Communication guide book


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Communication guide book

  1. 1. Communicating Food Policy Research A Guidebook Klaus von Grebmer, Suresh Babu, Valerie Rhoe, and Michael Rubinstein
  2. 2. Importance of CommunicationsGood research alone is insufficient To have impact, it must becommunicated to the right people
  3. 3. Core Research ValuesCommitment to high-quality research Accuracy Integrity State-of-the-art science Driven by research findings, not by point of view
  4. 4. Good Research MeritsQuality of Research Good Communication Quality of Communication Effort
  5. 5. The Goal is Impact
  6. 6. Basic Principles of Communication
  7. 7. The Four QuestionsWho do you want to reach?Why do you want to reach them?How do you reach them?What are your main messages?
  8. 8. Who Do You Want to Reach? Policymakers Donors Researchers
  9. 9. Why Reach Them?Policymakers - to incorporate yourresearch and recommendations intotheir policymakingDonors - to fund your workResearchers – to share newinformation, methods, data, etc.
  10. 10. How Do You Reach Them? Policy advisors Policy analysts Political parties
  11. 11. How Do You Reach Them (2)? Private sector NGOs & research institutions Opinion leaders Special interest groups
  12. 12. How Do You Reach Them (3)? Newspapers and magazines Major radio & TV programs Workshops, seminars, & conferences Journals, books, & discussion papers
  13. 13. How Do You Reach Them (4)? Web sites: IFPRI Networks: SAI, SADC, REDCAPA List serves: New At IFPRI, DG Alerts, African Open Learning Forum
  14. 14. Exercise List organizations within country orregion of research that would benefit from your research or assist you ininforming others about your research results.
  15. 15. Main Messages Primary Message Main Messages Supporting Points
  16. 16. All Main Messages and Supporting Points Clear Concise CompellingMessages should pass the “grandma test”
  17. 17. Primary Message: Report Release Unless more aggressive measures aretaken, progress against child malnutrition is likely to slow over the next twodecades. IFPRI’s report projects that childmalnutrition will decline by only 20 percent over the next 20 years.
  18. 18. ExerciseDevelop a primary main message,main messages, and three or foursupporting points for your currentresearch project. For an example, see appendix A.
  19. 19. Next 10 MilesFatality Risk5 x 10-6
  20. 20. Match Publication to Audience
  21. 21. “But this is the simplifiedversion for the general public!”
  22. 22. “In Paris they simply stared when Ispoke to them in French. I never did succeed in making those idiots understand their own language.” Mark Twain 1835 - 1910
  23. 23. Making PresentationsConferences and other events
  24. 24. Presentation: Four Steps Plan Prepare Practice Present
  25. 25. PlanningEstablish the purpose of yourpresentationKnow your audienceAdapt the presentation style to suityour audience
  26. 26. PreparingRefer to your main messagesWrite main points of your talk onindex cardsDevelop your presentationDO NOT USE A SCRIPT!!!
  27. 27. Using Note Cards Hand-sized cards Keywords only Don’t read Large print White space Number the cards Use as needed
  28. 28. The Triple ‘T’ PrincipleTell them what you are going to tellthemTell themTell them what you told them
  29. 29. The KISS PrincipleKeep It Short and SimpleTo keep it short: Stand Up . . . Speak Up . . . Shut Up . . .
  30. 30. Content1. Introduction2. Body3. Conclusion4. Questions/Answers5. Second conclusion
  31. 31. Preparing Your Introduction State your purpose Create rapport Grab audience’s attention • Ask a question • Tell a story • Use a quotation • Compliment the audience • Start with something counterintuitive
  32. 32. Don’t Waste TimeNo long introductory statementsDon’t say “I will be brief”Don’t complain about the lack of timeDon’t tell them you’re not an expert
  33. 33. Delivering the MessageInclude major points of presentation Introduce the point Explain and support Transition quickly and smoothly to the next pointGive examplesProvide all sides of the issue
  34. 34. Preparing Your Conclusion Reiterate your main messages Appeal to action Create emotional impact Transition to question/answer session End with a bang! Avoid saying “In conclusion...”
  35. 35. ExerciseUsing your current research project, write an outline for a presentation.
  36. 36. Your Second ConclusionTransition gracefullyAvoid saying “if there are noquestions…”Summarize and leave audiencewith major points of thepresentation
  37. 37. PracticingPractice Practice in front of colleagues Video or audio tape Time yourself Check the pronunciation of words Avoid words that make you stumble
  38. 38. Practicing (2)Failure to practice is the number one cause of poor presentations.
  39. 39. Presentation Skills and Techniques
  40. 40. An Effective PresenterCommands interest and attentionIs positive and enthusiastic about thesubjectConveys credibility
  41. 41. Beginning Your PresentationWalk slowly to the podiumPause and look at your audienceLook friendly and positive
  42. 42. Eye ContactMake eye contactLook in all people of the room
  43. 43. SpeechSpeak clearly, distinctly, and slowlyCompensate for bad acoustics or noiseAdd emphasis to key wordsStop speaking, if the audience isdistracted.
  44. 44. MovementUse your handsAlways stand or sit uprightDo not turn your back or side to theaudienceDo not return to your seat until thepresentation & questions arecompletely finished
  45. 45. Negative Body LanguageAvoid: Leaning back in your chair Removing spectacles too often Pointing your finger Scratching Playing with coins, pens, or paper Putting your hands in your pockets Folding your arms
  46. 46. Why Can’t I Hear You?Keep your mouth close to the microphone at all times!
  47. 47. Overcoming FearBecome comfortable with yourpresentationBecome comfortable with thespeaking venue and logistics
  48. 48. Overcoming Fear (2)Arrive earlyUse strategic pauses and positivegesturesSpeak slowly and clearlyChannel your nervous energy intopassionBreathe!
  49. 49. Handling InterruptionsAnswer questions to clarify onlyPostpone answering questions thatrequest more detailDo not get diverted
  50. 50. Answering QuestionsListen actively, make notesAcknowledge and compliment the questionRepeat the questionKeep eye contact with audienceNod and smileDon’t be defensiveView difficult questions as an opportunity
  51. 51. Be Yourself!Share your passion for your workPretend you are speaking to aclose friendLet go of stiffness and formality
  52. 52. Designing aPowerPointPresentation
  53. 53. Basics of PowerPoints andTransparencies: TypefaceSolid block (sans serif)Larger font size for titles than textUpper and lower-case lettersUse color, bold, or italics for emphasis
  54. 54. LayoutGenerous marginsText & image: 75% of spaceStart at the top-left cornerMost important information at the topFlush-left textConsistent format
  55. 55. Avoid Heavy Content6 words per line6 lines per slide36 words per slide
  56. 56. ColorBright & intenseDark rooms: dark or light backgroundwith opposite coloring of the textLight rooms: pale background, darktext
  57. 57. More on ColorUse only 3-4 colorsPretest a sample for projection qualityGroup arguments that are relatedDifferentiate parts of a drawingBe consistent
  58. 58. In-house Seminars
  59. 59. Logistical Arrangements Podium Microphone type Visual aid equipment Hand-outs
  60. 60. Room Set-upConfirm the number of participants 10-15 people – round table with a front table 20-30 people – U-shape arrangement with a front table 30> people – Classroom arrangement
  61. 61. ModeratingIdentify the chairperson/ moderatorInstruction sheet Title of seminar Presenter’s name Bio-sketch of presenter Time allowed for presentation and Q&A session List of participants
  62. 62. EvaluationsSpeakers’ abilityRelevance and substance of theseminarVenueOrganization
  63. 63. Communicatingwith the Media
  64. 64. MediaReaches policymakers and donorsIncreases the credibility of your researchGives the impression of importanceCreates public awareness & public action “I saw it on TV, so it must be true.”
  65. 65. Basic Principles Media
  66. 66. Basic PrinciplesFocus on influential media: National and major city dailies National news programs Regional newspapers Financial newspapers Weekly policy magazines
  67. 67. What Type of Media? Articles News shows Interview programs Editorials Commentaries Letters to the editor
  68. 68. How to Identify Key JournalistsLook for articles relating to yourresearch in targeted media outlets Conduct web searches Read from hard copyBuy a media directory
  69. 69. Media DatabasesMaintain a database of key contactsand update regularly to track: Their interests What articles they’ve written about your organization and its research Each time you’ve contacted them
  70. 70. Principles of Working with the PRESS Persistence Relationship Education Sensitivity Selectivity
  71. 71. PersistenceKeep trying to reach journalistsDon’t take it personallyLeave messagesKeep after them
  72. 72. RelationshipTry to meet in personEstablish trustMaintain contactProvide information on a regular basis
  73. 73. EducationFew specializeYour job is to educateBe a resource
  74. 74. SensitivityDon’t waste their timeDo you have a moment to talkBe prepared with a succinct talkAlways be politeCorrectly spell their namesLearn about their work
  75. 75. SelectivityWhen approachingExciting news topicsAvoid bombardment
  76. 76. If You Follow These Principles… …you will succeed!
  77. 77. How to Call a JournalistEngage his/her attention quickly: Introduce yourself “Do you have a moment to talk?” Compliment their coverage Find the “news hook”
  78. 78. How to Call a Journalist (2)Make your pitch Cite the main messages of your research Ask for a meeting Allow the journalist to ask questions
  79. 79. Never call a journalist without practicing your pitch.
  80. 80. News Conferences
  81. 81. Press Conference or Briefing?Press conference – only forimportant, major new findingsPress briefing – smaller, moreinformal discussion of researchissues, over lunch or refreshments
  82. 82. Choosing a VenueSuitable meeting room in your owninstitutionLocation convenient to journalistsRooms should not have obstructionsRoom should be small -- crowded isgood
  83. 83. Set-upTable at entrance Sign-in sheet for journalists Press kits Report copiesRoom set-up Seat around a table Theater style
  84. 84. Inviting JournalistsPrepare guest listSend invitations 7-14 days in advanceMake follow-up callsTrack acceptance and declines
  85. 85. The InvitationVery brief -- must fit on one pageInclude contact informationConcisely explain: • Who • What • Where • When • Why
  86. 86. Speaker GuidelinesKeep presentations simpleNo more than 4 - 5 speakersNo more than 4 - 5 minutesDon’t use PowerPoint
  87. 87. Choosing SpeakersPick the best speakers — not thebest experts — to presentChoose a good moderatorEnsure diversity of speakers: Gender Race Nationality Age
  88. 88. Keeping on MessageGive talking points to all speakersRehearse presentationsPrepare answers to difficult questionsRole play
  89. 89. Press KitsNews releaseBios of speakersGraphics: photos, charts, mapsFact sheetsInformation about your organizationExecutive summary of research
  90. 90. Format of Press Releases Print on organizational letterhead, include: Date of release Contact information No more than 3 pages long Print only on 1 side of paper Double space
  91. 91. Content of Press Releases Base content on main messages Use simple language Explain technical terms Avoid company and self-promotion
  92. 92. Content of Press Releases (2) Write it as a news story First paragraph--key news points Quotations may state opinions --rest of text must be facts only
  93. 93. ExerciseUsing your current research, write a press release. For an example, see Appendix D.
  94. 94. Follow-upFollow-up with attendees by phone ore-mailMonitor press coverageUse press-clipping service, if possibleKeep contact with important journalists
  95. 95. Press Interview
  96. 96. Press InterviewSelect a programAsk for an interviewPrepare for the interviewGive the interviewListen to the interview
  97. 97. Select a ProgramInfluential programsMake sure you know the details:• When is it broadcast?• Is it live or pre-recorded?• How long are the interviews?• What is the interviewer like?• Does it have a political perspective?
  98. 98. Ask to be InterviewDevelop a very short talkPractice before you callCall the host or producer
  99. 99. Prepare for the interview Identify main messages Write messages on note cards Anticipate questions & develop answers Ask for a list of questions in advance
  100. 100. Give the InterviewGive short answersAvoid jargonDon’t answer questions that arebeyond your knowledge or expertise “I don’t know” Do not speculate
  101. 101. Direction of the InterviewYour job is to get your message acrossIf the questions take you off track, usetransitions like the most important issue here is... but what I think we need to focus on is…
  102. 102. Body LanguageIs important even if the audience can’tsee you Smile and use gestures Sit up straight
  103. 103. The Surprise InterviewGather your thoughtsGet the journalist’s business cardKnow when it will be broadcasted If you’ve practiced speaking your main messages, spontaneous interviews will not be a problem.
  104. 104. Listen to the InterviewLearn from the experience: Listen to the broadcast, Listen from the web site, Request a tapeAsk your colleagues for constructivefeedback
  105. 105. Opinion Pieces
  106. 106. How to Writean Opinion Piece Engage Propose Illustrate Call to Action
  107. 107. Engage Your Reader Start with a startling fact, a visceralimage, or strong statement of a serious problem
  108. 108. ProposeMake a proposal, suggesting an approach or solution.
  109. 109. IllustrateHow will the proposal work?Why is it important
  110. 110. Call to Action Call on government leaders,policymakers, or others to take a specific action.
  111. 111. How to Submit an Opinion PieceCheck publication’s guidelinesLook at other opinion piecesCommentaries – about 750 wordsLetters to the editor – 100-250 wordsIf possible, submit by e-mail
  112. 112. Writing StyleWrite with passionAvoid jargon and acronyms
  113. 113. Communicatingwith Developing Country Governments
  114. 114. One-on-One
  115. 115. Meeting PolicymakersProactive StrategyIdentify & understand key opinion leadersIdentify & understand key civil servantsMonitor legislative & policy trendsInform them of your issuesBrief institute on emerging issues
  116. 116. PreparationPrepare an agendaCirculate highlighted papers in advanceInvite the right peoplePrepare meeting room & equipmentOrganize food & drinksClarify roles of chairperson, secretary &participants
  117. 117. Meeting with Policymakers Get information Give information Establish policy information needs Ask what, when, where, how, and who Diplomatically ask ‘why’ Be punctual
  118. 118. PolicyCommunication Write-upsPolicy Memoranda and Policy Briefs
  119. 119. Policy MemorandaPurpose Inform policymakers “What do I do next?”Format Simple language Easy to read
  120. 120. Policy Memoranda: Content Identify key policy problems Discuss why a solution is needed Show consequences of inaction
  121. 121. Policy Memoranda: Content (2) Explain research objectives Data type and data source Methodology Results Policy options and their consequences End where you started
  122. 122. ExerciseUsing your current research topic,write a policy memoranda. For an example, see appendix F
  123. 123. Policy BriefsContent Research results Policy implications Contact informationFormat 1-2 pages Lay language Use directly quotable statements
  124. 124. ExerciseUsing your current research, write a policy brief.
  125. 125. Communicating with Interest Groups
  126. 126. What Groups to Target?Assess each group according to:• Positions on issues• Personalities of leaders• ConstituenciesBe prepared to respond to criticism
  127. 127. Last Words
  128. 128. Importance of CommunicationsGood research alone is insufficient To have impact, it must becommunicated to the right people
  129. 129. Critical Steps to Remember Before you communicate: Clarify your message Target your audience Strategize your approach Practice speaking Disseminate widely
  130. 130. Anyone can learn effectivecommunications. The more you do it, the better you get