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Mughals Mughals Presentation Transcript

  • Indian empire that ruled for more than 300 years (1526 to 1858), except for a brief period under the Sur sultans (1540-1555).
  • • Founded in 1526. • Dominated India between 17th and 18th centuries. •Descended from Mongolian ancestors around Pakistan. • Population at height: between 110 and 130 million people. • Sophisticated, mixed Indo- Persian culture.
  • •Empire founded in 1526 by Emperor Babur. •Only 11 when he inherited a small kingdom in southern Russia •Gunpowder introduced •Related to Genghis Khan and Tamerlane Emperor Babur The Mughals brought Muslim cultural traditions
  • Babur was succeeded by his eldest son Humayun. He was not a strong authority. What did he inherit? 1.An empire with a host of troubles 2.Afghan nobles 3. Rajputs 4. worst of all, his three treacherous brothers. Following his father's advice, Humayun treated his brothers kindly and appointed them to high positions. In return, his brothers hindered him at every step. . •.
  • Humayun almost lost the empire his father had fought so hard to bequeath him. In the first ten years of his rule, he faced challenges from the Afghan General Sher Shah Suri who had served under Babur. Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun in the battles in 1540. This defeat was the first setback to the infant Mughal Empire.
  • The next 15 years of his life, from 1540 to 1555, self-exiled in Persia. He was finally able to re-ascend the throne at Delhi and Agra . After recovering his throne, Humayun devoted himself to the kingdom; improving the system of government. Later on, during the reign of Akbar, a fusion of Persian and Indian style of painting took place. Unfortunately, after recovering his empire, Humayun was not destined to rule for long. In January 1556, a tragic end by slipping down a stair case. After him his eldest son Akbar took over the rule of the empire.
  • Humayun's heir, Akbar, was born in exile and was only 13 years old when his father died. Akbar was the ruler who actually fortified the foundations of the Mughal Empire. After a series of conquests he managed to subdue most of India. 3rd Emperor AKBAR: THE GREATEST OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS
  • Akbar the Great  1562 throwing opponent over balcony  Rajputs controlled land routes to western coast, took high tolls from caravans, disrupted business of empire.  Marries Rajput Hindu princess, defeats them in battle, Akbar accommodates their fierce pride
  • Akbar the Great  Administration: several officials share responsibility for each province  Forced to collaborate and look after other’s work  All ministers report to their superior at Moghul court  Mansabdars: like knight, overpaid to maintain a cavalry.  When a Mansabdar died Property was seized by royal Treasure (no hereditary Nobility)
  • Agricultural reforms of Akbar  Careful surveys of land for fair tax of each plot. Sympathetic to the poor! (only had to give up 1/3)  Extortion meant severe punishment  Increased productivity and prosperity
  • Akbar’s Theory of Kingship  Ended discrimination of non-Muslims  No more enslavement & forced conversion of Hindus  Ended Jizya or poll tax for being non- muslim  No longer “defender of Islam” but offered equal protection to all
  • Akbar’s Theory of Kingship  Ended discrimination of non-Muslims  No more enslavement & forced conversion of Hindus  Ended Jizya or poll tax for being non- muslim  No longer “defender of Islam” but offered equal protection to all
  • Akbar’s “New Religion”  1578 spiritual crisis after hunting.  Meditates alone then holds discussions on religion  “Truth is found everywhere”, why should Truth be restricted to one religion like Islam?  Divine Faith: elements of many sects  Akbar like a divine king – sacred cow, deferred to Hindus so now death penalty!  Ends upon his death (age 63 ruled 45 years) Moghul king now semi-divine
  • Jahangir  Akbar’s son Salim took the name Jahangir, or “World-Seizer”  Alcohol, opium, pleasure, feasting (food put in his mouth by others)  Wife is real power, major decisions to keep empire togther  She hand picks Shah Jahan to claim throne after death of Jahangir
  • Shah Jahan  Goal to restore prestige of Moghul Empire  Tough on peasants as expansion and building takes place  Murders all male cousins and nephews  Taj Mahal dedicated to memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal who died in 1631 having 14th child  Built Red Fort in Delhi 124 acres
  • Aurangzeb 1659 - 1707  Empire declined under the 6th emperor, Aurangzeb. Why?  1. Wars of succession with his brothers  2. Orthodox, intolerant Muslim. Response?  3. Rise of nationalist, independence movements. Marathas – devout Hindus;Lived in northern Deccan Plains, proud military ; Rebellion against Aurangzeb Shivaji – master of guerilla warfare (tiger claws story)
  • The Sikhs  Is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab.  Sikhs – changed from peace loving to militant due to Aurangzeb’s persecutions; Gurus killed; letter “K” long hair, short pants, a comb, a dagger, an iron disk.  Surname Singh means “Lion”
  • Effect of Aurangzeb  Imposed Jizya or poll tax again  Trampled all who protested  25 year military campaign to stop rebels  Drained national treasury  1707 death, bitter old man who regretted the destruction he had caused  Persians sweep in 1739;  1862 last Mughal dies in British prison
  • • Centralized government system. • Persian art/culture merged with native Indian art/culture. • New trade routes with Arabs and Turks. • New architectural style. • Landscape gardening. • Urdu language developed from the fusion of Indian and Islamic culture. • Urdu = Persian + Arabic + Turkish
  • • Known for manuscripts and Persian miniature paintings. • Very symbolic. • Involved a lot of nature (birds, flowers, animals, etc.) • Very colorful and detailed. •In 1680 Emporer Shah Jahan banned music and painting from his court, but he allowed architectural art, such as the Pearl Mosque and the Taj Mahal.
  • • Nearly 400 monuments have survived a time-span of 132 years. •White marble and red sandstone was favored. •Semi-precious gemstones were popular (jade, crystal, etc.) • Used arches sparingly. • Symmetry and balance stressed. • Used octagons a lot.
  • • Kurta ~ an informal dress worn by Mughal men and women. • Sometimes sewn with gold or silver threads. • Traditional wear in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. •THE END!