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Introduction
Name:- Ayush Shukla
Subject:- S.S.T
Class:- Seventh
School Name:- Heritage Public School
The Mughal Empire
Members of the Mughal Empire
 Babur ( AD 1526 – 1530 )
 Humayun ( AD 1530 – 1556 )
 Akbar ( AD 1556 – 1605 )
 Jahangir (AD 1605 – 1627 )
 Shah Jahan ( AD 1627 – 1658 )
 Aurangzeb ( AD 1658 – 1707 )
Mughals were not the good ones
About the Mughal Empire
• The Mughal empire is conventionally said to have been founded in 1526 by Babur, a
warrior cheiftain from what today is Uzbekistan, who employed aid from the
neighboring Safavid and Ottoman empires, to defeat the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim
Lodhi , in the First Battle of Panipat, and to sweep down the plains of Upper India.
The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated to 1600, to the rule of
Babur's grandson, Akbar. This imperial structure lasted until 1720, until shortly after
the death of the last major emperor, Aurangzeb, during whose reign the empire also
achieved its maximum geographical extent. Reduced subsequently, especially during
the East India Company rule in India, to the region in and around Old Delhi, the
empire was formally dissolved by the British Raj after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
Babur ( AD 1526-1530
About Babur
• Full Name:- Zahir-ud-din Muhammad
Babur
• Born:- 14 February 1483
• Died:- 26 December 1530
• Father:- Umar Sheikh Mirza
• Mother:- Qutlugh Nigar Khanum
• Wife:- Aisha Sultan Begum
• Child:- Humayun
Babur ( AD 1526 – 1530 )
1. Babur 14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad,
was the founder of the Mughal Empire and first Emperor of the Mughal
dynasty ( 1526–1530) in the Indian subcontinent. He was a descendant
of Timur and Genghis Khan through his father and mother
respectively.Of Chagatai Turkic origin, Babur was born in Andijan in
the Fergana Valley(in present-day Uzbekistan): the eldest son of Umar Sheikh
Mirza (1456–1494, governor of Fergana from 1469 to 1494) and a great-great
grandson of Timur (1336–1405). Babur ascended the throne of Fergana in its
capital Akhsikent in 1494 at the age of twelve and faced rebellion. He
conquered Samarkand two years later, only to lose Fergana soon after. In his
attempt to reconquer Fergana, he lost control of Samarkand. In 1501 his
attempt to recapture both the regions failed when Muhammad Shaybani
Khan defeated him. In 1504 he conquered Kabul, which was under the putative
rule of Abdur Razaq Mirza, the infant heir of Ulugh Beg II. Babur formed a
partnership with the Safavid ruler Ismail I and reconquered parts of Turkistan,
including Samarkand, only to again lose it and the other newly-conquered lands
to the Sheybanids.
Autobiography written by Babur
Babur nama
Architecture made by Babur
Babri Masjid
Jama Masjid
Panipat Mosque
Kabuli Bagh Mosque
Humayun ( AD 1530 – 1556 )
About
Humayun
• Full Name:- Nasir-ud-din-Muhammad
Humayun
• Born:- 6 March 1508
• Died:- 27 January 1556
• Father:- Zahir-ud-din Muhammad
Babur
• Mother:- Qutlugh Nigar Khanum
• Wife:- Maham Begum
• Child:- Akbar
Humayun ( AD 1530 – 1556 )
Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad 6 March 1508 – 27 January 1556), better known by his regnal
name, Humayun was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in
what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh from 1530–1540 and again
from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early but regained it with the aid of
the Safavid dynasty of Persia, with additional territory. At the time of his death in 1556, the
Mughal Empire spanned almost one million square kilometres.
In December 1530, Humayun succeeded his father to the throne of Delhi as ruler of the
Mughal territories in the Indian subcontinent. Humayun was an inexperienced ruler when he
came to power, at the age of 22. His half-brother Kamran Mirza inherited Kabul and Kandahar,
the northernmost parts of their father's empire. Kamran was to become a bitter rival of
Humayun.
Humayun lost Mughal territories to Sher Shah Suri, but regained them 15 years later with
Safavid aid. Humayun's return from Persia was accompanied by a large retinue of Persian
noblemen and signalled an important change in Mughal court culture. The Central Asian
origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian
art, architecture, language, and literature. There are many stone carvings and thousands
of Persian manuscripts in India dating from the time of Humayun.
Akbar ( AD 1556 – 1605 )
About Akbar
• Full Name:- Jalal-ud-din Muhammad
Akbar
• Born:- 15 October 1542
• Died:- 27 October 1605
• Father:- Humayun
• Mother:- Maham Begum
• Wife:- Mariam-uz-Zamani
• Child:-Jahangir
Akbar ( AD 1556 – 1605 )
Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar27 October 1605 , popularly known as Akbar the Great, (Akbar-i-
azam ), and also as Akbar was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605. Akbar
succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand
and consolidate Mughal domains in India.
A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include
much of the Indian subcontinent. His power and influence, however, extended over the entire
subcontinent because of Mughal military, political, cultural, and economic dominance. To unify the vast
Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and
adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. To preserve peace
and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of
his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strove to unite far-
flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through an Indo-Persian culture, to himself as an
emperor.
Books about Akbar written in the past history
Akbar nama
Ain-i-Akbari
Architectures made by Akbar
Agra fort
Fatehpur Sikiri
Buland Darwaza
HumayunTomb
Jodhabai palace
AkbarsTomb
Jahangir (AD 1605 – 1627 )
About Jahangir
• Full Name:- Nur-ud-din Muhammad
Salim
• Born:- 31 August 1569
• Died:- 28 October 1627
• Father:- Akbar
• Mother:- Mariam-uz-Zamani
• Wife:- Jagat Gosain
• Child:- ShahJahan
Jahangir (AD 1605 – 1627 )
• Prince Salim, later Jahangir, was born on 31 August 1569, in Fatehpur Sikri, to Akbar and one of his
wives Mariam-uz-Zamani, daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amber. Akbar's previous children had died
in infancy and he had sought the help of holy men to produce a son. Salim was named for one such
man, Shaikh Salim, though Akbar always called him Shekhu Baba. Prince Salim succeeded to the
throne on Thursday, 3 November 1605, eight days after his father's death. Salim ascended to the
throne with the title of Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Badshah Ghazi and thus began his 22-year
reign at the age of 36. Jahangir soon after had to fend off his own son, Prince Khusrau Mirza, when
the latter attempted to claim the throne based on Akbar's will to become his next heirs. Khusrau
Mirza was defeated in 1606 and confined in the fort of Agra. As punishment, Khusrau Mirza was
handed over to his younger brother and was partially blinded and killed. Jahangir considered his
third son Prince Khurram (future Shah Jahan), his favourite. In 1622, Khurram murdered his blind
older brother, Khusrau Mirza, in order to smooth his own path to the throne.
Autobiography written by Jahangir
Tuzuk-e-Jahangiri
Monuments made by Jahangir
Shalimar Bagh
Begum Shahi Mosque
BachachaTaj
ShahJahan ( AD 1627 – 1658 )
About Shah Jahan
• Full Name:- Shahab-ud-din
Muhammad Shah
Jahan
• Born:- 5 January 1592
• Died:- 22 January 1666
• Father:- Jahangir
• Mother:- Jagat Gosain
• Wife:- Shah Begum
• Child:- Aurangzeb
Shah Jahan ( AD 1627 – 1658 )
• Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram was born on 5 January 1592
in Lahore, in modern-day Pakistan, and was the third son of Prince
Salim (later known as 'Jahangir' upon his accession). His mother was
a Rajput princess from Marwar called Princess Jagat Gosaini (her
official name in Mughal chronicles was Bilqis Makani). The name
"Khurram" (joyous) was chosen for the young prince by his grandfather,
Emperor Akbar, with whom the young prince shared a close relationship
. Just prior to Khurram's birth, a soothsayer had reportedly predicted to
the childless Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, Akbar's first wife and
chief consort, that the still unborn child was destined for imperial
greatness. So, when Khurram was born in 1592 and was only six days
old, Akbar ordered that the prince be taken away from his mother and
handed over to Ruqaiya so that he could grow up under her care,
and Akbar could fulfil his wife's wish to raise a Mughal emperor. Ruqaiya
assumed the primary responsibility for Khurram's upbringing and he
grew up under her care. The two shared a close relationship with each
other. Jahangir noted in his memoirs that Ruqaiya had loved his son,
Khurram, "a thousand times more than if he had been her own [son].
Book about Shah Jahan
Shanjahannama
Monuments made by shah Jahan
TheTaj mahal
Moti Masjid
Jami Masjid
Red fort
Aurangzeb ( AD 1658 – 1707 )
About
Aurangzeb
• Full Name:- Muhi-ud-din Muhammad
Aurangzeb Alamgir
• Born:- 4 November 1618
• Died:- 3 March 1707
• Father:- ShahJahan
• Mother:- Mumtaz Mahal
• Wife:- Nawab Bai
Aurangzeb ( AD 1658 – 1707 )
Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Dahod, Gujarat. He was the third
son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. In June 1626, after an
unsuccessful rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shukoh were
kept as hostages under their grandparents' (Nur
Jahan and Jahangir) Lahore court. On 26 February 1628, Shah Jahan was
officially declared the Mughal Emperor, and Aurangzeb returned to live with his
parents at Agra Fort, where Aurangzeb received his formal education
in Arabic and Persian. His daily allowance was fixed at Rs. 500, which he spent on
religious education and the study of history.
On 28 May 1633, Aurangzeb escaped death when a powerful war
elephant stampeded through the Mughal Imperial encampment. He rode against
the elephant and struck its trunk with a lance, and successfully defended himself
from being crushed. Aurangzeb's valour was appreciated by his father who
conferred him the title of Bahadur (Brave) and had him weighed in gold and
presented gifts worth Rs. 200,000. This event was celebrated in Persian
and Urdu verses, and Aurangzeb said
If the (elephant) fight had ended fatally for me, it would not have been a matter of
shame. Death drops the curtain even on Emperors; it is no dishonor. The shame
lay in what my brothers did!
Mughal Dynasty
This map represents the land area covered by the Mughal empire from (AD 1526 – 1707)
Sources of References
Book
www.Wikipedia.com
www.Google.com

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The Mughal Empire

  • 1. Introduction Name:- Ayush Shukla Subject:- S.S.T Class:- Seventh School Name:- Heritage Public School
  • 2. The Mughal Empire Members of the Mughal Empire  Babur ( AD 1526 – 1530 )  Humayun ( AD 1530 – 1556 )  Akbar ( AD 1556 – 1605 )  Jahangir (AD 1605 – 1627 )  Shah Jahan ( AD 1627 – 1658 )  Aurangzeb ( AD 1658 – 1707 ) Mughals were not the good ones
  • 3. About the Mughal Empire • The Mughal empire is conventionally said to have been founded in 1526 by Babur, a warrior cheiftain from what today is Uzbekistan, who employed aid from the neighboring Safavid and Ottoman empires, to defeat the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodhi , in the First Battle of Panipat, and to sweep down the plains of Upper India. The Mughal imperial structure, however, is sometimes dated to 1600, to the rule of Babur's grandson, Akbar. This imperial structure lasted until 1720, until shortly after the death of the last major emperor, Aurangzeb, during whose reign the empire also achieved its maximum geographical extent. Reduced subsequently, especially during the East India Company rule in India, to the region in and around Old Delhi, the empire was formally dissolved by the British Raj after the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
  • 4. Babur ( AD 1526-1530
  • 5. About Babur • Full Name:- Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur • Born:- 14 February 1483 • Died:- 26 December 1530 • Father:- Umar Sheikh Mirza • Mother:- Qutlugh Nigar Khanum • Wife:- Aisha Sultan Begum • Child:- Humayun
  • 6. Babur ( AD 1526 – 1530 ) 1. Babur 14 February 1483 – 26 December 1530), born Zahīr ud-Dīn Muhammad, was the founder of the Mughal Empire and first Emperor of the Mughal dynasty ( 1526–1530) in the Indian subcontinent. He was a descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan through his father and mother respectively.Of Chagatai Turkic origin, Babur was born in Andijan in the Fergana Valley(in present-day Uzbekistan): the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza (1456–1494, governor of Fergana from 1469 to 1494) and a great-great grandson of Timur (1336–1405). Babur ascended the throne of Fergana in its capital Akhsikent in 1494 at the age of twelve and faced rebellion. He conquered Samarkand two years later, only to lose Fergana soon after. In his attempt to reconquer Fergana, he lost control of Samarkand. In 1501 his attempt to recapture both the regions failed when Muhammad Shaybani Khan defeated him. In 1504 he conquered Kabul, which was under the putative rule of Abdur Razaq Mirza, the infant heir of Ulugh Beg II. Babur formed a partnership with the Safavid ruler Ismail I and reconquered parts of Turkistan, including Samarkand, only to again lose it and the other newly-conquered lands to the Sheybanids.
  • 7. Autobiography written by Babur Babur nama Architecture made by Babur Babri Masjid Jama Masjid Panipat Mosque Kabuli Bagh Mosque
  • 8. Humayun ( AD 1530 – 1556 )
  • 9. About Humayun • Full Name:- Nasir-ud-din-Muhammad Humayun • Born:- 6 March 1508 • Died:- 27 January 1556 • Father:- Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur • Mother:- Qutlugh Nigar Khanum • Wife:- Maham Begum • Child:- Akbar
  • 10. Humayun ( AD 1530 – 1556 ) Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad 6 March 1508 – 27 January 1556), better known by his regnal name, Humayun was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early but regained it with the aid of the Safavid dynasty of Persia, with additional territory. At the time of his death in 1556, the Mughal Empire spanned almost one million square kilometres. In December 1530, Humayun succeeded his father to the throne of Delhi as ruler of the Mughal territories in the Indian subcontinent. Humayun was an inexperienced ruler when he came to power, at the age of 22. His half-brother Kamran Mirza inherited Kabul and Kandahar, the northernmost parts of their father's empire. Kamran was to become a bitter rival of Humayun. Humayun lost Mughal territories to Sher Shah Suri, but regained them 15 years later with Safavid aid. Humayun's return from Persia was accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen and signalled an important change in Mughal court culture. The Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture, language, and literature. There are many stone carvings and thousands of Persian manuscripts in India dating from the time of Humayun.
  • 11. Akbar ( AD 1556 – 1605 )
  • 12. About Akbar • Full Name:- Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar • Born:- 15 October 1542 • Died:- 27 October 1605 • Father:- Humayun • Mother:- Maham Begum • Wife:- Mariam-uz-Zamani • Child:-Jahangir
  • 13. Akbar ( AD 1556 – 1605 ) Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar27 October 1605 , popularly known as Akbar the Great, (Akbar-i- azam ), and also as Akbar was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include much of the Indian subcontinent. His power and influence, however, extended over the entire subcontinent because of Mughal military, political, cultural, and economic dominance. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strove to unite far- flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through an Indo-Persian culture, to himself as an emperor.
  • 14. Books about Akbar written in the past history Akbar nama Ain-i-Akbari Architectures made by Akbar Agra fort Fatehpur Sikiri Buland Darwaza HumayunTomb Jodhabai palace AkbarsTomb
  • 15. Jahangir (AD 1605 – 1627 )
  • 16. About Jahangir • Full Name:- Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim • Born:- 31 August 1569 • Died:- 28 October 1627 • Father:- Akbar • Mother:- Mariam-uz-Zamani • Wife:- Jagat Gosain • Child:- ShahJahan
  • 17. Jahangir (AD 1605 – 1627 ) • Prince Salim, later Jahangir, was born on 31 August 1569, in Fatehpur Sikri, to Akbar and one of his wives Mariam-uz-Zamani, daughter of Raja Bharmal of Amber. Akbar's previous children had died in infancy and he had sought the help of holy men to produce a son. Salim was named for one such man, Shaikh Salim, though Akbar always called him Shekhu Baba. Prince Salim succeeded to the throne on Thursday, 3 November 1605, eight days after his father's death. Salim ascended to the throne with the title of Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Badshah Ghazi and thus began his 22-year reign at the age of 36. Jahangir soon after had to fend off his own son, Prince Khusrau Mirza, when the latter attempted to claim the throne based on Akbar's will to become his next heirs. Khusrau Mirza was defeated in 1606 and confined in the fort of Agra. As punishment, Khusrau Mirza was handed over to his younger brother and was partially blinded and killed. Jahangir considered his third son Prince Khurram (future Shah Jahan), his favourite. In 1622, Khurram murdered his blind older brother, Khusrau Mirza, in order to smooth his own path to the throne.
  • 18. Autobiography written by Jahangir Tuzuk-e-Jahangiri Monuments made by Jahangir Shalimar Bagh Begum Shahi Mosque BachachaTaj
  • 19. ShahJahan ( AD 1627 – 1658 )
  • 20. About Shah Jahan • Full Name:- Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan • Born:- 5 January 1592 • Died:- 22 January 1666 • Father:- Jahangir • Mother:- Jagat Gosain • Wife:- Shah Begum • Child:- Aurangzeb
  • 21. Shah Jahan ( AD 1627 – 1658 ) • Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram was born on 5 January 1592 in Lahore, in modern-day Pakistan, and was the third son of Prince Salim (later known as 'Jahangir' upon his accession). His mother was a Rajput princess from Marwar called Princess Jagat Gosaini (her official name in Mughal chronicles was Bilqis Makani). The name "Khurram" (joyous) was chosen for the young prince by his grandfather, Emperor Akbar, with whom the young prince shared a close relationship . Just prior to Khurram's birth, a soothsayer had reportedly predicted to the childless Empress Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, Akbar's first wife and chief consort, that the still unborn child was destined for imperial greatness. So, when Khurram was born in 1592 and was only six days old, Akbar ordered that the prince be taken away from his mother and handed over to Ruqaiya so that he could grow up under her care, and Akbar could fulfil his wife's wish to raise a Mughal emperor. Ruqaiya assumed the primary responsibility for Khurram's upbringing and he grew up under her care. The two shared a close relationship with each other. Jahangir noted in his memoirs that Ruqaiya had loved his son, Khurram, "a thousand times more than if he had been her own [son].
  • 22. Book about Shah Jahan Shanjahannama Monuments made by shah Jahan TheTaj mahal Moti Masjid Jami Masjid Red fort
  • 23. Aurangzeb ( AD 1658 – 1707 )
  • 24. About Aurangzeb • Full Name:- Muhi-ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir • Born:- 4 November 1618 • Died:- 3 March 1707 • Father:- ShahJahan • Mother:- Mumtaz Mahal • Wife:- Nawab Bai
  • 25. Aurangzeb ( AD 1658 – 1707 ) Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Dahod, Gujarat. He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shukoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' (Nur Jahan and Jahangir) Lahore court. On 26 February 1628, Shah Jahan was officially declared the Mughal Emperor, and Aurangzeb returned to live with his parents at Agra Fort, where Aurangzeb received his formal education in Arabic and Persian. His daily allowance was fixed at Rs. 500, which he spent on religious education and the study of history. On 28 May 1633, Aurangzeb escaped death when a powerful war elephant stampeded through the Mughal Imperial encampment. He rode against the elephant and struck its trunk with a lance, and successfully defended himself from being crushed. Aurangzeb's valour was appreciated by his father who conferred him the title of Bahadur (Brave) and had him weighed in gold and presented gifts worth Rs. 200,000. This event was celebrated in Persian and Urdu verses, and Aurangzeb said If the (elephant) fight had ended fatally for me, it would not have been a matter of shame. Death drops the curtain even on Emperors; it is no dishonor. The shame lay in what my brothers did!
  • 26. Mughal Dynasty This map represents the land area covered by the Mughal empire from (AD 1526 – 1707)