  prac%ces  of  communi%es  that  revolve  around  crea%ng  and   personalizing   content   through   remixes   and   mashups   (Chelio%s   &  Yew,  2009)   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  29. 29. 1990s  Graphics  SoHware  Development  for  Home  Use   Cut,  Copy  and  Paste  -­‐  Affordable  and  easy  to  use   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  30. 30. Open  Source  Alterna%ves  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  31. 31. Lawrence  Lessig  Copyright   was   created   long   before   the   emergence   of   the   Internet,   and  can   make   it   hard   to   legally   perform   ac%ons   we   take   for   granted   on   the  network:  copy,  paste,  edit  source,  and  post  to  the  Web.     Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  32. 32. Lawrence  Lessig   Why  CC?  The  idea  of  universal  access  to  research,  educa%on,  and  culture  is  made  possible   by   the   Internet,   but   our   legal   and   social   systems   don’t   always  allow  that  idea  to  be  realised.  The  default  sevng  of  copyright  law  requires  all  of  these  ac%ons  to  have  explicit  permission,  granted  in  advance,  whether  you’re  an  ar%st,  teacher,  scien%st,  librarian,  policymaker,  or  just  a  regular  user.   Our  mission  Crea%ve   Commons   develops,   supports,   and   stewards   legal   and   technical  infrastructure  that  maximizes  digital  crea%vity,  sharing,  and  innova%on.   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  33. 33. Lawrence  Lessig  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  34. 34. The  Pirate’s  Dilemma  –  Mad  Mason  Should  piracy  be  treated  as  a  problem  or  a  whole  new  solu%on?   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  35. 35. The  Pirate’s  Dilemma  –  Mad  Mason   The  Three  Habits  of  Highly  Effec;ve  Pirates  1.  Look  Outside  of  the  Market  Entrepreneurs  look  for  gaps  in  the  market.  Pirates  look  for  gaps  outside  of  the  market.  There  was  no  market  for  Hollywood  films  before  William  Fox  and  friends.  There  was  no  market  for  commercial  radio  in  Europe  before  pirate  DJs.  2.  Create  a  Vehicle  Once   pirates   find   a   space   the   market   has   ignored,   they   park   a   new   vehicle   in   it   and  begin   transmivng.   Some%mes   this   new   vehicle   becomes   more   important,   or   as  Marshall  McLuhan  put  it,  the  medium  becomes  the  message.  3.  Harness  Your  Audience  When   pirates   do   something   valuable   in   society,   ci%zens   support   them,   discussion  starts,  and  laws  change.  It  is  the  supporters  that  pirates  adract  that  enable  them  and  their  ideas  to  go  legit.  Kiss  FM  got  a  license  thanks  to  its  listeners.  En%re  na%on-­‐states  are  suppor%ng  pill  pirates  to  save  lives.   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  36. 36. RIP:  A  Remix  Manifesto  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  37. 37. RIP:  A  Remix  Manifesto  Embedded  video  file:  RiP:  A  Remix  Manifesto  –  Trailer,  available  at:  hdp://   Trailer  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  38. 38. RIP:  A  Remix  Manifesto  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  39. 39. The  Mash-­‐up  Defined   Mash-­‐ups  aggregate  and  s%tch  together  third-­‐party  data   Two  Types  of  Mash-­‐up  1)  Regressive   •  Juxtaposi%on  of  songs  to  create  a  new  song  using  the  vocal  and   instrumental  tracks  from  two  different  source  songs.    2)  Reflexive   •  Most  common  in  web  2.0  applica%ons.  They  use  samples  from  two   or  more  elements  to  access  specific  informa%on  more  efficiently.   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  40. 40. Web  Applica%on  Mash-­‐ups  •   Web  mash-­‐ups  sample  material  from  different  online  resources  and  websites  •   Mash-­‐ups  are  developed  with  the  inten%on  of  extending  the  func%onality  of                                            •   soHware  for  specific  purposes.      •   Web  developers  use  material  directly  taken  from  databases    •   Use  open  Applica%on  Programming  Interface  (API)  to  access  informa%on  •   The  Web  2.0  reflexive  mash-­‐up  no  longer  relies  on  sampling  but  instead  on    •   constant  upda%ng     Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  41. 41. Mash-­‐up  Website  –  How  the  Data  Flows   User   User  Request   Data  presenta%on   Mash-­‐up  website   Data  Manipula%on   API  Call   Data   API  Call   Data   Website  1   Website  2   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  42. 42. The  Wilderness  Downtown  It   features   a   mash-­‐up   of   Google   Maps   and   Google   Street   View   with   HTML5  canvas,   HTML5   audio   and   video,   an   interac%ve   drawing   tool,   and  choreographed  windows  that  dance  around  the  screen.  “These  modern  web  technologies  have  helped  us  craH  an  experience  that  is  personalized   and   unique   for   each   viewer,   as   you   virtually   run   through   the  streets  where  you  grew  up.”  Thomas  Gayno,  Google  Crea%ve  Lab  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  43. 43. The  Wilderness  Downtown  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  44. 44. Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture   4.     The  Future  of  the  Crea%ve  Remix  Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011    
  45. 45. The  Future  of  the  Crea%ve  Remix  “World   Wide   Web   redefined   an   electronic   document   as   a   mix   of   other  documents.  Remix  culture  has  arrived.”  (Manovich,  2007)  “What   is   crucial   at   the   moment   is   understanding   how   different   acts   of  appropria%on  throughout  history  enable  us  to  entertain  Remix  as  part  of  the  consumer/producer  model  currently  at  play  in  culture.”  (Navas,  2008)  Ques%ons:  Will   our   future   crea%vity   rely   on   and   be   created   from   an   already   exis%ng  database  of  culture?  Or  will  new  material  constantly  update  and  complement  this  exis%ng  crea%ve  resource  enabling  greater  crea%vity  and  more  diverse  and  remixing  of  content?   Tim  Riley,  University  of  Westminster  -­‐  Crea%vity  and  Remix  Culture  -­‐  28th  March  2011