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Ch.6 PowerPoint

  1. 1. Communication between cultures 8TH EDITION Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior© Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 1
  2. 2. Key Ideas• Understanding perception• Understanding values• Cultural patterns• Cultural patterns and communication © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 2
  3. 3. Understanding perception• Perception – Making sense of your physical world – Making sense of your social world – How you construct reality• Perception is selective © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 3
  4. 4. Understanding perception• Perception is learned• Perception is culturally determined• Perception is consistent• Perception is inaccurate © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 4
  5. 5. Understanding values• Beliefs are foundations for values• Values are individual and collective• Values inform a culture of what is good or ba, right or wrong, correct or incorrect, appropriate or inappropriate• Values establish normative modes of behavior in a culture © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 5
  6. 6. Cultural patterns• You are more than your culture• Cultural patterns are integrated• Cultural patterns are integrated• Cultural patterns can be contradictory © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 6
  7. 7. Selecting cultural patterns• Cultural pattern typologies help to identify and understand dissimilar cultural values• Values presented I cultural patterns are points along a continuum• There is a great deal of duplication and similarity between different cultural patterns © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 7
  8. 8. Kohl’s Values Americans Live By US Values Foreign Counterpart Values Personal Control over the Environment 1 Fate Change 2 Tradition Time & Its Control 3 Human Interaction Equality 4 Hierarchy/Rank/Status Individualism/Privacy 5 Group’s Welfare Self-Help 6 Birthright Inheritance Competition 7 Cooperation Future Orientation 8 Past Orientation Action/Work Orientation 9 "Being" Orientation 10 Informality Formality 11 Directness/Openness/Honesty Indirectness/Ritual/"Face" 12 Practicality/Efficiency Idealism 13 Materialism/Acquisitiveness Spiritualism/Detachment© Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 8
  9. 9. Hofstede’s Value Dimensions• Individual/Collectivism• Uncertainty Avoidance• Power Distance• Masculinity/Femininity• Long term/Short term Orientation• Indulgence/Restraint © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 9
  10. 10. Minkov’s Monumentalism/Flexhumility Monumentalism Flexhumility• Self-pride/self-promotion • Humility• Self-concept is • Self-concept is consistent/fixed flexible/fluid• Truth is absolute • Truth is relative• Absolutist cognition • Holistic cognition• Religion is important • Religion less important © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 10
  11. 11. Minkov’s Monumentalism/Flexhumility Monumentalism Flexhumility• Interpersonal • Interpersonal competition valued competition problematic• Lower value on education • Higher value on• Difficulty in adapting to education • Easily adapts to another another culture culture• Suicide taboo • Suicide accepted• Tipping • Tipping not expected/prevalent expected/rarely done© Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 11
  12. 12. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Value Orientation• Basic questions – What is the character of human nature? – What is the relation of humankind to nature? – What is the orientation toward time? – What is the value placed on activity? – What is the relationship of people to each other? © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 12
  13. 13. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s Value OrientationORIENTATION VALUE AND BEHAVIOR CHANGEHuman nature Basically evil Mixture of good and evil Basically goodHumans and nature Subject to nature Harmony with nature Master of natureSense of time Past Present FutureActivity Being Being-in-Becoming DoingSocial relationships Authoritarian Group Individualism © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 13
  14. 14. Hall’s High Context and Low Context Orientations• High Context – Most of the meaning exchanged during an encounter is often not communicated through words – High-context cultures are usually quite traditional – People from high-context cultures tend to be attuned to their surroundings and can easily express and interpret emotions nonverbally © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 14
  15. 15. Hall’s High Context and Low Context Orientations• High Context – Meaning in high-context cultures is also conveyed “through status (age, sex, education, family background, title, and affiliations) and through an individual’s informal friends and associates – Members of these groups often “communicate in an indirect fashion and rely more on how something is said, rather than what is said © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 15
  16. 16. Hall’s High Context and Low Context Orientations• Low Context – Low-context cultures typically have considerable population diversity and tend to compartmentalize interpersonal contacts – The verbal message contains most of the information and very little is embedded in the context or the participant’s nonverbal activity © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 16
  17. 17. The Globe Study: The Globe Study and Cultural DimensionsUncertainty The extent that societal or organizational membersAvoidance work to reduce uncertainty about future events through the use of social norms, protocols, and established practices.Power The degree that societal or organizational membersDistance acquiesce to the unequal distribution of power.Collectivism – The degree that established social and organizationalSocietal practices condone and reward collective actions and resource distribution.Collectivism – The degree of pride, loyalty, and interconnectedness thatIn-group people have in their family or organization.Gender The degree that a society or organization minimizesEgalitarianism differences in gender roles and gender inequality. © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 17
  18. 18. The Globe Study: The Globe Study and Cultural DimensionsAssertiveness How assertive, confrontational, and aggressive are members of a society or organization in their social interactions.Future The extent that people take part in future orientatedOrientation actions, such as planning and investing for the future and delaying gratification.Performance The degree that a society or organization rewardsOrientation members for improvement and excellence.Humane The degree that a society or organization promotes andOrientation rewards displays of fairness, altruism, generosity, caring, and kindness toward others. © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 18
  19. 19. The Globe Study: Globe societies and clusters• Anglo Cluster: – All of the members of this cluster are developed nations with predominantly English speaking populations – A major characteristic is an individualistic, performance based orientation, with a forward looking perspective – Rewards are a result of merit and there is less dependence on formal rules and established procedures – While gender equality is valued, in practice the countries are male-dominated © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 19
  20. 20. The Globe Study: Globe societies and clusters• Latin Europe Cluster – A distinctive feature of the Latin Europe group is the reliance on the state to provide a wide range of social support services – tends more toward collectivism than individualism – gender equality was the lowest score of the cluster – power distance was the highest score © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 20
  21. 21. The Globe Study: Globe societies and clusters• Nordic Europe Cluster – High score on gender equality, future orientation, and uncertainty avoidance – Underplaying of assertiveness, familial, and masculine authority and emphasis on certainty, social unity and cooperation – The welfare state found in all Nordic nations may contribute to the cluster’s low performance orientation scores © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 21
  22. 22. The Globe Study: Globe societies and clusters• Germanic Europe Cluster – High scores on assertiveness, uncertainty avoidance, and power distance – Low scores on gender – Self reliance on well-defined rules and standards, masculinity – Assertive approach taken by members of these nations, along – Technocratic orientation © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 22
  23. 23. The Globe Study: Globe societies and clusters• Eastern Europe Cluster – Preference for hierarchical organizational leadership practices – Strong in-group collectivism, and gender equality – High tolerance for uncertainty It is useful to note that – Many of the nations in this cluster were once part of the former Soviet Union © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 23
  24. 24. The Globe Study: Globe societies and clusters• Latin America Cluster – Paternalism perspective is a central theme – Desire to sustain personal social status – Predilection for in-group collectivism – Sense of fatalism – Prefer to live life in the present, rather than planning for the future © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 24
  25. 25. The Globe Study: Globe societies and clusters• Middle East Cluster – The five nations of this cluster share a common historical, religious, and socio-cultural heritage. • Arabic is the common language in all but Turkey • Islam is the dominant religion – Strong in-group collectivism - centers on the family and attachments to other groups such as tribe, sect, village, neighborhood, or classmates © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 25
  26. 26. The Globe Study: Globe societies and clusters• Middle East Cluster – Follow well-defined power distance hierarchies in their relationships – Have very distinct gender roles, with masculinity being predominant – Many institutionalized values can be attributed to the Koran, which teaches that leadership authority should be respected and provides clear definitions of the different roles for men and women © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 26
  27. 27. The Globe Study: Globe societies and clusters• Southern Asia Cluster: – Strong in-group collectivism, humanism – Preference for social hierarchy – Tendency toward male domination • Within the workforce, women commonly have to rely on family connections or a lengthy work history in order to compete with their male counterparts • It appears that modern South Asian women are seen as having outside accomplishments but are expected to concurrently maintain strong family ties © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 27
  28. 28. The Globe Study: Globe societies and clusters• Confucian Asia Cluster – Pervasive influence of Chinese history and Confucianism – Confucianism that contributes to the contemporary practice of strong societal and in- group collectivism performance – Rewards are associated less with individual achievement and more with attainment of collective goals © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 28
  29. 29. Face and Facework• Face is your public identity• Face is acquired, lost, and maintained through social interaction• The process of acquiring face is referred to as facework• Facework consists of those actions you engage in to acquire or maintain face for yourself or give face to someone else © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 29
  30. 30. Face and Facework• Face and facework, however, are influenced by cultural values and vary across cultures – In individualistic cultures a person’s face is usually derived from his or her own self-effort and is normally independent of others – In collectivistic cultures, group membership is normally the primary source of identity and status © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 30
  31. 31. Face and Facework• Varying attitudes as to what represents face and how facework is conducted have a very noticeable impact on how a culture views and approaches conflict• The differences between face and facework across cultures are a function of different cultural values © Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 31
  32. 32. Cultural patterns and communication Individualism Collectivism• Focus is on the • Focus is on the individual & self- group/affiliations & self- promotion criticism• Independency • Interdependency• Task dominates • Relationship dominates relationship task• Social obedience • Social obedience through sense of guilt through sense of shame© Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 32
  33. 33. Cultural patterns and communication Egalitarian Hierarchal• Horizontal relationships • Vertical relationships• Subordinates consulted • Subordinates informed• Equality expected • Inequality accepted© Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 33
  34. 34. Cultural patterns and communication Low Uncertainty High Uncertainty Avoidance Avoidance• Change is normal and • Change is disruptive good and disliked• Few behavioral • Many behavioral protocols protocols• Greater cultural • Less cultural diversity diversity© Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 34
  35. 35. Cultural patterns and communication Monochronic Polychronic• Time is linear and • Time is flexible segmented • Focus on multiple tasks• Focus on a single task • Weak ties to schedules• Adherence to schedules© Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 35
  36. 36. Cultural patterns and communication Low Context High Context Communication Communication• Meaning reliant on • Meaning can be verbal message derived from context• Nonverbal • Nonverbal communication low communication high importance importance• Silence is avoided • Silence is normal© Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 36
  37. 37. Cultural patterns and communication Low Face Concerns High Face Concerns• Conflict/disagreement • Conflict/disagreement is constructive is threatening• Concern for self-face • Concern for mutual/other-face© Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 37
  38. 38. Communication between cultures 8TH EDITION Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior© Cengage 2012 Chapter 6 Cultural Values: Guidelines for Behavior 38

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