Brief lectures
in Media
History
Chapter 12
Global Culture
(15 of 15)
This lecture is about
 Social construction of technology
 Communities and social capital
 Free software vs tethered app...
This lecture is also about
 Tim Berners Lee / world wide web
 Richard Stallman / free software
 Shawn Fanning / Napster...
Videos to watch
 Googlezon – Fun, whacky history of web. 2006
 Lawrence Lessig on Laws the Choke Creativity, 2007.
 Tim...
Examples of social
construction
 Satellite radio and Internet applications like
podcasting were developed to circumvent t...
Circumventing media
 Printing c> Church
 Newspapers c> newsletters
 Photography c> dioramas, painting
 Telephone c> te...
New communication =
community
Journalist
Howard
Rheingold fell
into the Whole
Earth
„Lectronic Link
(the WELL)
in 1985 …
H...
Free software movement
Some of the most important
network and system software
has emerged from the Free
Software movement....
Open Source Software (major
examples)
 GNU/Unix operating system
 Apache web server
 Java and Php programming languages...
New standards opened
questions
 International standards c. 1990s
allowed transmission of photos and
audio files via satel...
Napster, Grokster, etc
Shawn Fanning achieved fame with
his Napster audio file sharing
program.
A federal court found that...
Copyright
 US copyright laws have led to
extremely harsh penalties for minor
infringements.
 For example, Boston Univers...
The Recording
Industry
Association of
America (RIAA)
was despised for
damaging
lawsuits and
clumsy public
relations agains...
Johnathan Zittrain and Lawrence
Lessig
Two Harvard Law School professors who believe draconian laws to
enforce copyright a...
Tethered versus generative
Apps that run on Tablets or
SmartPhones will let you consume
media, but will they let you creat...
Fork in the road …
Open source and civic technologies
models have worked well, and consumers
will probably continue to dem...
Cognitive Surplus
Collaborative crowd-sourced web sites
• Software – Free software movement
• Information:
Wikipedia, wiki...
Craig‟s List vs eBay
Craig Newmark -- Founded
Craigs List 1995, now has 30
employees and is worth perhaps
$150 million
Pie...
What‟s a wiki?
 Programmer Ward Cunningham
 Portland, Oregon
 First “wiki” in 1995 as way for lots of
people to contrib...
• Wikipedia – Jimmy Wales – Started as “newpedia” in 2000
• Wikitravel, Wikimedia
• Wikileaks – Julian Assange -- Launched...
Wikipedia‟s Jimmy Wales
• Started in 2000 with Nupedia –
Online curated encyclopedia ;
• Too many layers of review
• Also ...
Civic virtues? Hegemony of
amateurs?
 Wikipedia put printed encyclopedias out
of business (free always beats quality)
 W...
 Citizen Journalism in New Zealand
◦ Vincent Murwiwa M.A. study 2008
◦ Http://www.theopennewsroom.com
◦ Not enough citize...
New business models
 Partisan media / corporate sponsorship
 Pay walls / Charges for apps / not working
◦ Serious proble...
Twitter
 Developed in 2006 in San Francisco
 “Short Message Service” /
microblogging
 Free / used with phone or compute...
YouTube
 Developed in 2005 after difficulty finding
video on Indonesian Tsunami and other
events
 Google buys in 2006
 ...
Archaic music promotions
 Members of the band OK Go have been critical of
the way EMI Records tried to restrict YouTube
e...
Julian Assange & Wikileaks
• Australian journalist
• 2005 started Wikileaks
• Lots of exposes 2006-09
• Most important was...
Edward Snowden
 US NSA employee
 Leaked documents to
Guardian reporter Glen
Greenwald in 2013
 Reports rocked the world...
What Snowden leaked:
 Global surveillance program called
Five Eyes: -- US and United
Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New
...
More Snowden leaks
 EGOTISTICAL GIRAFFE: The NSA has targeted the Tor browser, an anonymity tool
enabling Internet users ...
Snowden has wide support
Jakob Huber/Campact/cc/via flickr
Censorship
 RSF annual report “Enemies of the
Internet” focuses on surveillance for
2012 -- http://surveillance.rsf.org/e...
Global Culture
 “The problem of the 20th century,”
said W.E.B. DuBois in 1903, “is the
problem of the color line.”
 At t...
Final questions
 Internet and the World Wide Web
emerged with unprecedented freedom
 But law and social debate had not
k...
Conclusions
 With the future at our feet, where will we
go? With a vast new power of worldwide
networking, how will we en...
Thank you
You are invited to send
suggestions for the second
edition of Revolutions in
Communication, scheduled for
public...
Ch12.global culture
Ch12.global culture
Ch12.global culture
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Ch12.global culture

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  • Johnathan Zittrain andLawrence Lessig, both professors at Harvard University law school, question the waycopyright and communications law often stifles creativity and freedom.
  • Disagreement between members of the popular rock group OK Go and the way their record label allowed accessto promotional videos on YouTube shows the disconnects that take place in the world ofnew media . The record label, EMI Inc., wanted to recover advertising revenue fromYouTube and removed embed tags from the YouTube video “Here It Goes Again.” Butthe advertising revenue – in the neighborhood of $8 per day – was the reward forsacrificing more valuable promotion. That’s a misunderstanding of the role of new media,said musician Damian Kulash. “Blogs, Web sites and video aggregators serve as culturalcurators, daily collecting the items that will interest their audiences the most,” he said.The music industry’s response to the web has been “like a corporate version of the ThreeStooges.” Here, in black and white but with embed tags restored, are OK Go’s AndyRoss, Damian Kulash, Dan Konopka and Tim Norwind after a workout with the “ThisToo Shall Pass: Rube Goldberg” video on YouTube.
  • https://www.ted.com/talks/edward_snowden_here_s_how_we_take_back_the_internet#t-1938251
  • Ch12.global culture

    1. 1. Brief lectures in Media History Chapter 12 Global Culture (15 of 15)
    2. 2. This lecture is about  Social construction of technology  Communities and social capital  Free software vs tethered apps  Mp3s, music sharing, video sharing  Digital community commerce – Amazon, eBay, Craigslist  Wikipedia and knowledge sharing  Social media from Friendster to Twitter  The future of the Internet and Web
    3. 3. This lecture is also about  Tim Berners Lee / world wide web  Richard Stallman / free software  Shawn Fanning / Napster  Lawrence Lessig / copyright law  Johnathan Zittran / acts of kindness  Jimmy Wales / Wikipedia  Clay Shirky / cognitive surplus  Craig Newmark & Pierre Omidyar ◦ Craigs List and eBay etc.  Julian Assange & Edward Snowden
    4. 4. Videos to watch  Googlezon – Fun, whacky history of web. 2006  Lawrence Lessig on Laws the Choke Creativity, 2007.  Tim Berners-Lee on the 20th anniversary of the WWW. 2009.  Clay Shirkey How Social Media are making history. 2009.  Jimmy Wales on the Birth of Wikipedia 2009  Johnathan Zittrain on Random Acts of Internet Kindness. 2009.  Clay Shirkey on How Cognitive Surplus through Social Media is changing the world. 2010.  Markham Nolan, Storyful. How to separate fact from fiction online. 2012.  Sergey Brin on Google Glass - Feb. 2013 TED video. In the beginning, the idea was to avoid having to look down all the time. Then it grew.  Edward Snowden - Here's how we take back the Internet. 2014.
    5. 5. Examples of social construction  Satellite radio and Internet applications like podcasting were developed to circumvent the economic barriers around radio licenses.  • The World Wide Web, along with millions of e- commerce and social media sites, was developed to provide new services that once- profitable mainstream media were ignoring.  P2P protocols were developed to circumvent copyright and politically repressive regimes in other nations.  New applications like Twitter, Flickr, YouTube and Wikipedia, came directly from social experience, not from the “inevitable” path of one technology following another.
    6. 6. Circumventing media  Printing c> Church  Newspapers c> newsletters  Photography c> dioramas, painting  Telephone c> telegraph  Magazines c> newspapers  Film & radio c> theater  TV networks c> radio  Satellites c> TV networks  Podcasting c> radio  Web c> newspapers
    7. 7. New communication = community Journalist Howard Rheingold fell into the Whole Earth „Lectronic Link (the WELL) in 1985 … He described it in in his book The Virtual Community: “An entire cast of characters welcomed me to the troupe…”
    8. 8. Free software movement Some of the most important network and system software has emerged from the Free Software movement. Richard Stallman is a leader of the hacker culture and a programmer who worked on artificial intelligence at MIT. Stallman saw Steve Jobs and Apple (along with the rest of corporate culture) as a “malign influence on free computing.” Richard Stallman
    9. 9. Open Source Software (major examples)  GNU/Unix operating system  Apache web server  Java and Php programming languages  MySQL database system ◦ PhP and MySQL are used in content management systems like Wordpress and Drupal  Firefox web browser  GIMP image editor (similar to Photoshop)  Open Office software (similar to MS
    10. 10. New standards opened questions  International standards c. 1990s allowed transmission of photos and audio files via satellite & low-speed internet.  Five to 10 percent of file size, only some loss of quality  JPG photo and video compression created web  MP3 audio compression allowed podcasting, audio file exchanges  All this opened new legal questions
    11. 11. Napster, Grokster, etc Shawn Fanning achieved fame with his Napster audio file sharing program. A federal court found that Napster was infringing copyright and ordered it shut down in 2001. Other programs designed to get around Napster‟s legal issues were also found to be infringing by courts enforcing international copyright law. These included Grokster, Gnutela, Limewire and Pirate Bay. The copyright question is whether a technology that has both infringing and non-infringing uses can itself be made illegal. Originally, in the 1984 VCR case (Sony v Universal), the courts said no. But in the Grokster2005 case, they said yes.
    12. 12. Copyright  US copyright laws have led to extremely harsh penalties for minor infringements.  For example, Boston University student Joel Tenanbaum was ordered to pay $675,000 for downloading 31 pirated songs. The verdict was upheld by the US Supreme Court in 2012.  Most people opt to “settle” with the
    13. 13. The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) was despised for damaging lawsuits and clumsy public relations against music piracy. This parody poster was intended to lampoon the industry‟s heavy-
    14. 14. Johnathan Zittrain and Lawrence Lessig Two Harvard Law School professors who believe draconian laws to enforce copyright are counterproductive. Zittrain writes about generous cultures of the web; Lessig writes about Laws the Choke Creativity,
    15. 15. Tethered versus generative Apps that run on Tablets or SmartPhones will let you consume media, but will they let you create it? That‟s the difference between “tethered” and “generative” computing. Johnathan Zittrain makes this distinction in The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It. (2008)
    16. 16. Fork in the road … Open source and civic technologies models have worked well, and consumers will probably continue to demand net neutrality. On the other hand, re-bundling content in dedicated mobile “apps” with information appliances like the iPad may limit freedom but could create a business model that encourages more professional content. This would allow a returning to a more closed-off, top-down professional information model that will help traditional media regain some profitability.
    17. 17. Cognitive Surplus Collaborative crowd-sourced web sites • Software – Free software movement • Information: Wikipedia, wikitravel, wikimaps, Sourcewatch, CoalSwarm • Home sharing CouchSurfing and Airbnb • Ride sharing Uber and Lyft “Organizing without organizations” -- decrease transaction costs allows new kinds of collaborations -- Spectrum of Personal, Communal, Public, Civic Results from: -- a plausible promise (to user / creators) -- effective tool (software) -- acceptable bargain with users Clay Shirkey – Author -- Here Comes Everybody -- Cognitive Surplus
    18. 18. Craig‟s List vs eBay Craig Newmark -- Founded Craigs List 1995, now has 30 employees and is worth perhaps $150 million Pierre Omidyar -- Founded eBay in 1995, has over1,500 employees now worth $41 billion (2013) Both do essentially the same thing, replacing classified advertising in newspapers. One is disorganized but highly popular; the other is organized
    19. 19. What‟s a wiki?  Programmer Ward Cunningham  Portland, Oregon  First “wiki” in 1995 as way for lots of people to contribute to a software repository.  Picked the word “wiki” as the Hawaiian language word for “fast,” and the idea was that a wiki could be a quick and simple way to make changes on web pages.
    20. 20. • Wikipedia – Jimmy Wales – Started as “newpedia” in 2000 • Wikitravel, Wikimedia • Wikileaks – Julian Assange -- Launched in 2006, open door for “whistle-blowers” • Source Watch - collaborative Wiki edited by professionals in environment and media • Project Gutenberg -- http://www.gutenberg.org/ • Michael Hart (March 8, 1947 – September 6, 2011) • Began typing public domain books into computers in 1971. By 1987 the project took off as the first e-book collaboration. • Librivox.org – Hugh McGuire -- http://www.librivox.org • Free podcasting collaboration public domain books Wikis as civic collaborations
    21. 21. Wikipedia‟s Jimmy Wales • Started in 2000 with Nupedia – Online curated encyclopedia ; • Too many layers of review • Also started a “wiki” on the side to help contributors • The side project took off and became one of the world‟s most important web projects • 30 million articles in 287 languages, (4.5 million in English) • 18 billion page views per month Jimmy Wales, like Denis Diderot, Wanted to make knowledge accessible and change the way people thought about the world.
    22. 22. Civic virtues? Hegemony of amateurs?  Wikipedia put printed encyclopedias out of business (free always beats quality)  Wikipedia often criticized as inaccurate, subject to vandalism. Some studies say it‟s as accurate as printed encyclopedias, but that has been disputed  “Amorality of the web” (Nicholas Carr) “Frightening” hegemony of the amateur  Prosumer (producer + consumer)  Pro-Am (professional standards for volunteers & amateurs)
    23. 23.  Citizen Journalism in New Zealand ◦ Vincent Murwiwa M.A. study 2008 ◦ Http://www.theopennewsroom.com ◦ Not enough citizen-generated content to study  CNN‟s iReport - http://ireport.cnn.com/  MSNBC -- Citizen journalism  Indymedia - http://www.indymedia.com/  Storyify - http://storify.com/  Storyful - http://storyful.com/  Patch - http://oldtownalexandria.patch.com/ Examples of civic news collaborations
    24. 24. New business models  Partisan media / corporate sponsorship  Pay walls / Charges for apps / not working ◦ Serious problems w/ apps at NY Times, Post  Hyper-local advertising ◦ Possibilities for discounting, coupons (Groupons)  Non-profit (Foundations, sponsorships)  Public funding (Campaigns) ◦ Public broadcasting model competes with other charities  Cooperative (Member capitalization) ◦ Depends on benefits to members ◦ Extend services into business areas
    25. 25. Twitter  Developed in 2006 in San Francisco  “Short Message Service” / microblogging  Free / used with phone or computer  Originally used to help programmers arrange meet-ups for work  Useful for real-time small network organization  Often used to promote new ideas, news articles
    26. 26. YouTube  Developed in 2005 after difficulty finding video on Indonesian Tsunami and other events  Google buys in 2006  Sharing of video and audio files  Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim.
    27. 27. Archaic music promotions  Members of the band OK Go have been critical of the way EMI Records tried to restrict YouTube embedding
    28. 28. Julian Assange & Wikileaks • Australian journalist • 2005 started Wikileaks • Lots of exposes 2006-09 • Most important was Chelsea Manning materials 2010 • -- esp Collateral Murder video • -- and Diplomatic Cables release that led to the Arab Spring revolt • 2012 fled prosecution on apparently trumped up charges • Currently lives in Ecuadorian embassy in London
    29. 29. Edward Snowden  US NSA employee  Leaked documents to Guardian reporter Glen Greenwald in 2013  Reports rocked the world of diplomacy  Criminal charges filed  Currently in exile in Russia
    30. 30. What Snowden leaked:  Global surveillance program called Five Eyes: -- US and United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand to collaborate on global spying  Secret court orders requiring US phone companies to hand over all phone records every day  Back doors in servers and corporate computing systems
    31. 31. More Snowden leaks  EGOTISTICAL GIRAFFE: The NSA has targeted the Tor browser, an anonymity tool enabling Internet users to browse the net anonymously.  MUSCULAR: Launched in 2009, MUSCULAR infiltrates links between global data centers of technology companies such as Google and Yahoo not on US soil. These two companies have responded to MUSCULAR by encrypting these exchanges.  XKEYSCORE: The software interface through which NSA analysts search vast databases collected under various other operations. XKEYSCORE analyzes emails, online chats and the browsing histories of millions of individuals anywhere in the world. The XKEYSCORE data has been shared with other secret services including Australia's Defence Signals Directorate and New Zealand's Government Communications Security Bureau.  BULLRUN: Not in and of itself a surveillance program, BULLRUN is an operation by which the NSA undermines the security tools relied upon by users, targets, and non- targets. BULLRUN represents an apparently unprecedented effort to attack security tools in general use.  DISHFIRE: The Dishfire operation is the worldwide mass collection of text messages and other phone records, including location data, contact retrievals, credit card details, missed call alerts, roaming alerts (which indicate border crossings), electronic business cards, credit card payment notifications, travel itinerary alerts, meeting information, etc. Communications from US phones have been allegedly minimized, although not necessarily purged, from this database. The messages and associated data from non- US-persons were retained and analyzed.  CO-TRAVELER: Under this operation, the US collects location information from global cell towers, Wi-Fi, and GPS hubs. This information is collected and analyzed over time, in part in order to determine a target‟s traveling companions.  OLYMPIA: Canada‟s program to spy on the Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy.  BLARNEY: A program to leverage unique key corporate partnerships to gain access to high-capacity international fiber optic cables, switches and routers throughout the world.
    32. 32. Snowden has wide support Jakob Huber/Campact/cc/via flickr
    33. 33. Censorship  RSF annual report “Enemies of the Internet” focuses on surveillance for 2012 -- http://surveillance.rsf.org/en/  Internet Freedom.org reports China has 40,000 web police  Tiananmen Square, Dali Lama, Falun Gong – all results heavily censored in Chinese search engines  Some US companies have cooperated
    34. 34. Global Culture  “The problem of the 20th century,” said W.E.B. DuBois in 1903, “is the problem of the color line.”  At the dawn of the 21st century, the problem (and opportunity) is the blurring of lines and distances that used to separate cultures.
    35. 35. Final questions  Internet and the World Wide Web emerged with unprecedented freedom  But law and social debate had not kept pace with the technology.  Can the Internet and Web become more free, or retain what freedom they have?  Will they live up to their potential as liberating technologies?
    36. 36. Conclusions  With the future at our feet, where will we go? With a vast new power of worldwide networking, how will we envision the future?  Will we use the media to lift and protect and diversify the human spirit.? What will global culture become in a century or two?  It‟s a question of social construction, not simply one of technological momentum.  The ability to shape the way technology is used, to serve the public interest, will be the 21st century’s truest badge of freedom.
    37. 37. Thank you You are invited to send suggestions for the second edition of Revolutions in Communication, scheduled for publication in 2016, to the author: Bill.kovarik at gmail

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