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  1. 1. California: Part 1<br />By: Tommy Marinelli<br />Professor Arguello<br />History 141<br />
  2. 2. Chapter 3: A Troubled Territory<br />Shortly after Mexico gained independence from Spain, both Baja and Alta California were classified as a territory.<br />Mexico tried to model itself after the US with a civil society and it’s thoughts of political equality among citizens.<br />Californians didn’t want the change, including the Spanish-born royalists and the Rancheros, who just wanted to be left alone.<br />Uprisings against missions began, and in 1833 the Mexican congress demanded they be secularized and distributed to Hispanicized Indians and New Colonists. <br />
  3. 3. Chapter 3: A Troubled Territory<br />In the late 1700s, more and more sailors, scientific explorers, and New England whalers that were trading with china began to enter the region off the coast near Monterey.<br />Of the scientific explorers, many found the land inland of Monterey very informative and promising. However, Americans were only interested in the new land for trade, not size.<br />Sea otter pelts became a mass trade along the coast of California.<br />Russians and Frenchmen began coming to shore and started trying to make lives for themselves, and were at most times welcomed by the locals.<br />Sea Otter Pelts<br />
  4. 4. Chapter 3: A Troubled Territory<br />John Charles Fremont was an Army captain who ventured to Monterey in January of 1846.<br />March 9th-10th, Fremont took his men to the shores of Klamath lake after a meeting with Marine Lieutenant Archibald Gillespie, who he claimed to have brought him messages to seize California.<br />In Late May, Fremont began to capture California.<br />On July 7th, 1846, Marines showed up at Monterey and raised the American flag. By August 13th, Los Angeles belonged to the US.<br />However, because of Gillespie’s mismanagement, Los Angeles was taken over in an uprising. <br />Several attempts were made, but the US was defeated in Los Angeles and it was not until January 10th, 1847 that the US was able to reclaim it.<br />Fremont was court-martialed for mutiny, for assuming he was governor of California. He was pardoned by President Polk, who was grateful for Fremont’s accomplishments in California. <br />
  5. 5. Chapter 4: Striking it Rich<br />The Guadalupe Hidalgo Treaty transferred California from Mexico to the US in 1848 for 15 million dollars in cash.<br />The Southern states wanted free choice state while the Northern states wanted free state.<br />John Sutter bought land, then leased the land to indentured Native Americans and immigrants.<br />Sutter’s partner James Marshall started a mill on the American River.<br />A Mormon leader, Sam Brannan, brought 224 Mormon immigrants to California.<br />Sam Brannan<br />
  6. 6. Chapter 4: Striking it Rich<br />In 1848, gold was discovered in the riverbed of the American River near the sawmill.<br />Congress and President Polk heard about the gold, and the Gold Rush began.<br />Immigrants from all over the US and the entire world came to California for gold.<br />Within only 3 years, the population was already at 225,000 and San Francisco had it’s beginnings.<br />Courts and a criminal justice system were put into place to decrease the rate of homicides and violence during the Gold Rush.<br />San Francisco became the 10th largest city in the US.<br />
  7. 7. Chapter 4: Striking it Rich<br />Governor Bennett Riley wrote the proclamation to redesign the government of California.<br />The people of California were able to elect delegates.<br />Army major Robert Garnett designed the state seal.<br />The state seal includes the goddess Minerva, a grizzly bear, and the San Francisco bay.<br />In the fall of 1849, California was an American state.<br />Senators wanted California to be accepted into the Union.<br />California was accepted as a free state.<br />
  8. 8. Chapter 5: Regulation, Railroad, & Revolution<br />California was redesigned over and over for the first three decades through politics, law, and urbanization.<br />Controversy on who owned the land in California.<br />In 1851, the Land Commissioners began hearing land claims from owners. This lasted two decades.<br />In 1856, a private committee was created that took over for the police and judicial powers. The city was ruled with the governor watching.<br />After the hangings of four people that they were after to seek justice they disbanded.<br />1850-1854, the state capitol was changed 6 times to four different cities, finally locating itself in Sacramento.<br />
  9. 9. Chapter 5: Regulation, Railroad, & Revolution<br />Theodore Judah came to California to build the railroad between Sacramento and Folsom in 1854.<br />In 1857, his pamphlet was published that included the plans to build a railroad through the Sierra Nevada mountains.<br />The railroad would pass the Sierra Nevada and continue East across the country.<br />In 1862, the Pacific Railway Act was passed, allowing funds for Judah’s railway.<br />Charles Crocker ran the building of the Central Pacific Railroad of California.<br />Thousands of Chinese men were hired to build the tracks. It was finished in 6 years. <br />This was the first transcontinental railroad, finished in 1869. <br />The Central Pacific and Union Pacific tracks were joined in Utah.<br />
  10. 10. Chapter 5: Regulation, Railroad, & Revolution<br />The Bank of California was founded by William Ralston. This became the leading financial institute in the West.<br />In 1857, the bank failed because of Ralston’s bad investments, starting up a panic in the city of San Francisco.<br />The depression brought 154,000 people to California and ultimately lead to a large homeless population in San Francisco.<br />The Chinese were attacked by unemployed Americans that were angry at them for taking up their jobs.<br />In 1879, the constitution was rewritten, as demanded by the Americans during the depression.<br />Railroads, large land owners, and large corporations mostly ran the country.<br />