Final part 1. california bookPresentation Transcript
Final Part 1: California Overview Rachelle Alcantara History 141
Chapter 4: Striking It RichThe Alcalde The Alcalde was adopted in the territory because congress made no territorial provisions. The Alcalde consisted of military rule with a small group of people acting as judge, jury, and chief executive for the community. After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, an effort was made to integrate more civilians into the alcalde system. The alcalde was a fusion of Mexican and American culture and livelihood.
Chapter Four: Striking it RichGold Rush On January 24, 1848: Marshall found gold! California would never be the same. On December 5, 1848: President Polk announced to congress that gold had been discovered in California. Overnight, the international Gold Rush of 1849 had begun. Hubert Howe Bancroft would later describe the next two years for California as “A rapid, monstrous maturity” Within three years of President Polk’s announcement, the non-Native American population had soared from 10,000 to 255,000.
Chapter Four: Striking it RichNew Government All things considered, the Army performed quite creditably as the de facto civil government from 1846-1848. As the last elected military governor Riley decided that neither military law nor the alcalde system were currently in use. On June 3, 1849 Riley directed the people of California to elect 37 delegates to form a government in September. By October 12, 1849, California stood redesigned as an American state.
Chapter 10: O Brave New World! Flight and Electricity By the 1860’s Californians were experimenting with lighter then air flight. Frank Merriott flew a steam propelled hydrogen balloon above a fourth of July crowd in San Francisco July 4, 1876, Neri illuminated market street with electrical arc lights and reflectors This was the first public illumination by electricity world wide by a decade August 28, 1883, the Montgomery Brothers developed and built a heavier then air glider After gaining an altitude of 15 feet they glided for 600 feet and landed safely This was the first recorded heavier then air human flight in histroy.
Chapter 10: O Brave New World!Astronomy Californians had been showing a special proclivity for the penetration of space through astronomy. In 1879, Davidson built the first astronomical observatory on the West Coast atop a hill in San Francisco using a 6.4 inch lens The Lick Observatory used the first 36 inch lens to discover the faint 5th satellite of Jupiter This is one of the greatest astronomical discoveries on the 19th century. In 1917, Hale developed the first 100 inch lens which received nearly three times as much light as it’s 60 inch predecessor This increased the observable universe by 300%
Chapter 10: O Brave New World!Semiconductors For decades, vacuum tubes were responsible for transmitting electricity in various formats But vacuum tubes were fragile, energy consuming, and bulky Just before Christmas 1947, Bardeen and Brattain observed that power increased when electric signals were passed through a crystal of germanium In 1951, the first of these junction transistors was produced based on Shockley’s semi-conductor theory. In 1956, Shockley, Bardeen, and Brattianshared the Nobel Prize in physics By 1971, the 4004 Hoff’s microprocessor was 1/16th on an inch long and consisted of 2,300 transistors The 4004 had as much calculating power as the first computer of 1945 which occupied 3,000 cubic feet and required 17,000 vacuum tubes.
Chapter 11: An Imagined PlacePhotography Photography in California entered the 20th century focusing more on the self-consciously literary dreaminess of Pictorial style. Weston returned from a three year sojourn in rural Mexico where he practiced photography as a direct and elemental art. After a period of abstract expressionism, seashells, rocks and bell peppers looked like nudes and nudes looked like bell peppers. Ansel Adams used his technique of visualization to capture his images Ansel would set up for the photo and sometimes wait seconds, minutes, hours, as long as it took to get the right moment.
Chapter 11: An Imagined PlaceMusic Music fits into a paradigm of a shift from the conservative to the avantgarde with little in the way of transition. In the early 1900’s the focus of music was still with the Operas When sound came to the motion pictures, a whole new career field-writing music for films-was opened to composers. A dividend of the migration from the Dust Bowl states during the Depression was an intensification of country music.
Chapter 11: An Imagined PlaceOutdoor Life The outdoor life had characterized the California lifestyle since the late 19th century. Tennis courts in California were municipally funded and tended to favor hard surfaces. This encouraged a quicker and more competitive mode of play. Baseball was introduced in 1859 but remained a minor league state until the arrive of the Giants and Dodgers in 1958 November 12, 1958, Warren Harding became the first rock climber to scale the face of El Capitan in Yosemite Valley. Outdoor peoples skilled interfacing of nature and science further reinforced the “DNA code” of California.