The Four QuestionsWho do you want to reach?Why do you want to reach them?How do you reach them?What are your main messages?
Who Do You Want to Reach? Policymakers Donors Researchers
Why Reach Them?Policymakers - to incorporate yourresearch and recommendations intotheir policymakingDonors - to fund your workResearchers – to share newinformation, methods, data, etc.
How Do You Reach Them? Policy advisors Policy analysts Political parties
How Do You Reach Them (2)? Private sector NGOs & research institutions Opinion leaders Special interest groups
How Do You Reach Them (3)? Newspapers and magazines Major radio & TV programs Workshops, seminars, & conferences Journals, books, & discussion papers
How Do You Reach Them (4)? Web sites: IFPRI Networks: SAI, SADC, REDCAPA List serves: New At IFPRI, DG Alerts, African Open Learning Forum
Exercise List organizations within country orregion of research that would benefit from your research or assist you ininforming others about your research results.
Main Messages Primary Message Main Messages Supporting Points
All Main Messages and Supporting Points Clear Concise CompellingMessages should pass the “grandma test”
Primary Message: Report Release Unless more aggressive measures aretaken, progress against child malnutrition is likely to slow over the next twodecades. IFPRI’s report projects that childmalnutrition will decline by only 20 percent over the next 20 years.
ExerciseDevelop a primary main message,main messages, and three or foursupporting points for your currentresearch project. For an example, see appendix A.
“But this is the simplifiedversion for the general public!”
“In Paris they simply stared when Ispoke to them in French. I never did succeed in making those idiots understand their own language.” Mark Twain 1835 - 1910
Making PresentationsConferences and other events
Presentation: Four Steps Plan Prepare Practice Present
PlanningEstablish the purpose of yourpresentationKnow your audienceAdapt the presentation style to suityour audience
PreparingRefer to your main messagesWrite main points of your talk onindex cardsDevelop your presentationDO NOT USE A SCRIPT!!!
Using Note Cards Hand-sized cards Keywords only Don’t read Large print White space Number the cards Use as needed
The Triple ‘T’ PrincipleTell them what you are going to tellthemTell themTell them what you told them
The KISS PrincipleKeep It Short and SimpleTo keep it short: Stand Up . . . Speak Up . . . Shut Up . . .
Content1. Introduction2. Body3. Conclusion4. Questions/Answers5. Second conclusion
Preparing Your Introduction State your purpose Create rapport Grab audience’s attention • Ask a question • Tell a story • Use a quotation • Compliment the audience • Start with something counterintuitive
Don’t Waste TimeNo long introductory statementsDon’t say “I will be brief”Don’t complain about the lack of timeDon’t tell them you’re not an expert
Delivering the MessageInclude major points of presentation Introduce the point Explain and support Transition quickly and smoothly to the next pointGive examplesProvide all sides of the issue
Preparing Your Conclusion Reiterate your main messages Appeal to action Create emotional impact Transition to question/answer session End with a bang! Avoid saying “In conclusion...”
ExerciseUsing your current research project, write an outline for a presentation.
Your Second ConclusionTransition gracefullyAvoid saying “if there are noquestions…”Summarize and leave audiencewith major points of thepresentation
PracticingPractice Practice in front of colleagues Video or audio tape Time yourself Check the pronunciation of words Avoid words that make you stumble
Practicing (2)Failure to practice is the number one cause of poor presentations.
An Effective PresenterCommands interest and attentionIs positive and enthusiastic about thesubjectConveys credibility
Beginning Your PresentationWalk slowly to the podiumPause and look at your audienceLook friendly and positive
Eye ContactMake eye contactLook in all people of the room
SpeechSpeak clearly, distinctly, and slowlyCompensate for bad acoustics or noiseAdd emphasis to key wordsStop speaking, if the audience isdistracted.
MovementUse your handsAlways stand or sit uprightDo not turn your back or side to theaudienceDo not return to your seat until thepresentation & questions arecompletely finished
Negative Body LanguageAvoid: Leaning back in your chair Removing spectacles too often Pointing your finger Scratching Playing with coins, pens, or paper Putting your hands in your pockets Folding your arms
Why Can’t I Hear You?Keep your mouth close to the microphone at all times!
Overcoming FearBecome comfortable with yourpresentationBecome comfortable with thespeaking venue and logistics
Overcoming Fear (2)Arrive earlyUse strategic pauses and positivegesturesSpeak slowly and clearlyChannel your nervous energy intopassionBreathe!
Handling InterruptionsAnswer questions to clarify onlyPostpone answering questions thatrequest more detailDo not get diverted
Answering QuestionsListen actively, make notesAcknowledge and compliment the questionRepeat the questionKeep eye contact with audienceNod and smileDon’t be defensiveView difficult questions as an opportunity
Be Yourself!Share your passion for your workPretend you are speaking to aclose friendLet go of stiffness and formality
Basic PrinciplesFocus on influential media: National and major city dailies National news programs Regional newspapers Financial newspapers Weekly policy magazines
What Type of Media? Articles News shows Interview programs Editorials Commentaries Letters to the editor
How to Identify Key JournalistsLook for articles relating to yourresearch in targeted media outlets Conduct web searches Read from hard copyBuy a media directory
Media DatabasesMaintain a database of key contactsand update regularly to track: Their interests What articles they’ve written about your organization and its research Each time you’ve contacted them
Principles of Working with the PRESS Persistence Relationship Education Sensitivity Selectivity
PersistenceKeep trying to reach journalistsDon’t take it personallyLeave messagesKeep after them
RelationshipTry to meet in personEstablish trustMaintain contactProvide information on a regular basis
EducationFew specializeYour job is to educateBe a resource
SensitivityDon’t waste their timeDo you have a moment to talkBe prepared with a succinct talkAlways be politeCorrectly spell their namesLearn about their work
Press InterviewSelect a programAsk for an interviewPrepare for the interviewGive the interviewListen to the interview
Select a ProgramInfluential programsMake sure you know the details:• When is it broadcast?• Is it live or pre-recorded?• How long are the interviews?• What is the interviewer like?• Does it have a political perspective?
Ask to be InterviewDevelop a very short talkPractice before you callCall the host or producer
Prepare for the interview Identify main messages Write messages on note cards Anticipate questions & develop answers Ask for a list of questions in advance
Give the InterviewGive short answersAvoid jargonDon’t answer questions that arebeyond your knowledge or expertise “I don’t know” Do not speculate
Direction of the InterviewYour job is to get your message acrossIf the questions take you off track, usetransitions like the most important issue here is... but what I think we need to focus on is…
Body LanguageIs important even if the audience can’tsee you Smile and use gestures Sit up straight
The Surprise InterviewGather your thoughtsGet the journalist’s business cardKnow when it will be broadcasted If you’ve practiced speaking your main messages, spontaneous interviews will not be a problem.
Listen to the InterviewLearn from the experience: Listen to the broadcast, Listen from the web site, Request a tapeAsk your colleagues for constructivefeedback
Meeting PolicymakersProactive StrategyIdentify & understand key opinion leadersIdentify & understand key civil servantsMonitor legislative & policy trendsInform them of your issuesBrief institute on emerging issues
PreparationPrepare an agendaCirculate highlighted papers in advanceInvite the right peoplePrepare meeting room & equipmentOrganize food & drinksClarify roles of chairperson, secretary &participants
Meeting with Policymakers Get information Give information Establish policy information needs Ask what, when, where, how, and who Diplomatically ask ‘why’ Be punctual
PolicyCommunication Write-upsPolicy Memoranda and Policy Briefs
Policy MemorandaPurpose Inform policymakers “What do I do next?”Format Simple language Easy to read
Policy Memoranda: Content Identify key policy problems Discuss why a solution is needed Show consequences of inaction
Policy Memoranda: Content (2) Explain research objectives Data type and data source Methodology Results Policy options and their consequences End where you started
ExerciseUsing your current research topic,write a policy memoranda. For an example, see appendix F
Policy BriefsContent Research results Policy implications Contact informationFormat 1-2 pages Lay language Use directly quotable statements
ExerciseUsing your current research, write a policy brief.