Understanding Intercultural Communication Second Edition Chapter 7 What are the Different Ways to Communicate Nonverbally Across Cultures? Stella Ting-Toomey & Leeva C. Chung OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESSPowerPoint Slides Designed by Alex Flecky and Noorie Baig
TODAY’S MENUI. The Impact of Nonverbal CommunicationII. Forms of Nonverbal CommunicationIII. Boundary Regulations: Four Broad ThemesIV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-Ables
I. The Impact of Nonverbal CommunicationA. Nonverbal Communication: Message exchange process involving the use of nonlinguistic and paralinguistic cues which are expressed through multiple communication channels in a particular sociocultural setting. • Nonlinguistic cues e.g., eye contact, smiles, touch etc. • Paralinguistic cues e.g., tone, pitch, volume, pace etc. • Multiple channels e.g., facial expressions, gestures etc. • Sociocultural setting e.g., cultural norms, etc.
I. The Impact of NonverbalCommunication B. One Code, Countless Interpretations C. Verbal and Nonverbal Comparisons Nonverbal cues relate to verbal messages in five different ways: 1. Repeat 2. Contradict 3. Substitute 4. Complement 5. Accent
I. The Impact of NonverbalCommunication Application Exercise Intercultural Nonverbal Communication: Fun Nonverbal Quiz. How many answers did you get right?
II. Forms of NonverbalCommunication:A. Physical Appearance: Artifacts and clothingB. Paralanguage: Sounds and tonesC. Facial expressions: Kinesics, SADFISH, and cultural display rulesD. Gestures: four categories of hand gestures 1. Emblems 2. Illustrators 3. Regulators 4. AdaptorsE. Haptics—touch behavior, high-, low-,
II. Forms of NonverbalCommunication: Can you identify the emotions? (a) = anger (b) = surprise (c) = fear (d) = happiness (e) = disgust (f) = sadness
III. Boundary Regulations: Fourbroad themesA. Regulating Interpersonal Boundaries Proxemics: study of space. Intimate zone: 0–18 inches. Reserved for those closest to us. Personal zone: 18–48 inches. Closer friends, some acquaintances. Social zone: 48 inches to 12 feet. Public zone: 12 feet or more.
III. Boundary Regulations President Bush meets Saudi Arabian royalty, Prince Abdullah What can you gather about their spatial zones?
III. Boundary Regulations A. Regulating Interpersonal Boundaries: Marking Boundaries + Expressing Respect or Deference • Cultural Norms & Rules • Meanings • AppropriatenessPresident Obama Bows andShakes Hands In Japan ToEmperor Akihito andEmpress Michiko
III. Boundary Regulations: Fourbroad themesB. Environmental Boundaries: claimed sense of space and emotional attachment we share with others in our community.C. Psychological Boundaries 1. Intrapersonal space: need for information privacy or psychological silence between the self and others. 2. Privacy regulation is important in individualistic cultures, not perceived as critical in collectivistic cultures.
III. Boundary Regulations: Four broadthemesD. Regulating Time: attitudes we have about time.Chronemics: how people in different cultures structure, interpret, and understand the time dimension.Two patterns of time govern different cultures: • Monochronic-time schedule • Polychronic-time schedule
III. Boundary RegulationsMedia Analysis: Gran Torino film clipDISCUSSION:• What is your initial reaction to this clip?• Can you identify all of the nonverbal violations experienced by both Walt and the Hmong’s family?• Have you experienced any international nonverbal faux pas?
IV. Intercultural Reality Check: Do-AblesNonverbal points to consider in communicating across cultures: A. Be flexible when you observe and identify nonverbal display rules. B. Attempt a deeper-than-surface explanation for the behavior. C. Monitor your own nonverbal behavior. D. Be adaptive and sensitive to appropriate nonverbal display rules for emotions in a particular culture. E. Be less judgmental and more tentative in interpreting others’ nonverbal signals.
Parting Thoughts…Our first impressions aregenerated by our experiencesand our environment,which means that wecan change ourfirst impressions . . .by changing the experiencesthat comprisethose impressions.