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  • 1. Chapter 11 Campaigns This is PR 11th EditionNewsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 2. Objectives• To know the types of campaigns public relations practitioners typically plan and execute for their organizations• To understand the campaign process and be able to identify the characteristics of a successful campaign• To understand how to prepare a campaign, including planning, goal-setting, timetables and budgets• To understand the need for campaign evaluation and be able to identify types of evaluation appropriate for public relations campaigns• To develop a sensitivity toward cultural distinctions throughout the world and an understanding of how different campaign strategies, tactics and techniques for different publics may be needed when planning a public relations campaign that is worldwide in scope This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 3. What is a Campaign?• Coordinated, purposeful, extended effort• Designed to achieve a specific goal or set of interrelated goals• Intended to move an organization toward a goal or long-range objective• Addresses an issue, solves a problem, corrects or improves a situation• Changes, modifies or reinforces behavior, opinion, law This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 4. Types of PR Campaigns• Public awareness• Public information• Public education• Reinforcement of attitudes, behavior• Change or attempted change of attitudes, behavior• Behavior modification This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 5. Characteristics of Successful Campaigns• Based on assessment of the needs, goals and capabilities of priority public• Based on systematic planning and production• Incorporates continuous monitoring and evaluation• Takes into account complementary roles of mass media and interpersonal communication• Selects appropriate media for publics This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 6. Successful Campaign Model• Definitive mission statement (Values)• Corporate culture (Shared Values)• Positive public relationships (Expressed Values)• Reputation (Understood Values)• Selection of appropriate media for each priority public, with due consideration of each medium’s ability to deliver the message This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 7. Successful Campaign Elements• Educational aspect: always educates, enlightens its public(s)• Engineering aspect: ensures that the means to the desired behavior exist and are readily available• Enforcement aspect: provides something beyond simple incentives to support behavioral change• Entitlement aspect: convinces publics of the value of the appeals of the campaign so they “buy into” the message• Evaluation aspect: evaluated frequently to provide a “report card” This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 8. Planning a Campaign• Look at the organization’s mission and the goals and objectives of the PR program• Develop goals and objectives for the campaign that are in line with the organizations plan• Decide how you will measure accomplishments, success This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 9. Planning a Campaign (cont.)• Consider demographics, psychographics of publics• Define what needs to happen as a result of the campaign• Set a timetable for the campaign and build in time for glitches and delays• Determine the campaign’s budget and the source of the funding This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 10. Planning a Campaign (cont.)• Choose a theme based on what the public needs to know• Choose messages and channels for distributing those messages• Develop a contingency plan in case the first theme or message strategy is not successful• Sell your plan to management This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 11. Implementing the Campaign• Adapt and apply tactics and techniques called for in the plan• Check all elements against your desired overall strategy and theme• Adhere to timetable and budget• Keep management and those involved in the campaign informed of every development• Solve problems that arise quickly and positively This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 12. Evaluating the Campaign• Two types: monitoring and postmortems• Monitoring ongoing during campaign• May include unobtrusive measures as well as formal research• Benefits from a postmortem: a thorough, honest autopsy of what worked, what didn’t – Uses formal research – Only constructive criticism permitted This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 13. Evaluating the Campaign (cont.)• Evaluate impact on publics• Evaluate effect on organization’s mission and goals• Evaluate impact on attitudes, perceptions of publics• Evaluate effect on organizations financial status, ethical stance, social responsibility commitment This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 14. Changing Behavior with Campaigns• Information, awareness only steps toward ultimate goal of changing behavior• Changing behavior works best when the people being asked to change are involved in formulating the campaign’s behavioral goals• Top-down often doomed to failure• Grassroots, bottom-up more likely to succeed This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 15. Government Campaigns• Many countries have government agencies that develop campaigns to deal with social or economic issues – Population control in China and India – Economic restructuring in Romania and Bulgaria – Tourism in Mexico This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg
  • 16. Global Campaigns• One size doesn’t fit all• Difficult to coordinate seamless campaigns, either at home or abroad• Language barriers, government regulation, cultural sensitivities make some issues taboo as well as some techniques, slogans, appeals This is PR 11th Edition Newsom, Turk and Kruckeberg