u ac
Historical narra ive
 Rwanda is a country that has much history be-          started more tension betwee...
Rwanda’s                                                         TiMeline
1961 - Rwanda proclaimed a republic.
Goals                                                                                Statistics                 Improve ma...
Human rights st tus
 Civil liberties                            Women issues                            ...
Environmental st tus Report
Rwanda is located in Central Africa on the east-      In Rwanda, Water is...
Geography map
Description of need
Poverty and child malnutrition is a substantial issue      affected by the shortage of food. Without e...
Our main goal we are trying to accom-         to be at the right health standards. With   for the people of Rwanda but on ...
Short term goal                                                     Long term goal
Rwanda Country Plan
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Rwanda Country Plan


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Original work and design created by 10th grade DSA students as part of the 'Legacy of Imperialism' Project. www.digitalsafari.org

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Rwanda Country Plan

  1. 1. ted u ac ed n d nebe ratio iety. n c ol a ge so ho ure ater sc ut a re ct m ary the f a g s tru tart pri be form on ll s d lso t o c e wi the at- an a ing . W ee e is on loc an d nn ools to s it th t la ch a , p s e f tha nd - re im ene f wa frica emo R lA e a en at t a t will b way ge o W d f D e e a is a t a ary y o tra he h o r ga h on s. Th ple in ercen prim ry ntr cen of t go. T ble t u co th ide on ra r- wit gres n peo the p inish rima will he Sou rn s of C mpa he te s- T in pro anda ase will f ond p enter ll te blic s co d. T ras s Rw incre that bey ity c it w a i ed Eas pu e i lan stly g ntain e e th tic R s siz Mary o ll en wi ldr o un d be e m da co rces e dg te an omm truc ll also will b Ex a trie of i ch ool cr n a is an ou an ns wi e Ac e u co stat wand . Rw al res meth api- sch ool. be co n , it trad s the in R d hill atur erite da’s in , c sch o be arde were iet y in an ra ds f an ss n ity a c o f als e a g nter urce. oc ient ec y o ,c w n s ic lan ariet gold er. R gest ulatio v ha de ce reso ct w r pa suff help a v h as ropo he la pop tra ajor ill im ill a lso . s uc hyd is t ith a a m al w lies w will a iness s i li n- po ut d an , Kiga try le. w sta f , it s er l n op ub % o r pro e fam ood re bu ill low nd ta cou pe a s .5 % Ou aus of f the it w vel a fu- he 000 n is a. 22 d. 95 ool c be ount pand ntly ion le here ge it ive t 0, itio nd ishe sch a t t 30 tr lnu Rwa nour d in suf- am m ex port utri ruct chan e e im ln st t rat Ma l le e s th st a n ea ild sue in e ma nrol e th ent o hild m ill co d cr vert Ch is ar e e hav lem lth M C w an po l tia ldren en ar not supp e hea n the ldren iety the su chi childr y do nt of erag hildre ost chi e soc ease o f man ou e av f c e m ild tur decr o ut nt am in th 51% ol. Th is ch wil l m b e ta nly cho nda wer i fic main d. O y s wa d lo to ndar imar in R coul vast ish m d sta sh pr nee if we hen a ld fin i t on fin van iti n t cou le utr tritio ren ar re ln nu hild ma mal of c the ount y am
  2. 2. Historical narra ive t Rwanda is a country that has much history be- started more tension between the two groups. was killed which led to the start of the genocide became very difficult for them to keep control. hind it. From change in government to genocide, It got to the point where the Tutsis had too much in Rwanda. Many Tutsis, along with Paul Kagmane, Ten U.N soldiers were captured and murdered by Rwandans have had to go through many things. power over the Hutus and so the Hutus decided to were blamed for the death of President Habyari- the Interahamwe. The U.N felt overwhelmed with all The people of Rwanda have had to overcome many rebel in the 1950s. The rebellion caused the death mana. Kagmane denied these accusations and told the violence that they evacuated all their personnel obstacles and are still struggling through some of about 100,000 Tutsis. The Tutsi population got people that it was the work of Hutu extremist so and left the Tutsis and moderate Hutus on their problems to this day. To understand the history so scared that they left for other countries near they would have a reason to exterminate the Tut- own to deal with the Hutu militia. of Rwanda you have to go back about 600 years. Rwanda. Belgium made the problems in Rwanda sis. Leaders of political opposition were murdered Tall, warrior people called the Tutsis came to the worse when they invaded. They completely took and almost immediately the killing of Tutsis and Eventually the RPF was able to gain control in land of Rwanda from Ethiopia. They invaded the over the government, the people of Rwanda didn’t moderate Hutus began. Rwanda. On July 3, 1994 they took over Kigali and native land of the Hutus. Even though there were have much say. This went on until the year 1962. formed a provisional government. On July 19, 1994, less Tutsis than Hutus, they were able to take over. The genocide lasted about 100 days but in also known as the day the genocide ends, Pas- Most Tutsi became cattle herders while the major- On July 1, 1962 Rwanda finally gained indepen- those day about 800,000 people were killed. Tutsis teur Bizimungu was elected as president. He was ity of Hutus were peasants or serfs to the Tutsis. dence from Belgium. Once the Belgium monarchy were hunted down and killed. The group of people the deputy leader of the RPF. With Bizimungu in Hutus agreed to work for the Tutsis in return for fell apart in Rwanda, two new countries emerged. responsible for most of the killing were the Intera- power, the RPF was able to completely gain control their protection. Even though the Tutsis had much Rwanda was run by the Hutus and the Tutsis took hamwe (meaning those who attack together). of Rwanda by August 21, 1994. The RPF declared more power, they lived peacefully alongside the over Burundi. Even though they were in charge The Interahamwe was a unofficial militia group peace in Rwanda and with the help of the U.N. they Hutu people. They lived in common areas, spoke of different countries there was still much ten- who had about 300,000 members. Even though it established the International Criminal Tribunal. This the same language, intermarried, and worshiped sion between the two and the fighting continued was made up of young Hutu males, ironically, the international court was set up in order to judge the same king. for decades. The children of exiles formed a rebel president of this militia group was a Tutsi named people that might have been responsible for the group called the Rwandan Patriotic Front, a.k.a RPF. Robert Kajuga. This group had the support of the genocide. Even though President Bizmungu was The peace between Hutus and Tutsis didn’t last They caused much chaos in Rwanda and this led presidential guard and radio propaganda. The only said to have all the power, many thought that long once Belgium took over. Belgium favored the to a war breaking out in the year 1990. With the people that the Tutsis could hope that would bring vice-president Paul Kagame was the one who had Tutsis over the Hutus and ended up declaring them war going on and problems with politics and the peace were the United Nations. The U.N is made true power in Rwanda. Bizmungu and Kagame had different “races”. Each group had to carry around economy, people had so much hatred and stress up by the United States, France, Belgium, and Italy. different ideas on how Rwanda should be ran. They identification cards that indicated whether they that everything got out of control in the year 1994. They tried to keep peace between the two groups had many conflict, so in the year 2000 Bizmungu were Hutus or Tutsis. The division between them In April 1994, President Juvenal Habyarimana but without being able to protect themselves it resigned and Kagame became president
  3. 3. Rwanda’s TiMeline 1961 - Rwanda proclaimed a republic. 2003 December - Three former media directors found guilty 1963 - Some 20,000 Tutsis killed following an incursion by Tutsi of inciting Hutus to kill Tutsis during 1994 genocide and receive rebels based in Burundi. lengthy jail sentences. 1990 - Forces of the rebel, mainly Tutsi, Rwandan Patriotic Front 2004 March - President Kagame rejects French report which (RPF) invade Rwanda from Uganda. says he ordered 1994 attack on president’s plane, which sparked genocide. April 1994 - Extremist Hutu militia and elements of the Rwandan military begin the systematic massacre of Tutsis. Within 100 2005 March - Main Hu tu rebel group, FDLR, says it is ending its days around 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus are killed; Hutu armed struggle. FDLR is one of several groups accused of creat- militias flee to Zaire, taking with them around 2 million Hutu refu- ing instability in DR Congo; many of its members are accused of gees. taking part in 1994 genocide. 1994-96 - Refugee camps in Zaire fall under the control of the 2005 July - Government begins the mass release of 36,000 pris- Hutu militias responsible for the genocide in Rwanda. oners. Most of them have confessed to involvement in the 1994 genocide. It is the third phase of releases since 2003 - part of an 1995 - Extremist Hutu militias and Zairean government forces at- attempt to ease overcrowding. tack local Zairean Banyamulenge Tutsis; Zaire attempts to force refugees back into Rwanda. 2006 January - Rwanda’s 12 provinces are replaced by a smaller number of regions with the aim of creating ethnically-diverse 1996 - Rwandan troops invade and attack Hutu militia-dominated administrative areas. camps in Zaire in order to drive home the refugees. 2007 February - Some 8,000 prisoners accused of genocide are 2001 October - Voting to elect members of traditional “gacaca” released. Some 60,000 suspects have been freed since 2003 to courts begins. The courts - in which ordinary Rwandans judge ease prison overcrowding. their peers - aim to clear the backlog of 1994 genocide cases. 2008 May - A former cabinet minister, Callixte Kalimanzira, goes 2001 December - A new flag and national anthem are unveiled to on trial at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, charged try to promote national unity and reconciliation. with taking part in the 1994 genocide. 2002 July - Rwanda, DR Congo sign peace deal under which Rwan- 2008 October - Rwanda decides all education will be taught in da will pull troops out of DR Congo and DR English instead of French, officially as a result of joining the Eng- Congo will help disarm Rwandan Hutu gunmen blamed for killing lish-speaking East African Community. Tutsi minority in 1994 genocide. 2009 November - France and Rwanda restore diplomatic rela- 2003 May - Voters back a draft constitution which bans the in- tions, three years after they were severed over a row about citement of ethnic hatred. responsibility for the 1994 genocide. 2003 August - Paul Kagame wins the first presidential elections 2009 December - Rwanda declared free of landmines - the first since the 1994 genocide. country to achieve this status.
  4. 4. Goals Statistics Improve maternal health - Maternal mortality rate (per 100,000 births) 750 - Birth attended by skilled health personnel (& 28% Eradicate extreme poverty - Poverty (% below national poverty line) 56.9% of births) and hunger - Child malnutrition (% of under-5s under- 22.5% weight) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and - HIV prevalence (%) 3.5% other diseases - Modern contraception (condom use) preva- 39% Achieve universal primary - Literarcy level (% of 15-24 year olds) 76.8% lence among 15-24 year olds (%) education - Primary school net enrollment (%) 95% - Proportion of population aged 15-24 years 54% - Primary school completion rate (%) 51.7% with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDs Promote gender equality - Gender gap in literarcy (%) 0.1% - Prevalence and death rates associated with 2.4 to 4.9 - Seats held by females in parliament (%) 48.8% malaria (%) Reduce child mortality - Children immunised against measles (% 11- 97% Ensure enviromental sustain- - Area protected to maintain biological diver- 12% 23 month old) sity to surface area (%) ability - Under 5 mortality rate (per 1,000 births) 152 - Proportion of the population with sustainable 64% - Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 births) 86 access to an improved water source (%) - Proportion of the population with access to 8% improved sanitation. (%) Rwanda has overcome many struggles throughout history. Even though things are a bit better now, they still have a long way to go to reach all of their goals by the year 2015. Even though they have improved in some goals, others aren’t going as well as they should. One of them is combating HIV/AIDS. Only 39% of the population uses modern contraception and only 54% of them have the correct comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Another goal that they need to work on is in ensuring enviromental sustainability. More of the population needs access to improved sanitation. Only about 8% have that access which is very low. People can’t survive without clean water, it’s their main resource. Without sanitation more diseases can spread and with more diseases there are even more deaths. It’s one of the main goals that need to be achieved because it can affect the outcome of all the other goals. Millennium Development Goals
  5. 5. Human rights st tus a Civil liberties Women issues Children issues Rwanda is a country that allows free- Rwanda boosts the worlds highest num- The children in Rwanda were affected dom of speech and freedom of assem- ber of women in parliament , up until because they were forced in the milli- bly. They are both respected. Majority today political figures of Rwanda are tary. Nearly 22.5 % of children in Rwanda of workers except civil servants can progressing on getting more women to are malnourished. 95 % of children were join and construct trade unions. Within get elected in local offices. During the enrolled in school, due to the lack of suf- 20% or 30% of agricultural workers are Rwandan genocide that occurred in 1994 ficient supplements many children are unionized. Rwanda is a very rural so- , women were abused and involved in not at the average health standard. Only ciety, many families live in a self-con- sexual violence issues on a tremendous 51 % of children complete primary school tained compound on a hillside. Over 70% scale. They were raped by the Interham- due to malnourishment . Children that of the adult population is literate, but we and by soldiers. Women were encour- were able to attend school are highly not more than 5% have received sec- aged to be killed and abused by presiden- encouraged due to the fact it protects ondary education. tial guard, millitary, and political leaders. them from being recruited by Rwandan Years after the 1994 genocide rape was forces. It is important to inform parents prohibited and it was reassured that this to not abuse or neglect their children for legislation was compromised. Prostitua- the children’s protection. Children are tion in the country of rwanda is prevalent also made to mine coltan in the provinc- but it still occurs. Rwanda women have es of South Kivu and Kalima. the rights to inherit property as well. T
  6. 6. Environmental st tus Report a Rwanda is located in Central Africa on the east- In Rwanda, Water is a very common good. Wa- ern side of the Democratic Republic of Congo. ter management is under the Rwandan govern- The country is made up of 26,338 sq km (1,390 ment’s list of responsibilities, as well as con- sq km of water and 24,948 sq km of land). In trolling the activities. In the water sector, there comparison, the land size is similar to the size is a lack of organization and planning, which of the state of maryland. The land border of leads to a financial insufficiency. There is also a rwanda is a total of 893 km (290 km borders lack of water specialists (60% of them left the burundi, 217 km borders D.R Congo, 217 km country because of the war; which lacks well- borders Tanzania, and 169 km borders Uganda). trained, young workers). Rwanda is known as a ‘landlocked’ country (there is no coastline). There are many vunerable, endangered, and critically endangered wild life in Rwanda. The The terrain in Rwanda is mostly grassland and only critically endangered animal in Rwanda is hills. The relief in the mountains and altitude de- the Black Rhinocerous. Other endangered ani- clines from west to east. The lowest elevation mals consist of Chimpanzees, Mountain Gorillas, level in Rwanda is the Rusizi River (950 m). The and Wild Dogs. Vunerable animals include Afri- highest elevation level is Volcan Karisimbi (4,519 can Elephants, African Golden Cats, Carruther’s m). There is a wide variety of natural resources Mountian Squirrels, Large-Earred Free-Tailed in Rwanda such as Gold, Casserite, Wolframite, Bats, and Spotted-Necked Otters. Methane, Hydropower, and Arable land.
  7. 7. Geography map
  8. 8. Description of need Poverty and child malnutrition is a substantial issue affected by the shortage of food. Without enough in Rwanda. More than half the population live in pov- food to keep their bodies healthy, they have a great- erty. Most people struggle with providing the basic er chance of getting sick. Due to the lack of modern needs for their families such as shelter and food. medicine, most of the sicknesses become fatal. This leads to many children not getting the food that they need to be healthy. About 22% of children un- Shortage of food can definitely affect education der 5 years old are underweight. Trying to lower the because if the children do not have enough energy, poverty and child malnutrition rate could certainly they won’t do good in school. School can be hard as benefit Rwanda. it is but it can become harder if the children are hun- gry. Just by finding a way to feed all these children Lowering the child malnutrition rate could also help we can improve their education. This can lead to reach some of the other millennium development them having a better chance of getting out of pov- goals. One of the goals it could help reach is achieving erty. These children deserve a better future and by universal primary education. From the data we col- helping out with the food we can make their futures lected we noticed that 95% of children start school much better. As they say “children are the future”, but only about 51% finish primary school. That’s more these children are the future of Rwanda! We want than half of the children that do not finish school! them to be able to have the resources to help their We came to the conclusion that many of the chil- country get out of poverty. Imagine a Rwanda with dren probably stop going to school because they are no hungry children and no poverty.
  9. 9. y uall s t us and a kfa at oes ad bre pot e dan weet i, br an igal and A Rw ts of s nK m ilk. I f milk eal. ition nsis ith t o n m st aln utr 1% co idge w h a lo mo i m t5 orr (wit ry com ons child . Abou are p d tea e a n c sava da, e n a v ner c s wan e issu wanda ro- a r) is in , ca pical In R s p sug a d nas o me n in R has and , bana is a tr ee- Pr a n im hildren te am t idea Lu nch ea ns hic h ut-s ), is c r jec b ] (w oh- m he . Ou pro in iled sav a o f t ris hed iendly tr ition l- bo ah -vuh ima [o cas ava -s d lnou eco-fr alnu chi ts n an oj kuh mu s ma an ild m .5% of ere [ nt), u cor (cas ch), ed ch ix o f e] pina pos lp stop 22 w pla -be e 20 05, f age n to ] (a m es-om t and s (fried to h da. In rs o pla ma [ n o] gpla ec yea We ity be -zo pi- R w an e r 5 igh t. mu n is om it h eg ss-ooh ay tro , und rwe a com Kigali. es w zu [mi he d nas d ren ly unde g l, leav zu g t s, bana ty din ita en- mi rin s ere buil cap and . Du ado a ta t sev by a’s ac ins) e avac are l is to th is an d ild ing the n ta as end r in Rw out bu nity, plan ts l ik pay goa - te rt u op u- al frui and pa k. Our plet pro c en ta m m re p c s , c com als will s o all c ts mo ze and ngo sna enter Go We sm ma ealthy lc in a r ge e s i he r h s sfu Term lnutri- ter nte e th not and succe g Lon ld ma u r ce ncreas n in a nter e 1 O ur hi atio n a s o wi ll i o ce hav 0 14. h ec duc We add in 2 aving t e po we The oing ry . l ar, and Kigali. i sg ed h o nda atly n a city y in lish ent lude sec gre nda cap n it sta b ir onm an in c a nd rov e Rwa dge mu to e env ies c tion tics i mp re the owl e sa com opose some m il a- is e su gh kn posed pr a b t k we hole ndan f heir sta to ma u eno our pro r aw a th t e our e ave e ou be Rw wi h op h ith hav ion l t o e lp ha v re t h e et h pe to anic ens on w plan to utrit whe and g org citiz tinue e ln l. eh o nd 2015 . on t. W ma wel co me s . W nter a y to c f fec e child s as eed y ce g b ve in e th stic nity s ic n ni t ru nnin will ha plan r help s tati m mu ke mu nd er ers nte ion r co ma c om u p a y cent olunte ir ce educat f ou ng to y den nit rv the lp o i the gar ommu r e ou keep and the he re hop help s a e a e c whe to . Th Wit h we s th row a The ops s how gry rs, get sh hun ork nte one da g w ork ar ent oi ng ls o w y ce ery e Rwan ch p rom g r will a health e ev k tea f e sur to ma . n nt e al d try ch ildre nity ce ma k ition nee c oun mu to trad ized c om amilies t heir civil f to w ith es tiv . rna ods alte dan fo n Rwa
  10. 10. Our main goal we are trying to accom- to be at the right health standards. With for the people of Rwanda but on the nearby are going to have to get used to plish in Rwanda is to lower child malnu- the garden that we are planning to grow other hand, the people that are going to the streets being busier. If many people trition. By setting up a community cen- in the community center, we will be able be doing this work are going to be learn- depend on going to the community cen- ter we are hoping it can provide more to provide the food necessary to feed ing skills that could come in handy. They ter it can make traffic a bit more heavy food for the people in Rwanda, especially more children. Though the garden is would be learning how to grow their own on the streets nearby. Traffic could be the children. Our project could have going to provide food, we need to also food and how to keep that food sani- bad but it would create much more busi- many impacts on Rwanda. Even though teach the people how to maintain the tized. With cleaner food there will be less ness for stores or businesses nearby. some of these impacts could definitely garden and keep it growing. For this we diseases and germs spread around. Overall, our project will have more posi- benefit Rwanda, others might not have need volunteers that are willing to work Also, the land that is going to be used tive impacts then negative ones. The such a great impact. in the garden and in the community to build the community center on might city of Kagali will definitely benefit from center for no pay. This could either have One of the positive impacts that this a good or bad impact depending on how impact the people that live nearby. Some our community center. would have is that a plentiful number of you see it. It could be a negative impact land might have to be given up to build children will finally the right supplements because it would be creating more work the community center. The people living Impact Analysis
  11. 11. Short term goal Long term goal Our Long Term Goals are very similar to Year 1 (2011): Spead awareness about Rwanda our short term goals. Our main long term Recruit volunteers goal is to lower the child malnutrition rate Acquire funding from 22.5% to 11% in a 10 year span. We Arrange transportation plan to execute this plan by keeping our Establish presence in Kigali school garden and community center running by teaching some of the Rwan- Year 2 (2012): dan adults how to keep the garden and Volunteers arrive in Rwanda community center up by maintaining it Construction of community center begins to make sure everyone has a wholesome Maintain center awareness in Kigali place for food. By having this community center, we are also hoping to extermi- Year 3 (2013): Volunteers begin interacting with Kigali residents nate poverty. We would like to do this by Find out what the families need to maintain nutritional stability making sure these pe ople have food, and when they have food they can have a bet- Year 4 (2014): ter education. 95% of Rwandan students Begin production of organic garden start school and only 51% finish. So an- other major goal we have is to make that Year 5 (2015): statistic go from 95% starting school to Community center & organic garden expected opening 70% finishing school. We hope for the best that this plan will be fairly effective. Project Implement t a ion