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  1. 1. Famous ScientistsAristotleHis works include Physics, Metaphysics, Politics, Poetics, Nicomachean Ethics andDe Anima.Leonardo da VinciHe designed bridges, war machines, buildings, canals and forts.Benjamin FranklinHe is arguably the most famous 18th century American after George Washington.Jane GoodallShe is a world famous authority on chimpanzees.Jonas SalkHe developed a vaccine for polio in 1952.Alexander Graham BellHe is the inventor of the telephone and the metal detector.Famous African American ScientistsThere are numerous African American scientists and inventors who have madenotable inventions and creations in different fields. However, here are only some of themost popular ones whose contributions have changed the world.Daniel Hale Williams (1856-1931)Daniel Hale Williams was the first African American cardiologist who is also consideredas the innovator of the open heart surgery. Daniel Hale Williams opened the first non-segregated hospital in America so that other Afro-American people wouldnt faceproblems due to racism.George Washington Carver (1864-1943)George Washington Carver is one of the most popular African American scientists. He isthe pioneer of developing commercial uses of peanuts, soy and sweet potatoes; andalso finding different methods for improving the quality of soil. As his work wasdedicated to help others, none of the works of George Washington Carver werepatented.Sarah Goode (1850-1905)Among famous African American female scientists, Sarah Goode is the most popularas she is the first African American woman to receive a patent in the US. Her inventionof the folding bed or the cabinet bed has been the most useful inventions which will be
  2. 2. applicable forever. Read more on famous African American women.InventorsThomas Alva Edison: Born on the 11th of February, 1847, Thomas Edison is famousfor inventing the light bulb, which he did towards the latter part of 1879. In fact, theversion he created in 1880, had practically all the features of the modern light bulb,including an incandescent filament in an evacuated and transparent glass bulb, alongwith a base that could be screwed on to a holder. He is also credited for inventing thephonograph and the fluoroscope, which is an X-ray machine that has a source of X-ray along with a fluorescent screen that enables direct observation. He died on the18th of October, 1931.Alexander Graham Bell: He was born on the 3rd of March 1857, and died on the 2ndof August 1922, and was one of the most eminent American inventors. It was in theearly part of the 1870s, while he was experimenting with the telegraph, that AlexanderGraham Bell realized that perhaps the human voice could be transmitted through awire with the help of electricity. In fact, he had made a transmission by the month ofMarch, in 1876, however the sound that was carried was very faint. He continuedworking on it, and on the 26th of November he demonstrated that sound could betransmitted clearly, in a critical test, between Cambridge and Salem, in Massachusetts.The instrument functioned as a transmitter as well as a receiver.The Wright Brothers: Orville Wright, who was born on the 19th of August 1871 anddied on the 30th of January, and Wilbur Wright, born on the 16th of April 1867 and diedon the 30th of May 1912, are credited with inventing the airplane as well as making thefirst controlled and powered human flight, which they demonstrated on the 17th ofDecember 1903. Within two years of that first flight, they developed their flying aircraftinto a fixed wing airplane, the first of its kind.Vladimir Kozmich Zworykin: Born on the 30th of July 1889, he was a Russian bornAmerican inventor who pioneered television technology. He was the inventor of atelevision system that transmitted and received signals using cathode ray tubes. Hewas partly instrumental in the development of television from the early part of the1930s, which included charge storage type of tubes, infrared image tubes, as well asthe electron microscope. Many biographers have named him the real inventor oftelevision, although others dispute it. He died on the 29th of July 1982.Raymond Samuel Tomlinson: Born in 1941, and a graduate of MIT, along with beingone of the pioneering figures of the Internet, since he worked on ARPANET, which wasthe precursor of the Internet, his greatest gift to society was an email system, which hedevised in 1971, thus fostering the global communication system of today.
  3. 3. Artists & WritersWilliam Shakespeare is regarded as the greatest writer and poet ever known in theEnglish language who authored worlds greatest poems, drama and sonnets.Andy Warhol :Andy Warhol was one of the most important artists of pop art, which becameextremely popular in the second half of the twentieth century. Though he is bestremembered for his paintings of Campbells soup cans, he also created hundredsof other works.Stephen Ambrose:Popular historian Stephen Ambrose, most well-known for his numerous World WarII books, wrote over thirty books and made history a popular pastime.J. K. Rowling:J. K. Rowling is the author of the hugely popular Harry Potter books. How did shecome up with the complex story of the wizarding world? Where did the namePotter come from? Who was Hermione Granger based upon? Learn more aboutthis famous author in this biography of her life.Civil Rights Around the WorldGandhi:Mohatma Gandhi is considered the father of the Indian independence movement.Gandhi spent twenty years in South Africa working to fight discrimination. It wasthere that he created his concept of satyagraha. While in India, Gandhis obviousvirtue, simplistic lifestyle, and minimal dress endeared him to the people. Hespent his remaining years working diligently to both remove British rule fromIndia as well as to better the lives of Indias poorest classes.Iqbal Masih:Iqbal Masih was a young Pakistani boy who was forced into bonded labor at agefour. After being freed at age ten, Iqbal became an activist against bonded childlabor. He became a martyr for his cause when he was murdered at age 12.Mother Teresa:Mother Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Catholic order of nunsdedicated to helping the poor. Begun in Calcutta, India, the Missionaries ofCharity grew to help the poor, the dying, orphans, lepers, and AIDS sufferers inover a hundred countries. Mother Teresas selfless effort to help those in need hascaused many to regard her as a model humanitarian. Learn more about thisamazing …
  4. 4. Air and Space ExplorersHoward Hughes:Howard Hughes was a businessman, a movie producer, and an aviator; however,he is perhaps best remembered for spending his later years as an eccentric,reclusive billionaire.Laika:Aboard the Soviets Sputnik 2, Laika, a dog, became the very first living creatureto enter orbit. However, since the Soviets did not create a re-entry plan, Laikadied in space. Laikas death sparked debates about animal rights around theworld.Red Baron:During World War I, there was one man, Baron Manfred von Richthofen, who likedto fly in a blazing red airplane and shoot down plane after plane. Hisachievements made him both a hero and a propaganda tool. With 80 creditedvictories, Baron Manfred von Richthofen, the "Red Baron," defied the odds andbecame a legend in the air.Yuri Gagarin:On board Vostok 1, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin made history on April 12,1961 when he became both the first person in the world to enter space and thefirst person to orbit the Earth.EntertainersBeatles:The Beatles shaped not only music but also an entire generation. Peoplemimicked all that they did, including haircuts, clothing, and outlook. Learn moreabout John, Paul, George, and Ringo and how they came to be The Beatles.Joan Baez:Joan Baez is a famous folksinger, best known for her life-long passion foractivism, performance at the 1969 Woodstock music festival, and several popularsongs in the 1970s.Josephine Baker:Josephine Baker became famous in France and Europe for her very sensual actwhich often included her performing with barely any clothes. Baker also helpedthe French underground during WWII and fought for integration in U.S.
  5. 5. Nightclubs.World Leaders & RevolutionariesLeon Trotsky:Leon Trotsky was a Communist theorist, prolific writer, and a leader in the 1917Russian Revolution. Exiled from the Soviet Union after losing a power struggleover Lenins successorship to Stalin, Trotsky was brutally assassinated in 1940.Sir Winston Churchill:A biography of Sir Winston Churchill, two-time Prime Minister of the UnitedKingdom and the inspirational leader of his nation during World War II.The U.S. PresidentsFranklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945)Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1969)Richard M. Nixon (1969-1974)Gerald R. Ford (1974-1977)Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)Ronald Reagan (1981-1989)George H. W. Bush (1989-1993)Bill Clinton (1993-2001)George W. Bush (2001-2009)Barack Obama (2009-)