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  • 1. The Modern Day PlagueProgressivism The Presidents who saddled us with this problem and debt R R D R R D D R D D D R D
  • 2. Social Gospel The Social Gospel movement was a Protestant intellectual movement that was most prominent during the time period of 1880-1940 in the United States and Canada, during the Third Great Awakening. It applied Christian principles to social problems, especially poverty, inequality, liquor, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, poor schools, and the danger of war. Theologically, the Social Gospel leaders were energized by the Third Great Awakening and were overwhelmingly ‖post-millennialist." This theology is what they believed, that the Second Coming of Jesus Christ could not happen until humankind rid itself of social evils by human effort. For the most part, they rejected pre-millennialist theology (which was predominant in the South and among Fundamentalists), according to which the Second Coming of Christ was imminent, and Christians should devote their energies to preparing for it rather than addressing the issue of social evils. Social Gospel leaders such as Washington Gladden, (1836-1918) were predominantly liberal politically and theologically, although William Jennings Bryan was theologically conservative and politically liberal. Most of the Social Gospellers favored progressivism and labor unions. The ministers started to move away from individual salvation to collective salvation. The answer for solving society‘s problem was not in God‘s gospel but in a social gospel. The individual‘s charity through his faith was not sufficient and it is not until society through whatever means solves the problem that everyone will be saved.
  • 3. Social Gospel Prominent leaders in the U.S. included Walter Rauschenbusch, Washington Gladden, Josiah Strong, W.D.P. Bliss, Irwin St. John Tucker, J. Stitt Wilson, Franklin S. Spalding, George Washington Woodbey, and Bouck White. Economist Richard Ely played a major role, as did John R. Mott and other leaders of the YMCA. Most Protestant missionaries supported the movement as well. The Federal Council of Churches (later renamed the National Council of Churches) formed in 1908 as a coalition of mainstream Protestant denominations that lobbied in Washington for reforms preached by the Social Gospellers.
  • 4. Today’s Issues- Humanism  Can America Survive Evolutionary Humanism?  Evolution serves as the creation myth ―Evolution is a religion,‖ declared evolutionary humanist Michael Ruse.  The denominations of evolutionary humanism are:  Cultural Marxism/Communism, Secular humanism, Postmodernism, and Spiritual Communism  The offshoots of these denominations are:  New Age, green environmentalism, Gaia, socialism, progressivism, liberalism, multiculturalism, and atheism  Dialectic- any formal system of reasoning that arrives at the truth by the exchange of logical arguments.  ―We may regard the material and cosmic world as the supreme being, as the cause of all causes, as the creator of heaven and earth.‖(Vladimir Lenin)  ―The Cosmos is all that is or ever will be.‖ (Carl Sagan) Deadly Problems  Ethics must be built on human social instincts (that are in a continuous process of change)
  • 5. Today’s Issues- Humanism  Darwin wrote in his autobiography, ―. . .can have for his rule of life. . . Those impulses and instincts which are strongest or. . . Seem to him the best ones.‖  ―If a person doesn‘t think there is a God to be accountable to, then. . . what is the point of trying to modify your behavior to keep it within acceptable ranges? That‘s how I thought. . . I always believed the theory of evolution as truth, that we all just came from the slime.‖ (Jeffrey Dahmer in an interview with Stone Phillips, Dateline NBC, 11/29/1994)  ―The universe cares nothing for us,‖ trumpets William Provine, Cornell Name Age Date of death Professor of1978 Stephen Hicks University19 Jun 6, Biology, ―And we have no ultimate meaning in life.‖ Steven Tuomi 26 Sep 15, 1987 Jeffrey Dahmer during an It! James "Jamie"(―Scientists, Face Jan 1988 Science and Religion are Incompatible,‖ The Doxtator 14 interview for Dateline NBC Richard Guerrero 25 Mar 24, 1988 Scientist, Sept. 1988)25, 1989 with Stone Phillips. Anthony Sears 26 Mar Eddie Smith  Man... 36 Jun degraded from a spiritual being to an animalistic 1990 ―must be 1990 Ricky Beeks 27 Jul Ernest Miller pattern. He must think of himself as an animal, capable of only animalistic 22 Sep 1990 David Thomas 23 Sep 1990 reactions.19 He must no longer think of himself . . . as capable of ‗spiritual Curtis Straughter Feb 1991 Errol Lindsey 19 Apr 1991 Tony Hughes endurance,‘ or nobility.‖ 1991 31 May 24, By animalizing man his ―state of mind. . . can be Konerak Sinthasomphone May 27, 1991 ordered 14 and enslaved.‖ (Russian Textbook on Psychopolitics, Matt Turner 20 Jun 30, 1991 Jeremiah Weinberger 23 Jul 5, 1991 Degradation and Shock, Chapter viii) Oliver Lacy Joseph Bradehoft 23 25 Jul 12, 1991 Jul 19, 1991
  • 6. Today’s Issues- Humanism  For it happens---by chance of course---that some lucky ‗species‘ and ‗races‘ of the human animal are more highly evolved (superior) and therefore enlightened than the others, who are---unluckily for them--less evolved and as a consequence, subhuman.  ―At some future period. . . the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate, and replace, the savage races throughout the world. . .the anthropomorphous apes. . . will no doubt be exterminated.‖ (Descent, 2nd ed., p. 183)  Nazi Germany  The Lebensborn (―Spring of Life‖) SS Lebensborn Child giving Heinrich Himmler flowers A perfect Aryan family and the son is a Hitler Youth SS Lebensborn being baptized with full honors SS Lebensborn Clinic
  • 7. Today’s Issues- Humanism  The program founded in 1935 to create the master race by Heinrich Himmler to bear blue-eyed, blond children. 8000 born in Germany and 12,000 born in Norway. Hitler believed the Nordic race was destined to rule the world.  The Final Solution  The Soviet Union  Karl Marx wrote Fredrich Engels that Darwin‘s ‗Origin‘, ―is the book which contains the basis in natural science for our view.‖ (Marxian Biology and the Social Scene, Conway Zirkle, 1959
  • 8. Today’s Issues- Humanism  Vladimir Lenin exulted that, ―Darwin put an end to the belief that the animal and vegetable species bear no relation to one another (and) that they were created by God, and hence immutable.‖ (Fatal Fruit, Tom DeRosa, p. 9)  21st Century America  Alexis de Tocqueville‘s insightful analysis of the source of America‘s greatness: ―Not until I went into the churches of America and heard her pulpits flame with righteousness did I understand the secret and genius of her power. America is great because she is good, and if America ever ceases to be good, America will cease to be great.‖
  • 9. Humanist Manifesto First plank: Religious humanists regard the universe as self-existing and not created. Humanism There is no God
  • 10. Humanist Manifesto Second plank: Humanism believes that man is a part of nature and that he has emerged as a result of a continuous process. Humanism There is no God Man is the product of evolution
  • 11. Humanist Manifesto Third plank: Holding an organic view of life, humanists find that the traditional dualism of mind and body must be rejected. Humanism There is no God Man is the product of evolution There is no soul
  • 12. Humanist Manifesto Fourth plank: Humanism recognizes that man’s religious culture and civilization, as clearly depicted by anthropology and history, are the product of a gradual development due to his interaction with his natural environment and with his social heritage. Humanism There is no God Man is the product of evolution There is no soul Religion is a product of evolution
  • 13. Humanist Manifesto Humanism Fifth plank: Religious Humanism considers the complete realization of human personality to be the end of man’s life and seeks its development and fulfillment in the here and now. There is no God Man is the product of evolution There is no soul Religion is a product of evolution Eat, Drink, and Be Merry! (Epicurianism)
  • 14. Humanism Quiz 1. Name one of the denominations or offshoots of evolutionary humanism.Secular humanism, Postmodernism, Cultural Marxism/Communism, Spiritual Communism, New Age, green environmentalism, Gaia, socialism, progressivism, liberalism, multiculturalism, and atheism 2. What was the name of the master race the Nazis were trying to create through evolution? The Lebensborn 3. What was the name of the Nazi project to rid themselves of undesirable people? The Final Solution 4. Alexis de Tocqueville‘s analysis of America surmised that ―America would cease to be great if America ceased to be Good _________ . ― (fill in the blank) 5. Name one of Man is a product of evolution, There is no soul, Religion There is no God, the planks of the Humanist Manifesto. is a product of evolution, Eat, drink, and be merry (Epicurianism)
  • 15. Today’s Issues- Eugenics Eugenics- The Vehicle of Social Darwinists and Progressives  intelligence is the key human quality  intelligence is measurable  intelligence is inherited  the world would be a better place if more people were smart  The opposite of eugenics: All men are created equal "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness."  The American ideal is based on the idea that people are equal.  Eugenics, by contrast, is based on the idea that people are not equal.  A New Generation of Americans
  • 16. Today’s Issues- Eugenics  JFK‘s Inaugural Speech- We observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom -- symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning -- signifying renewal, as well as change. For I have sworn before you and Almighty God the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and three quarters ago. The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same revolutionary beliefs for which our forebears fought are still at issue around the globe -- the belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state, but from the hand of God. We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans
  • 17. Today’s Issues- Eugenics  Etymology of eugenics- eu means good; gen refers to birth or race  The opposite of eu is dys meaning bad  Francis Galton coined and promoted the word in the 19th century in England  He stated that he was building on the ideas of Plato, Thomas Malthus and his cousin, Charles Darwin.  Population Problems in the Scriptures  Israel in Egypt  Ex 1: 8-22  David and the census  II Sam 24: 1-17 Sir Francis Galton
  • 18. Today’s Issues- Eugenics Thomas R. Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population  The central idea in the book is about population and food supplies  Population increases geometrically  Malthusian alternatives to mass starvation- war, disease, and vice  Birth control was considered a vice by Malthus  Neo-Malthusians today no longer consider birth control a vice  God is not concerned about the individual but the whole human race  Should people care for the poor?  Jonathan Swift‘s ―Modest Proposal‖  A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to Their Parents or Country, and Making Them Beneficial to the Public An example of his satire against Malthusian doctrine
  • 19. Today’s Issues- Eugenics  Charles Darwin  Darwin‘s grandfather, Erasmus Darwin, proposed the theory of evolution in the 1790s  Natural selection-- ―survival of the fittest‖  Evolutionist millions of years age vs. Archbishop James Ussher‘s age of 4004 BC  Darwin minimized the distinctions between animals and humans  These laws included: . . . a Ratio of Increase so high as to lead to a Struggle for Life, and as a consequence to Natural Selection, entailing Divergence of Character and the Extinction of less-improved forms.  He wrote, "There is great reason to suspect, as Malthus has remarked, that the reproductive power is actually less in the barbarous, than in civilized races.‖  He wrote that Malthus "does not lay stress enough on what is probably the most important of all, namely infanticide, especially of female infants, and the habit of procuring abortion.  ―On the other hand, as Mr. Galton has remarked, if the prudent avoid marriage, whilst the reckless marry, the inferior members tend to supplant the better members of society."
  • 20. Today’s Issues- Eugenics  For my own part I would as soon be descended from that heroic little monkey, who braved his dreaded enemy in order to save the life of his keeper, or from that old baboon, who descending from the mountains, carried away in triumph his young comrade from a crowd of astonished dogs -- as from a savage who delights to torture his enemies, offers up bloody sacrifices, practices infanticide without remorse, treats his wives like slaves, knows no decency, and is haunted by the grossest superstitions.  Psalm 8 says: What is man that Thou art mindful of him, or the son of man that Thou dost take thought of him? And yet Thou hast made him little less than the angels, and crowned him with glory and honor.
  • 21. Eugenics Quiz 1. What is the vehicle of Social Darwinists and Progressives? 2. Who coined the word—eugenics? 3. Who stated that we cannot grow enough food to feed the population because the population grows geometrically? 4. What is another term for ―survival of the fittest? 5. What did Darwin minimize the distinctions between?
  • 22. Today’s IssuesAbortion  Abortion  Origins  Margaret Sanger  Founder of Planned Parenthood, inspiration to Adolf Hitler‘s eugenics program, founded the Negro Project ―to rid the world of worthless Negroes‖  Lothrop Stoddard‘s interview with Adolf Hitler and his book, The Rising Tide of Color Against White World Supremacy.  Dr. S. Adolfus Knopf of the American Birth Control League (ABCL)  Sanger declared charity to be more evil than the assistance it provided to the poor and needy.  Planned Parenthood  Largest abortion provider  78% of the clinics are in minority neighborhoods
  • 23. Today’s Issues- Abortion  Adolf Hitler - Fuehrer of Nazi Germany "The demand that defective people be prevented from propagating equally defective offspring. . . represents the most humane act of mankind." Mein Kampf, vol. 1, ch. 10
  Margaret Sanger - Founder of Planned Parenthood ". . .we prefer the policy of immediate sterilization, of making sure that parenthood is ' absolutely prohibited ' to the feeble-minded." The Pivot of Civilization, p102  "Can two walk together, except they be agreed?" Amos 3:3  Nazi T-4 Program  California sterilization experiment by Dr. Paul Popenoe- 1933  Gave the Nazis important information for their eugenics programs  ―A Plan for Peace‖ by Margaret Sanger, Birth Control Review, Apr 1932, pp.107-8  to apply a stern and rigid policy of sterilization and segregation to that grade of population whose progeny is tainted, or whose inheritance is such that objectionable traits may be transmitted to offspring.  to give certain dysgenic groups in our population their choice of segregation or sterilization.  to apportion farm lands and homesteads for these segregated persons where they would be taught to work under competent instructors for the period of their entire lives.
  • 24. Today’s IssuesAbortion  Legislation  1973, Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton  Roe v. Wade ended almost all legal protection for unborn children  It divided pregnancy into three "trimesters‖  The first trimester was a matter to be decided by the woman and her physician  The second trimester, the states could pass laws to protect the woman during an abortion  The states could restrict or even ban abortion in the third trimester unless the abortion was necessary to protect the life or health of the woman  Under Doe v. Bolton, however, health is defined, and the definition is so broad that abortion is effectively legal until birth— partial birth abortion  Justice William Rehnquist (later the Chief Justice) and Justice Byron White dissented. Justice White called the rulings "an exercise of raw judicial power.‖  Decisions Based on Deceit  Eugenics in Roe v. Wade
  • 25. Today’s Issues- Abortion  The 1973 Supreme Court decisions that ended all legal protection of unborn children were based on eugenics  Buck v. Bell, the 1927 case that opened the floodgates for sterilizing people  the Court stated, the right to privacy is not absolute; it can be limited in some cases, such as vaccination and sterilization  The abortion decisions were written by Justice Harry Blackmun  Influenced by Glanville Williams, who taught law at Cambridge University, was a member of the Eugenics Society  Blackmun chose to discuss the history of abortion law  The Hippocratic Oath and Christian Use of It  The Hippocratic Oath is a stumbling block for historians who want to argue that only Christians oppose abortion  the whole idea of humanity accumulating over time, from zero person at conception through various levels of value in each trimester up to 100% person at birth, is eugenics  Eugenics devalues humans by rating people on a sliding scale
  • 26. Today’s Issues- Abortion  Roe v. Wade reflects a belief in the idea that each individual passes through developmental stages that imitate evolution Zygote 8 cell division Blastocyst 4 week embryo  The 1973 decisions on abortion reflect the idea that size and weight and complexity — and value and rights — all accumulate gradually
  • 27. Today’s Issues- Abortion  Present day with the issue of abortion  AP article - Obama reverses Bush abortion-funds policy  Sat Jan 24, 4:12 am ET WASHINGTON – President Barack Obama on Friday struck down the Bush administration's ban on giving federal money to international groups that perform abortions or provide abortion information — an inflammatory policy that has bounced in and out of law for the past quarter-century.  He said the ban was unnecessarily broad and undermined family planning in developing countries  His action came one day after the 36th anniversary of the landmark Supreme Court ruling in Roe v. Wade that legalized abortion  Thoraya Ahmed Obaid, executive director of the U.N. Population Fund, said: "The president's actions send a strong message about his leadership and his desire to support causes that will promote peace and dignity, equality for women and girls and economic development in the poorest regions of the world.‖
  • 28. Today’s Issues- Abortion  Population Action International, an advocacy group, said that the policy had "severely impacted" women's health and that the step "will help reduce the number of unintended pregnancies, abortions and women dying from high-risk pregnancies because they don't have access to family planning."  "President Obama not long ago told the American people that he would support policies to reduce abortions, but today he is effectively guaranteeing more abortions by funding groups that promote abortion as a method of population control," said Douglas Johnson, legislative director of the National Right to Life Committee.  Thursday April 16, 2009 Adult Stem Cells Used Successfully to Cure Diabetics, Heal Broken Jaw Bone  However, the astonishingly positive results of the use of adult stem cells to treat diabetes have received very little mainstream media coverage, a fact that has been strongly criticized by conservative bioethicist Wesley Smith.  "The research was done in Brazil because doctors in the United States were not interested in the approach.‖
  • 29. Today’s Issues- Abortion  "The problem with embryonic stem cells is that embryonic stem cells come from embryos - like all of us were made from embryos - and those cells can become any cell in the body," Oz said. "But it's very hard to control them, and so they can become cancer.‖  "Several events reinforced the notion that embryonic stem cells, once thought to hold the cure for Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and diabetes, are obsolete. The most sobering: a report from Israel published in PLoS Medicine in late February that shows embryonic stem cells injected into patients can cause disabling if not deadly tumors," Dr. Healy wrote.
  • 30. Today’s Issues- Abortion Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC)
  • 31. Today’s Issues- Feminism  Feminism  The person who brought the two movements together in an alliance that has lasted to this day was Margaret Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood.  She was an effective leader in the war to inflict contraception, sterilization and abortion on the world.  She talked about the exaltation of joyful sex, but ended by trivializing human sexuality into barnyard activity  She talked about service to the poor, but she built an organization that has killed millions and millions of people, tiny children who were executed for the crime of being conceived in poverty. She helped to lay the foundations for global population control, pitting wealthy white nations against the rest of the world.
  • 32. Today’s IssuesFeminism  Woman and the New Race (New York: Brentano's 1920) Poor men given signs by eugenicists
  • 33. Today’s Issues- Feminism Pivot of Civilization (New York: Brentano's 1922)  She accepted the Malthusian theory that overpopulation is the root of all evil. In her view, a glut of humans was the root cause of warfare, low wages, famine and plague, to mention just a few.  Women were the reason for ―hordes of human beings -- human beings so plentiful as to be cheap, and so cheap that ignorance was their natural lot."  "What is the goal of woman's upward struggle?" she asked, then offered three possible answers: "Is it voluntary motherhood? Is it general freedom? Or is it the birth of a new race?‖
  • 34. Abortion and Feminism Quiz 1. Who was the founder of Planned Parenthood abortion clinics? 2. What was the purpose of the Negro Project? 3. What Supreme Court case legalized abortion in the United States? Partial-birth abortion? 4. Who signed legislation for the U.S. to fund free abortions for the Third World‘s poor in 2008? 5. According to Margaret Sanger‘s views of feminism, who was responsible for the ―hordes of human beings?‖
  • 35. American Protection LeagueSnitch on Your Neighbor The American Protective League was an American organization of private citizens that worked with Federal law enforcement agencies during the World War I era to identify suspected German sympathizers and to counteract the activities of radicals, anarchists, anti-war activists, and left-wing labor and political organizations. The APL was formed in 1917 by A. M. Briggs, a wealthy Chicago advertising executive. At its zenith the APL claimed 250,000 dues-paying members in 600 cities. It quickly established its national headquarters in Washington, D.C. A private organization, the APL nevertheless had a semi-official status. It received official approval from Attorney General Thomas Gregory. He authorized the APL to carry on its letterhead the words "Organized with the Approval and Operating under the Direction of the United States Department of Justice, Bureau of Investigation.‖ Under this directive, the APL worked with the Bureau of Investigation (BOI) — precursor to the FBI — which gathered information for U.S. District Attorneys.
  • 36. American Protection LeagueSnitch on Your Neighbor (cont‘d) APL members were accused of acting as vigilantes, allegedly violating the civil liberties of American citizens, including so-called "anti-slacker raids" designed to round up men who had not registered for the draft. The APL was also accused of illegally detaining citizens associated with anarchist, labor, and pacifist movements. An APL report on its actions in the Northwest for five months in 1918 showed that among its 25 activities, its largest effort (some 10% of its activity), was in disrupting the Industrial Workers of the World—IWW (the "Wobblies"), a radical labor union. Some IWW members had been involved in violent labor disputes and bomb plots against U.S. businessmen and government officials. In turn, the IWW alleged that APL members burgled and vandalized IWW offices and harassed IWW members. After the Armistice with Germany ended the war, Attorney General Gregory credited the APL with the defeat of German spies and propaganda. He claimed that his Department still required the APL's services as enemy nations sought to weaken American resolve during the peace negotiations, especially as newly democratic Germany sought kindlier treatment than its predecessor government might have expected.
  • 37. American Protection LeagueSnitch on Your Neighbor (cont‘d) A. Mitchell Palmer succeeded Gregory as Attorney General on 5 March 1919. Before assuming office, he had opposed the APL activities. One of Palmer's first acts was to release 10,000 aliens of German ancestry who had been taken into government custody during the war. He stopped accepting intelligence information gathered by the APL. He also refused to share information in his APL-provided files when Ohio Governor James M. Cox requested it. He called the APL materials "gossip, hearsay information, conclusions, and inferences" and added that "information of this character could not be used without danger of doing serious wrong to individuals who were probably innocent.‖ In March 1919, when some in Congress and the press were urging him to reinstate the Justice Department's wartime relationship with the APL, he told reporters that "its operation in any community constitutes a grave menace.‖ A few months after the Armistice, the League officially disbanded.
  • 38. Black Tom- The First Terrorist Attack on America The Black Tom explosion on July 30, 1916, in Jersey City, New Jersey, was an act of sabotage on American ammunition supplies by German agents to prevent the materiel from being used by the Allies in World War I. As soon as war broke out in Europe, the United States began manufacturing munitions and sharing the weapons with allied British, French, and Russian forces in Europe. German agents in the United States reported the stockpiling and shipping of weapons, and the German government took action. Because they could only openly attack United States property in limited ways such as the sinking of merchant ships carrying contraband munitions without provoking America to wage war, the German government sent undercover agents to sabotage munitions operations. Numerous fires were set at military supply manufacturing sites. Shipping lines and railroads were also sometimes targets. Over 50 acts of sabotage were carried out on American targets from 1914 to 1918. Of those 50, nearly 30 occurred in the New York area alone. Not only did several factories and warehouses operate in the New York area, but ports in and around New York were the major staging point for shipping supplies to the western front in Europe.
  • 39. Black Tom- The First Terrorist Attack on America (cont‘d) After midnight, a series of small fires were discovered on the pier. Some guards fled, fearing an explosion. Others attempted to fight the fires and eventually called the Jersey City Fire Department. At 2:08 a.m., the first and largest of the explosions took place. Fragments from the explosion traveled long distances, some lodging in the Statue of Liberty and some in the clock tower of The Jersey Journal building in Journal Square, over a mile away, stopping the clock at 2:12 a.m. The explosion was the equivalent of an earthquake measuring between 5.0 and 5.5 on the Richter scale and was felt as far away as Philadelphia. Windows broke as far as 25 miles (40 km) away, including thousands in lower Manhattan. Some window panes in Times Square were completely shattered. The outer wall of Jersey City's City Hall was cracked and the Brooklyn Bridge was shaken. People as far away as Maryland were awakened by what they thought was an earthquake. Two of the watchmen who had lit smudge pots to keep away mosquitoes on their watch were immediately arrested. It soon became clear that the fires of the smudge pots had not caused the fire and that the blast had not been an accident. It was traced to a Slovak immigrant named Michael Kristoff, who had served in the U.S. Army, but admitted to carrying suitcases for the Germans before America entered World War I.
  • 40. Black Tom- The First Terrorist Attack on America (cont‘d) According to him, two of the guards were German agents. It is likely that the bombing involved some of the techniques developed by a group of German agents surrounding German ambassador Count Johann Heinrich von Bernstorff, probably using the pencil bombs developed by Captain Franz von Rintelen. Although suspicion at the time fell solely on German saboteurs like Kurt Jahnke and his assistant Lothar Witzke, still judged as "likely" responsible by some, later investigations in the aftermath of the Annie Larsen affair unearthed links between the Ghadar conspiracy and the Black Tom explosion Franz von Papen is known to have also been involved in both. Bottom Line: The whole incident was covered up by President Wilson because the outrage by the American public would have run counter to his presidential campaign slogan, ―He kept us out of the war‖ and he wanted to be re-elected. He denied the incident and blamed it on capitalists who did not do the right thing in safety and security.
  • 41. Urban America Science, Art, Philosophy, and the Gilded Age Evolution, pasteurization, microorganisms, radiation, relativity, romanticism, and realism
  • 42. Scientific Discoveries of the Bible Natural Selection Charles Darwin, a 19th century English naturalist, argued that natural selection guides evolutionary change. Darwin‘s contemporary Alfred Russel Wallace, another English naturalist, stated a similar theory of evolution independently of Darwin. The theory of natural selection is based on the idea that living things are in constant competition for limited but essential resources in their environments—such as food, places to hide, and opportunities to breed. Accordingly, natural selection favors any trait that helps an organism or its offspring to survive. For example, the daring shown by birds in the place of a predator near the nest involves the risk of death. Nonetheless, natural selection compensates the risk by increasing the offspring‘s chances of survival. In 1859, Darwin published his views in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, and a major controversy was immediately sparked between theologians and scientists. Even scientists argued with each other over how the traits Darwin thought were subject to natural selection could be inherited. Ironically, an Austrian priest, Gregor Mendel, published genetic principles in 1866 that could have settled the problem, but Mendel‘s work was not appreciated until 1900.
  • 43. Scientific Discoveries of the Bible (cont‘d)  Six Day Creation  Gen 1: 11, 12, 21-25 (ten times reproduction is stated)  Darwin‘s On the Origin of the Species dilemma  "Why, if species have descended from other species by fine graduation, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms? Why is not all nature in confusion, instead of the species being, as we see them, well defined?‖  Questionable Testing- Piltdown Man  I Cor 3:18-20; I Thess 2:13
  • 44. The Bible vs. Evolution  How did we come into existence?  Explanations and terms The Bible Evolution God witnessed Creation and recounted Darwin observed and theorized Gen 1 & 2 Micro vs. macro evolution Astrophysicist Hugh Ross’ account Abiogenesis, DNA Gen 6, 7 & 8 Phylogeny 1. Creation of the physical universe (space, 7. Production of small sea animals time, matter, energy, galaxies, stars, planets, 8. Creation of sea mammals etc.) 9. Creation of birds 2. Transformation of the earth‘s atmosphere 10. Making of land mammals (wild mammals, from opaque to translucent. 3. Formation of a stable water cycle. 4. Establishment of continent(s) and ocean(s). 5. Production of plants on the continent(s). 6. Transformation of the atmosphere from translucent to transparent (Sun, Moon, and stars become visible). domesticated mammals, and rodents) 11. Creation of mankind
  • 45. The Bible vs. Evolution  Where did life come from? Phylogenetic Tree Cladogram
  • 46. The Bible vs. Evolution  Scientists have never demonstrated how this first life came into existence from non-life by an evolutionary mechanism  Abiogenesis proposal- proteins and nucleic acids evolved first and then into life  Michael Behe‘s book- Darwin’s Black Box  ―There is no publication in the scientific literature—in prestigious journals, specialty journals, or books—that describes how molecular evolution of any real, complex, biochemical system either did occur or even might have occurred. There are assertions that such evolution occurred, but absolutely none are supported by pertinent experiments or calculations.‖
  • 47. The Bible vs. Evolution  Dinosaurs and the Bible  The original Hebrew text words- tanniyn, behemowth, livyathan  Tanniyn- dragon, serpent, sea monster 1. dragon or dinosaur 2. sea or river monster 3. serpent, venomous snake  And God created great tanniyn, and every nephesh chaiah that creeps, which the mayim brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that [it was] good. - Gen 1:21 When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, saying, Shew a miracle for you: then thou shalt say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and cast [it] before Pharaoh, [and] it shall become a tanniyn. - Ex 7:9 For elohiym [is] my melek of old, working yĕshuwah (salvation) in the midst of the erets (earth). Thou didst divide the sea by thy strength: thou brakest the heads of the tanniyn in the mayim. Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, [and] gavest him [to be] meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness. Thou didst cleave the fountain and the flood: thou driedst up mighty rivers. The day[is] thine, the laila (night) also [is] thine: thou hast prepared the aur (light) and the shemesh (sun). Psa 74:12-16
  • 48. The Bible vs. Evolution  1822, Mary Ann Mantell correctly identified a strange bone as having belonged to a large unknown reptile. Her husband later named the creature ―Iguanodon.‖  Sir Richard Owen articulated the term "dinosaur" for a new order of animals in 1841 (deino = terrible; sauros = lizard).
  • 49. The Bible vs. Evolution  Behemowth- perhaps an extinct dinosaur 1. a Diplodocus or Brachiosaurus, exact meaning unknown. Some translate as elephant or hippopotamus but from the description in Job 40:15-24, this is patently absurd.  Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox. Lo now, his strength [is] in his loins, and his force [is] in the navel of his belly. He moveth his tail like a cedar: the sinews of his stones are wrapped together. His bones [are as] strong pieces of brass; his bones [are] like bars of iron. He [is] the chief of the ways of God: he that made him can make his
sword to approach [unto him].
 Surely the mountains bring him forth food, where all the beasts of the field play.
 He lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed, and fens.
 The shady trees cover him [with] their shadow; the willows of the brook
compass him about.
 Behold, he drinketh up a river, [and] hasteth not: he trusteth that he
can draw up Jordan into his mouth. He taketh it with his eyes: [his] nose pierceth through snares. Job 40:15-24 KJV  The juniper-like tree most likely referred to is the famous well-known species called "Cedrus libani", or "cedar-of-Lebanon," a beautiful and stately tree that grows in the Middle East. These trees can be quite large. The tree can attain heights greater than 40 meters with a diameter greater than 3 meters.  The word here rendered navel means properly firm, hard, tough, and in the plural form, which occurs here, means the firm, or tough parts of the belly. It is not used to denote the navel in any place in the Bible, and should not have been rendered so here. AS, NAS, and NIT renders it muscles.
  • 50. The Bible vs. Evolution  Livyathan- leviathan, sea monster, dragon 1. large aquatic animal 2. perhaps the extinct dinosaur, plesiosaurus, exact meaning unknown. Some think this to be a crocodile but from the description in Job 41 this is patently absurd. It appears to be a large fire breathing animal of some sort. Just as the bomardier beetle has an explosion producing mechanism, so the great sea dragon may have an explosive producing mechanism to enable it to be a real fire breathing dragon. Job 41  There is the sea, vast and spacious, teeming with creatures beyond number living things both large and small. There the ships go to and fro, and the leviathan, which you formed to frolic there. Ps 104:25, 26  In that day, the LORD will punish with his sword, his fierce, great and powerful sword, Leviathan the gliding serpent, Leviathan the coiling serpent; he will slay the monster of the sea. Is 27:1 
  • 51. The Bible vs. Evolution Plesiosaurus picture and fossil Kronosaurus and fossil  German chemist Dr. Schilknecht first found that the bombardier beetle mixes two potentially dangerous chemicals, hydroquinone and hydrogen peroxide (yes, basically the stuff in brown bottles at your local market), which should immediately result in a very violent explosion.
  • 52. The Bible vs. Evolution Ankylosaurs: The nasal passages in armored dinosaurs were found to be convoluted and complex, and didn’t funnel directly to the lungs or air pockets.
  • 53. Louis Pasteur & Germ Theory Beliefs about disease in19th Century  People knew there was a link between dirt and disease, but could not explain the link.  People explained disease as seeds, bad seeds, in the air known as miasma.  1850s &1860s breakthrough in the cause of disease.
  • 54. Pasteurization In 1854, Louis Pasteur became professor of chemistry and dean of the school of science (Faculté des Sciences) at the University of Lille. Hearing of Pasteur‘s ability, a local distiller came to him for help in controlling the process of making alcohol by fermenting beet sugar. Pasteur saw that fermentation was not a simple chemical reaction but took place only in the presence of living organisms. He learned that fermentation, putrefaction, infection, and souring are caused by germs, or microbes. Pasteur published his first paper on the formation of lactic acid and its function in souring milk in 1857. Further studies developed the valuable technique of pasteurization. The same year, he was appointed manager and director of scientific studies as his old school, the Ecole Normale Superieure. During the next several years, he extended his studies into germ theory. He spent much time proving to doubting scientists that germs do not originate spontaneously in matter but enter from the outside.
  • 55. Step 1: Discovery of Microorganisms  Anthony Van Leeuwenhoek made one of the earliest microscopes.  Discovered microorganisms which he called animalcules.  Microscopes not as good as today.
  • 56. Step 2: Improved microscopes  1800s purer glass produced = better lenses for microscope.  1830 Joseph Lister develops a microscope which can magnify x1000
  • 57. Step 3: Louis Pasteur‘s germ theory  Old Theory: spontaneous generation  micro-organisms are the result of decaying matter.  New Theory: germ theory  micro-organisms cause decaying matter.  Pasteur showed you could kill the micro-organisms by applying heat - PASTEURIZATION.
  • 58. Step 4: Germ theory vs spontaneous generation  Pasteur now had to prove his theory.  In competition with French scientist Pouchet.  Conducted an experiment showing that microbes in the air caused decay.  1861 published his ‗germ theory‘
  • 59. Step 5: Linking micro-organisms to disease  Pasteur showed micro-organisms made wine and beer go bad.  Could germs cause disease?  Another experiment!  Proved that a micro-organism was causing disease in silk worms.
  • 60. Step 6: Proving the link between bacteria and human disease.  Pasteur never showed the link between bacteria and human disease.  This was left to Robert Koch
  • 61. Radiation and Relativity Marie was born Manya Sklodwska in Warsaw, Poland, on 7 Nov 1867. She took up her father‘s interest in mathematics and physics; and after her early schooling, she went to Paris where she met Pierre Curie in 1894. They married on 25 Jul 1895, and began a scientific partnership that soon earned them international fame. In 1898, the Curies announced the discovery of the chemical elements polonium and radium. In 1903, the Curies and Henri Becquerel shared the Nobel prize for physics for their discovery of radioactivity. On 19 Apr 1906, Pierre was struck by a horse-drawn carriage and killed. Marie carried on with her scientific work and became the first woman ever appointed to teach at the Sorbonne. In 1911, she was awarded the Nobel prize for chemistry for isolating pure radium. She died of leukemia, caused by exposure to radiation during her work on 4 Jul 1934. Albert Einstein‘s special theory of relativity challenged all conventional ideas about time. One of the cornerstones of this theory is that the speed of light is the same for all observers. A consequence of this rule is that time is not constant: clocks run at different rates for different observers depending on the relative motion of the clocks and observers. For example, it appears to an observer with a clock at rest
  • 62. Radiation and Relativity (cont‘d) on the surface of the Earth that the clock in a spaceship passing by at high speed runs slower than the stationary, Earthbound clock. Likewise, the observer on the spaceship sees the Earthbound clock running slower. This effect is called time dilation. Einstein‘s general theory of relativity predicted that clocks run slower in the presence of a gravitational field. Thus a clock in space runs faster than an identical clock on Earth, where gravity is stronger. Both of Einstein‘s predictions concerning time dilation have been experimentally confirmed. Today scientists no longer consider time as an independent, constant entity but as one aspect of an interdependent space-time continuum. They know that the time measured by a clock depends on where the clock is and how fast it is moving in relation to the observer.
  • 63. The Age of Idealism (1775-1850) There were three phases of German literature in the late 18th century and the first half of the 19th century. They were Storm and Stress (Sturm und Drang), classicism, and romanticism. Each emphasized idealism rather than realism. Writers of the Storm and Stress period were interested in the ideals of friendship, freedom, and the fatherland. The intellectual leader of this brief phase was Johann Herder. His insights about literature, architecture, and cultural evolution influenced not only his own generation but also the followers of classicism and the advocates of romanticism who came after him. The foremost representatives of Storm and Stress were Johann Schiller and Johann Göthe. For them, the movement served only as the first step in their development into the chief writers of German classical idealism. Schiller produced a series of plays expressing the ethical and intellectual values of the age. They marked him as one of the finest German dramatists. Göthe became the greatest writer in German literature. He produced enduring dramatic monuments to German classicism and humanism in Iphigenia in Taurus
  • 64. The Age of Idealism (1775-1850) (cont‘d) and Torquato Tasso. His Wilhelm Meister books left an impression upon the later history of the German novel. Faust, a great poetic drama, examines the problem of good and evil. German romanticism sprang from foreign as well as native roots. It rejected some of the ideals of classicism and retained others of Storm and Stress. Emphasizing individualism, it explored the subconscious and the unconscious. Some of the romanticists were merely critics, but others were essentially creators, especially of lyric poems and short stories. A number of writers, such as the Grimm brothers, collected popular poetry and tales. Two of the latest and greatest romanticists were Eduard Morike and Heinrich Heine.
  • 65. Artists of the Romantic Movement Poets, Novelists, Story-Tellers Charlotte Brontë (English, 1816-1855) Jane Eyre Emily Brontë (English, 1818-1848) Wuthering Heights Lord Byron (English, 1788-1824) Don Juan Samuel Taylor Coleridge (English, 1772-1834) Kublai Khan, Rime of the Ancient Mariner Alexandre Dumas (French, 1802-1870) Count of Monte Cristo, Three Musketeers, Man in the Iron Mask Johann Wolfgang von Göthe (German, 1749-1832) Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm (German, 1785-1863, 1786-1859) Victor Hugo (French, 1802-1885) Hunchback of Notre Dame, Les Miserables, political activist John Keats (English, 1795-1821) Ode to a Grecian Urn, Hyperion Walter Scott (Scottish, 1771-1832) Rob Roy Mary Shelley (English, 1797-1851) Frankenstein Percy Bysshe Shelley (Englsh, 1792-1822) Prometheus Unbound (Takeoff on Greek tragedyAeschylus‘ Prometheus Bound) Madame de Staël (French, 1766-1817) Jane Gray, Rousseau, Delphins (Political activist with Rousseau, and Montesquieu against Bourbons and Napoléon) William Wordsworth (English, 1770-1850) Lyrical Ballads (wrote with Coleridge and uses Rime of the Ancient Mariner as the introduction to Lyrical Ballads)
  • 66. Trends in the Arts in the Late 1800s Painting Many artists of the late 1800‘s experimented with making their work more abstract and less related to real objects. Impressionism Impressionism painters experimented with showing their impression of an object, rather than making a realistic representation. The artists focused on light and color, and tried to capture a scene as it might have appeared at a glance. Post-impressionism The post-impressionists experimented with vivid colors and distorted images. Expressionism Cubism The expressionists looked for ways to express intense emotion in their work. The cubists painted natural shapes as geometrical forms. Music Musicians of the late 1800‘s followed trends set by Romantics and nationalistic composers. The music dramas of Richard Wagner influenced later composers. Some composers of the early 1900‘s tried to create in music what the impressionist painters were attempting on canvas. Literature and Drama
  • 67. Urban America Science, Art, and Philosophy Graphic Organizer Art Urban America Science Philosophy
  • 68. Urban America Science, Art, and Philosophy Quiz Name a writer, a painter, and a composer of the romantic period. 2. Evolution is a philosophical theory used by progressives that Charles Darwin wrote about in what book? What Austrian monk disproved evolution through genetics? 1. 3. Name a scientist and his contribution to microbiology? 4. What Polish chemists discovered the properties of radiation?