Presented By: Johar Raza Ahmad Naseem Presented by: Johar Raza Ahmed Naseem
Origins <ul><li>The Mughals were the last powerful descendants of the Mongols; descended from Mongol stock in Turkestan, i...
The great emperors <ul><li>Babur </li></ul><ul><li>The founder of the Mughal dynasty was Babur, &quot;The Tiger,&quot; who...
<ul><li>Akbar: </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim, Indian, and Western historians all see Akbar as the greatest ruler of Indian hist...
<ul><li>The Political Theory of Akbar's State </li></ul><ul><li>There was considerable disagreement all during the reigns ...
<ul><li>Din-i Ilahi </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar took very seriously Abu'l Fazl's idea that he was a spiritual leader of his pe...
<ul><li>Fatehpur Sikri </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar's closest and most beloved religious advisor was an Islamic Sufi mystic, Sh...
<ul><li>The Last Three Great Emperors </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar had put in place an efficient administration and a set of po...
<ul><li>Jahangir </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar was succeeded by his favorite son, Jahangir, who ruled the empire from 1605 to 16...
 
<ul><li>Shah Jahan </li></ul><ul><li>Jahangir's successor, Shah Jahan (ruled 1628-1658), inherited Akbar's obsession with ...
<ul><li>Aurangzeb </li></ul><ul><li>Like the Ottomans, the Mughals had no clear set of rules regarded succession to the th...
<ul><li>A characteristic Indo-Islamic-Persian style that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal empire (1...
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Presentation1

  1. 1. Presented By: Johar Raza Ahmad Naseem Presented by: Johar Raza Ahmed Naseem
  2. 2. Origins <ul><li>The Mughals were the last powerful descendants of the Mongols; descended from Mongol stock in Turkestan, in the early 1500's they engaged in the last series of conquests to bear the Mongol name. They were, however, quite distant from their original ancestors. The Mughals had become Islamic, for the Middle Eastern Mongol invaders had converted to Islam long before. They had also thoroughly absorbed Middle Eastern culture, especially Persian culture (the Persian word for Mongol is &quot;Mughal,&quot; from which we get the English word, &quot;mogul,&quot; meaning &quot;tycoon&quot;), and their wars of invasion spread Persian culture throughout India. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The great emperors <ul><li>Babur </li></ul><ul><li>The founder of the Mughal dynasty was Babur, &quot;The Tiger,&quot; who ruled from 1483 to 1530. Babur was not fully a Mongol: his mother was descended from Genghis Khan, but his father was descended from Timur. Like his ancestors, he rose from comparatively little to become one of the great conquerors of his time. He ruled over a small kingdom in Turkestan; he expanded his kingdom by attacking Afghanistan and capturing Kabul in 1504. From there he crossed over the mountains into Hindustan and attacked the Dehli Sultanate. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Akbar: </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim, Indian, and Western historians all see Akbar as the greatest ruler of Indian history. When his father, Humayun, died in 1556, Akbar became padshah (&quot;ruler of the empire&quot;) at the age of thirteen. Under the guidance of Bairam Khan, who had been instrumental in Humayun's reconquests of Panipat, Dehli, and Agra, Akbar instantly began seizing more territory throughout Hindustan. Bairam Khan fell from power in 1560, but Akbar continued his conquest of India and Afghanistan </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Political Theory of Akbar's State </li></ul><ul><li>There was considerable disagreement all during the reigns of Babur, Humayun, and Akbar over the nature of monarchy and its place in Islamic society. Many Islamic scholars under Babur and Akbar believed that the Indian monarchies were fundamentally un-Islamic. At the heart of the problem was the fact that none of the invading monarchs were approved by the Caliph, but rather were acting solely on their own. The majority of Islamic scholars, however, concluded that the monarch was divinely appointed by God to serve humanity and that the Indian sultanate or the Mughal padshah was acting in the place of the Caliph . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Din-i Ilahi </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar took very seriously Abu'l Fazl's idea that he was a spiritual leader of his people and he devoted considerable amounts of time and resources to sorting out the common truth in the multiple religions he ruled over. From this concern he developed a new religion he called Din-i Ilahi , or &quot;The Religion of God.&quot; Believing, as Muslims do, that every faith contained the essential truth that God is unified and one thing, he sought to find the unifying aspects of all religions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Fatehpur Sikri </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar's closest and most beloved religious advisor was an Islamic Sufi mystic, Shayk Salim Chishti. After years of having no son and heir, the birth of Jahangir seemed to fulfill one of Salim Chishti's prophecies. In gratitude to his former religious advisor and to Allah, Akbar set about building what he theorized as the &quot;perfect city,&quot; one that would represent the power of his empire, the meaning of God's message to humanity, and would ensure perfect harmony. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The Last Three Great Emperors </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar had put in place an efficient administration and a set of political relationships between the Mughal court and local Hindu kingdoms that ensured a peaceful empire for the remainder of his life. He was followed by three more great emperors, each with their own faults, who expanded Akbar's empire through conquest and built Mughal culture to its highest points. Strangely, the success of both of these projects—expansion of the empire and the development of more and more resplendent artifacts of Mughal culture—inevitably contributed to the later decline of the Empire . </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Jahangir </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar was succeeded by his favorite son, Jahangir, who ruled the empire from 1605 to 1628. Jahangir did not pursue military conquest as forcefully as his father, but he did manage to assert Mughal rule over the Bengal in eastern India. Akbar had claimed that any kingdom that was not expanding was in decline, but the later decades of Akbar's rule were in general peaceful and uneventful. Akbar spent most of his time concerned with administration, culture, the arts, and his new religion, Din-i Ilahi , rather than pursuing wars of conquest. Jahangir seems to have inherited the attitude of the older Akbar, for he lavishly patronized the arts: painting, architecture, philosophy, and literature, while ignoring military conquest. The period of Jahangir's tenure as Emperor is considered the richest period of Mughal culture; Indian, Muslim, and Western scholars have named this period, the age of Mughal splendor. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Shah Jahan </li></ul><ul><li>Jahangir's successor, Shah Jahan (ruled 1628-1658), inherited Akbar's obsession with the military and wars of conquest. Although Jahangir had ruled relatively peacefully, the Empire was starting to come apart at the accession of Shah Jahan. The new emperor threw himself into military pursuits: he put down a Muslim rebellion in Ahmadnagar, repulsed the Portugese in the Bengal, and conquered parts of the Deccan. By the end of his reign, the empire was again expanding and the Mughals seemed firmly in charge. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Aurangzeb </li></ul><ul><li>Like the Ottomans, the Mughals had no clear set of rules regarded succession to the throne. They believed, as the Ottomans, that God would choose the most worthy successor. In reality, this produced seriou s conflicts as each emperor aged. The first real succession crisis occurred near the end of Shah Jahan's reign. The conflict between Shah Jahan's sons ended with the victory of Aurangzeb, who imprisoned his father in 1658 (he died in 1666) and executed his older brother. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>A characteristic Indo-Islamic-Persian style that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal empire (1526–1857). This new style combined elements of Islamic art and architecture , which had been introduced to India during the Delhi Sultanate (1192–1398) and had produced great monuments such as the Qutb Minar , with features of Persian art and architecture . Mughal monuments are found chiefly in N India, but there are also many remains in Pakistan. This article discusses these distinctive forms of art and architecture as they developed under a succession of Mughal emperors. </li></ul>ART AND Architecture

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