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Learning theories based on social perspective

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Learning theories based on social perspective

Learning theories based on social perspective

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  • 1. LEARNING THEORIES BASED ON SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE BY PETERUS BALAN SING
  • 2. LEARNING THEORIES BASED ON SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY BANDURA’ S MODELLING THEORY Neobehaviourism Individual process Attention Environment Normal class Retention Reproduction Behaviour IMPLICATIONS OF BANDURA’S MODELLING THEORY Reinforcement/ motivation Class/children with special needs
  • 3. INTRODUCTION COGNITIVIST APPROACH (PIAGET & VYGOTSKY) BEHAVIORIST APPROACH (SKINNER, PAVLOV, THORNDIKE & WATSON NEOBEHAVIORIST APPROACH (BANDURA & WALTERS) LEARNING THEORIES BASED ON SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE • According to Bandura (1986, 1997, 2001) – learning takes place through the processes of modeling and imitation. • Other social psychologists agree that learning theory should incorporate cognitive aspect.
  • 4. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY • • • I 3 basic elements Learning is the interaction between an individual’s intrinsic motivation and behavior with the environment IxBxE (ENVIRONMENT) External stimulus (INDIVIDUAL) Intrinsic motivation E TRIARCHIC RECIPROCAL CAUSALITY SYSTEM B (BEHAVIOR) Individual’s actions
  • 5. BANDURA’S MODELING THEORY OBSERVATION ? YOU Your friend did something good, e.g. excel in exams MODEL ? • • • • The teacher praised your friend REINFORCEMENT ? You’re more inclined to study more to excel like your friend did IMITATION ? Bandura and Walters (1963) – children imitate behaviors of model and react in a more aggravated manner than the one they observed. Posits that learning through observation is a basic form of human behavior. Observation learning – individual’s behavior are learned through observation of others (models). Characteristics: main elements are observation and imitation, learned from model’s behavior
  • 6. LEARNING PROCESS THROUGH OBSERVATION: MODELING ATTENTION • Concentrated effort while observation • Factors : • Characteris tics of model and observation skills RETENTION REPRODUCTIO N • Retains behaviors observed in the memory via language and imagination (Bandura, 1986) • Repeat imitated behavior. • Capability depends largely on • Physical ability • Psychomotor of imitating skill • Memory REINFORCEMENT/ MOTIVATION • • Imitations occur when there positive reinforcement, and least likely when reinforced negatively. Types: • Direct reinforcement • Vicarious reinforcement • Selfreinforcement
  • 7. LIVE MODELS e.g. real person demonstration SYMBOLIC MODELS e.g. real or fictional characters via media such as movies TYPES OF MODELLING STIMULI (Bandura, 1986) VERBAL INSTRUCTION MODELS e.g. Instructional, process descriptive
  • 8. Main learning elements: observation and imitation Behavior can be learned from language, idioms and proverbs. Pupils imitates their teachers from demonstration CHARACTERISTICS OF BANDURA’S MODELLING THEORY Processes covers observation, thinking, memorizing and imitation, ending with positive reinforcement Skill can be mastered if there were satisfaction and appropriate reinforcement
  • 9. IMPLICATION OF BANDURA’S MODELLING THEORY DEMONSTRATION IS VITAL - should add to instruction. Teacher’s works as examples should be of good quality. NORMAL CLASS SPECIAL NEEDS Teachers are very important role models Take into consideration children’s special needs i.e. impairment, disability.
  • 10. REFERENCES • Childs, D. (2007, January 5). Kids Imitate Saddam's Televised Hanging Death. ABC News. Retrieved July 1, 2012 • Foster, C. (2006). Confidence Man. Stanford Magazine. Retrieved July 1, 2012 • http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~siegler/35grusec92.pdf • http://www.gatherthepeople.org/Downloads/SOCIAL_LEARNING.pdf • http://socialscientist.us/nphs/psychIB/psychpdfs/Social_learning_Theory. pdf • Mok Soon Sang. (2008). Learning and the learner. Perak, Malaysia: Penerbitan Multimedia Sdn. Bhd. • Smith, M., & Berge, Z. L. (2009, June). Social Learning Theory in Second Life. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 5(2). Retrieved July 1, 2012 • Woolfolk, A. (2011). Educational psychology (11th ed.). Pearson Education International: Columbus, OH.
  • 11. ACTIVITY ARCHITECTURAL KIRIGAMI 
  • 12. LEARNING OUTCOMES • Students learn by imitation – demonstration was given by the teacher. • The aesthetical value is the main motivation, i.e. the motivation to create beautiful art. • Observation is followed by hands-on. This ensures that it goes into student’s memory. • Students will be able to reproduce their observation if they are given comprehensible demonstrations and positive reinforcements.
  • 13. INSTRUCTIONS • Students will be given a kirigami template. • Teacher or instructor will demonstrate step by step the process of building the kirigami. • ATTENTION: This activity requires the use of crafting knife. Use with utmost care.