Geothermal education and research at uo a2

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Geothermal education and research at uo a2

  1. 1. Overview of Geothermal, Education and Research The University of Auckland Gary Putt Executive Director Geothermal InstituteApril 2011
  2. 2. Outline1. New Zealand and Auckland2. The University of Auckland3. Geothermal in New Zealand4. Geothermal training at the UoA5. Geothermal Research at the UoA
  3. 3. Where in the world is New Zealand?
  4. 4. New Zealand The size of NZ: Auckland ~267 000 km2 ~267,000 km –North Island: 115,777  km2 +  –South Island: 151,215  Wellington km2 Christchurch Similar size to Japan  and UK Dunedin
  5. 5. Stunning Natural Beauty ...
  6. 6. …With Plenty Of Adventure Close At Hand y
  7. 7. Auckland ‐‘City of Sails’• Largest NZ city population Largest NZ city ‐ population  1.4 million• Commercial heart of New  Zealand• Energetic multicultural hub• International gateway to the International gateway to the  country
  8. 8. The University of Auckland• Founded in 1883• Largest and top ranked research institution in New Zealand• Comprehensive University with full range of professional schools to PhD level• Nearly 40,000 students and 7,000 staff including i l di – 4,300 international students from over 100 countries• Annual turnover >$800M – >NZ$5 billion pa contribution to Auckland / NZ economy
  9. 9. Research at the University – Key figures• 2,500 2 500 academic staff d i ff• About 10,500 postgraduate students including nearly 2,000 at doctoral level• More than 60 research units, centres and institutes• More than 6,500 research articles, books and conference papers published annually• 180 patent families and 115 patents granted since 1987• Research revenue NZ$206 million pa in 2009.
  10. 10. Research at the University - Structure• Eight Faculties: – Arts – Business and Economics – National Institute of Creative Arts and Industries – Education – g Engineeringg – Law – Medical and Health Sciences – Science – More than 60 research units, centres and institutes, including the Institute of Earth Science and Engineering.• Two L T Large S l R Scale Research I tit t h Institutes (LSRI): (LSRI) – Auckland Bioengineering Institute - computational physiology and biomedical engineering – Liggins Institute - research on fetal and child health and development.
  11. 11. Geothermal in New Zealand World Leader in Geothermal • 720 MWe installed capacity • 12% of electricity generated • 50+ years history of excellence in development, research, and training • significant near-term growth due to mega- scale projects 500MW’s 500MW s
  12. 12. New Zealand Subductionhttp://www.teara.govt.nz/en/volcanoes/2/2 http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/volcanoes/2/2
  13. 13. Taupo VolcanicZone: Hot! Hot! Hot! From M f d H h t i U of Auckland F Manfred Hochstein, f A kl d
  14. 14. Geothermal Use in New Zealand• Electricity – established with considerable growth potential – 720 MW’s installed capacity – Further 500 MW’s currently under development – 1100 MW’s available using existing technology – $4 billion development program to realise• Direct Use – established with lesser growth potential• Heat pumps - infancy – Relatively new – Developing recognition in the commercial sector – Luxury housing market in colder parts of Southland, and Auckland
  15. 15. Direct Use• Most common use is bathing• Space and water heating• Frost protection and irrigation• Greenhouse and glasshouse heating - growth• Timber kiln drying - growth• Special tourism developments• Kawerau industrial development 56% of industrial use – timber mill
  16. 16. Direct Use of Geothermal Heat gy.org othermal-energ Mokai Glasshousesgeo Wairakei Prawn Farm White, 2006
  17. 17. Drivers of Growth in New Zealand• Premium geothermal resources• Vibrant geothermal industry• Cost effective and base load• Depletion of local gas reserves• Cost and supply of imported fossil fuels• Few available hydro alternatives – limited y storage capacity• Commitments to reducing greenhouse emissions• Cost of carbon ETS• Export opportunities
  18. 18. Challenges in New Zealand• Competing uses• Resource consents• Investment limited• Environmental• Subsidence• Induced seismicity• New research and technology – Deeper resources – Blind resources – L Lower temperature t t
  19. 19. New Zealand: Pioneers e ea a d o ee s in Geothermal EnergyWairakei 1950: Exploration Phase Wairakei, 2010: 176 Mwe1958: World’s first production of a liquid World sdominated geothermal system
  20. 20. New Zealand: Pioneers ofGeothermal Energy Kawerau Paper Mill 1958: First use of geothermal steam in paper mill 56% of national direct energy usage Largest industrial use in the world http://www.kawerau.org.nz/ 2009: 122 MWe electricity generating planthttp://forcechange.com/2008/11/21/biggest-geothermal-plant-in-20-years-opens-in-new-zealand/
  21. 21. New Zealand Energy Mix 90% Renewables by 2025
  22. 22. Geothermal Institute 1978 -The University of Auckland• Professional Training & Education Post-graduate (Certificate, Masters, PhD, Interns, Mentoring & Coaching, Commercial Short Courses)• Research Basic, Applied, Student• Technology Borehole seismic, Geophysical Observatory, Joint Geophysical Imaging• Commercial Services & Consulting Exploration, Monitoring, Modeling, Equipment
  23. 23. Geothermal Training at theUniversityU i it• Short Courses & Coaching• Postgraduate Certificate in Geothermal Energy Technology• Masters of Science• Masters of Engineering• Masters of Energy• Doctoral degrees in Geothermal topics
  24. 24. Short Courses and Coaching• Public short courses in New Zealand – Geosciences – Reservoir Engineering – Exploration – Geophysics – Reservoir modelling• Contracted off shore courses – Australia, Indonesia, Philippines, Chile, Kenya• Mentoring, Coaching, Mentoring Coaching Internships – Philippines reservoir modelling
  25. 25. Post Graduate Certificate inGeothermal Energy TechnologyG th lE T h l• 1 Semester Course• Programme covers: - Geothermal science & technology - Geothermal engineering - Geothermal geoscience - Geothermal field studies - Research project• Two Field Trips - Taupo Volcanic Zone - Geothermal power plants at Wairakei and Mokai - Direct use projects at Taupo and Rotorua - Several undeveloped g p geothermal fields
  26. 26. Masters of Energy• Targeted at Science, Engineering, Business and Economics Students• One year• Research or Taught• Two core courses that will give an overview of energy resources and e e gy ec o ogy energy technology.• Taught Master Electives in geothermal – GEOTHERM601 (Geothermal resources & their use) – GEOTHERM602 (Geothermal energy technology) – One other from a range of elective papers in engineering, science, economics, management, energy, sustainability and environment papers – Research Project
  27. 27. Geothermal Research -The Geothermal Institute • Integrated approach - Faculty of Science - Faculty of Engineering - Institute of Earth Science and Engineering • Topics – Geology – Reservoir Engineering – Reservoir Modelling – Geophysics – Geochemistry y – Chemistry – Materials – Equipment design q p g – Economics
  28. 28. Institute of Earth Science andEngineering• Geothermal Research • Geothermal geophysics, geology & geochemistry • Subsurface mapping & imaging • Equipment design• Volcanic and Seismic Hazards Research • Volcanic – Auckland Ruapehu Auckland, Ruapehu, • Induced seismicity – geothermal, CO2 sequestration
  29. 29. What does IESE do?“FROM WELL-WATER TO MAGMA”Research, Development, and Service work on rocks andfluid in the accessible crust crust.Crustal GeophysicsGeothermal GeologygyVolcanologyTechnologies • Active, passive, and borehole seismology • Electromagnetics • Geothermal chemistry and mineralogy • Ground penetrating radarStaff: 13 PhD-level staff 13 Technical, field, and office staff 5 Graduate students
  30. 30. Some Current Basic Research1. FRST Geothermal (Two contracts; one at ~$650,000 pa for 6 years, second for $400,000 pa for 4 years - collaboration with GNS – Deeper and Hotter identifying and understanding fracture systems 3-7km’s deep2. RSNZ Strategic Relocation Fund ($8.4M over 5 years). – The Underground Eye - Imaging the sub surface of the earth - instrumentation, installation, interpretation and illustration • Krafla Iceland • Olkaria Kenya • Mammoth California • Puna, Hawaii , • Basel ,Switzerland
  31. 31. Some Current Applied Research- New Zealand1. Micro seismic monitoring at Wairakei Geothermal Field.2. Reservoir modelling at Ohaaki and Wairakei.3. Li, B, and Sr isotope g , , p geochemistry of geothermal water. y g4. Near- and sub-solidus magma/fluid reaction and implications for deep reservoir conditions in geothermal systems.5. Prevention of Scaling - Silica chemistry of Geothermal brines.6. NZ, US and Chile – Sinter mapping using Ground penetrating radar. radar7. Improving steam washing to prevent corrosion and scaling.
  32. 32. Some Current Applied Research -International1. Utah Geothermal exploration and drilling2. Nevada Geothermal exploration3. Alaska Seismic monitoring of a geothermal field4. Indonesia • Seismic monitoring of a geothermal field in Sumatra • Reservoir Modelling of Wayang Windu5. Monitoring EGS Fracing in South Australia6. Geothermal exploration on Nevis7. Geothermal exploration - Rwanda
  33. 33. Geothermal International Linkages• Agent in the United States for IESE• Li k with research groups overseas Links ith h – University of Chile – U University of Santiago de Chile y o a ago d – Bochum University - Germany – Geothermal Research Initiative – Aust Unis, CSIRO & Geosciences Aust – Indonesian University’s – Gadjah Mada, Bandung Institute of Technology
  34. 34. IESE Technical Expertise • Specialised borehole tools • Micro seismic networks: c o se s c e o s design, installation, operation, analysis and maintenance • Integration of MT , TEM and micro seismic
  35. 35. New Geothermal Technologies• Subsurface mapping techniques – Joint geophysical imaging : Technique for Geothermal exploration• Geophysical instruments – Down borehole seismic instruments – Geophysical observatory
  36. 36. Joint Geophysical Imaging (JGI)A New technique for geothermal exploration • Goal -Target productive, permeable wells • Method - MT / TEM polarization & Seismic polarization • Outcomes - Reduced Risk & Increased Productivity ➥ Cost savings
  37. 37. What can be done practically to deal with this? - Mapping with hi-res seismic & EM hi res - Time lapse data (Repeated surveys) Microearthquake (MEQ) S-splitting q ( Q) p g Magnetotelluric (MT) g ( ) mapping Polarization mapping “split”  These “image” the  These “image” the  paths MT  Seismic  Seismic fractures fractures Sounding recorder These            .                      do not These  Normal do not path Normal path High Resistance Explosion source Low ResistanceMicroearthquake
  38. 38. Correlation of MT & S-wave polarizations Stations K21 and KMT115 Stations K35 and KMT44 N o rm a liz e d  S p littin g  e v e ts / M T   0.4 0.4 Shear W aves/M T  Frequencies MT Strike Direction MT Strike Direction 0.35 Fast Shear Wave Polarization Direction 0.35 Fast S‐wave Splitting Direction 0.3 03 0.3 03 fre q u e n c ie s 0.25 0.25 0.2 0.2 lized num ber of S 0.15 0.15 0.1 0.1Norm al 0.05 0.05 0 0 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 105 115 125 135 145 155 165 175 Median Polarization Direction Median Polarization Direction 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 105 115 125 135 145 155 165 175 Polarization Direction
  39. 39. Why JGI?• Reduced risk in exploration phase – Targeting permeable fracture zones – Krafla, Iceland: Go/No go decision making• Increased productivity – Fewer wells necessary or more production from wells drilled – Olkaria, Kenya: • 70MW 140 MW • US$75 Million savings
  40. 40. What are the current results and developments? Fluid-filled fracture mapping MT & MEQ Stations MT TE TM Polarization “split” Frequency MEQ V 003905231043000.sgd.1 003905231043000.sgd.2 h1 S 1 003905231043000.sgd.3 h2 S2 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 High Pay Off Zone Time [s] Time Drilling Target shear wave splitting & resistivity
  41. 41. Krafla -Seismic (MEQ) & resistivity (MT) Icelanddata used to double geothermaloutput p Both S-wave & MT splitting 3 successful wells - one 32 MW 8 -> 18 -> 32 Mwe Power (Landsvirkjn, per. com.) Plant Well Field Where to drill next wells? (~$3M each!) No litti N splitting & polarization l i ti 1 dry well drilled 8 km
  42. 42. Example: successful geothermal wells - Kenya Drilling direction MT Polarization MT site & low resistance direction S-Wave splitting Earthquake station & fast direction Drill site
  43. 43. Example of Cost savings numbers forKenya• $2.75M investment by UNEP, World Bank, KenGen to develop JGI in Kenya.• Average well productivity increased from 2MW  5MW• Developer doubled plans from a 70MW plant to 2x70MW for 140MW• “$75M” in savings, according to UNEP
  44. 44. JGI Research – An emergingtechnologyt h l• 1989 – Seismic methods pioneered in Coso by Prof. Malin p y• 1998 – Advanced seismic methods applied in Mammoth, CA• 2002 – $2.75M investment UNEP & partners for work in Olkaria• 2005 – JGI study in Krafla, Iceland - 18MW well located y ,• 2007 – JGI applied in Olkaria - Average productivity increased from 2MW  5MW• 2009 – JGI applied in Box Elder, Utah – Identified specific target zone for client to drill productive wells• 2011 – Indonesia Sumatra
  45. 45. DOWN BOREHOLE SEISMICS REASON 1.Noise Reduction! Results of test station installed at Riverhead, NZ, depth of 245m 1  1 minute Same small event M~1 min Surface Borehole
  46. 46. REASON 2. Scattering Reduction!Surface seismograph M ~ 0.5 MEQ Data from 3.3 km deep LVEW 1 secondBorehole seismograph 1 second
  47. 47. Borehole seismometergimbaled • S20G , 2Hz and 4.5 Hz 3C geophones 45 •Gimbaled, 18 deg maximum tilt •4 5 Hz sonde withstands up to 150 deg C 4.5 •Outer diameter 8.9 cm •Operational p p pressure 69 MPa (~7 Km) ( ) •Designed for permanent long term installations, original sensors deployed 21 y years ago are still working g g •Integrated cable – various lengths (armored , Tefzel, or Polyurethane)
  48. 48. Borehole seismometerfixed•Fixed 3D•High output geophones (76 Vm/s)•Shallow borehole installation•S30F-4.5-130 integrated withaccelerometer•Various cable lengths
  49. 49. Borehole seismometer(new design) •Borehole seismometer with integrated recording system, battery powered b d •Designed to be part of the drill string •Coupling of sensor achieved by releasing drill pipe weight which applies pressure to casing side wall
  50. 50. Borehole seismometer(new design)
  51. 51. Fabrication and testing at IESE CNC Lathe for specialized threads Large format Lathes for long tubes Functional testing of electronic components Hydrostatic testing of high pressure seals
  52. 52. Installation of boreholeinstruments Installation of 6 sondes Work over rig needed for installation
  53. 53. Borehole Micro-Seismic Network,,Wairakei•10 stations telemetered via radios to 10Central recording site – real-time•9 stations at depths ~> 90 m•1 station at 1.2 Km depth•High gain 24 bit digital recording•Over 1000 microseismic events O i i i tdetected in 1 year•Data used to manage geothermalfield (injection and extraction offluids)
  54. 54. IESE Projects using BoreholeSeismometers• San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth, California• Puna, Hawaii• Wairakei, New Zealand• Taiwan• Krafla, Iceland• Indonesia• Alpine Fault, New Zealand p ,
  55. 55. Basel, SwitzerlandSeismic Array for a MajorS i i A f M jEuropean City
  56. 56. Basel,Basel SwitzerlandDrill Rig in themiddle of the City
  57. 57. Basel, Switzerland2D Visualisationof Earthquakes
  58. 58. IESE Custom Borehole Seismometers for Chinese Academy ofGeological SciencesCCSD 5.2KM BOREHOLE EARTHQUAKE OBSERVATORY -DEEPEST IN WORLDearthquake sensor
  59. 59. Typical borehole micro i lb h l iearthquake station Radio telemetry to central site Recording system Borehole Paralana SW Australia EGS experiment
  60. 60. Recording system
  61. 61. Characteristic Data •Very good signal to noise •Several types of events observed •High >95% station uptime Hi h 95% i i
  62. 62. GO” Station - a portableGeophysical ObG h i l Observatory System t S t• New equipment• Developed specifically for JGI• MEQ + MT• Modular• Rapid profiling
  63. 63. GOES systemCombined MT, TEMand micro seismicsystem
  64. 64. Preliminary Results indicate that p gGPR is a promising tool for:• Locating and mappingsinter deposits deposits.• Detecting alteration/overprinting by acidicsteam condensate.
  65. 65. METHODSGPR (GSSI‐SIR 2000 and SIR 3000)200 and 270MHz Antennas200 and 270MHz AntennasRange 50‐300nsControl UnitControl Unit Antenna Jol and Smith, 1992
  66. 66. HOT SPRING VENTS• Opal Mound (Quartz) GPR Profile GPR Transect
  67. 67. FRACTURES• St Steamboat Springs Lower Sinter Terrace (Opal‐A) b tS i L Si t T (O l A)
  68. 68. FRACTURES• Steamboat Springs Lower Sinter Terrace (Opal‐A)
  69. 69. ALTERATION AND SUBSIDENCE• Waipahihi Stream
  70. 70. Geothermal Geochemistry Research• Current funded research is both fundamental and applied in nature.• Scope of research includes production brine fluids, surficial fluids, and reservoir mineralogy.• Lead researcher: Paul Hoskin, Ph.D. (Australian National University), Habilitation (Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg)
  71. 71. Example 1: New isotope systematics• Aim: determine the proportion of magmatic fluid influx into the Taupo Volcanic Zone, delineate crustal reservoirs for Li and assess local reservoir-scale Li, reservoir scale hydrology• Data: very large sample set (N = 70) with isotopic analyses for Li and B (collaborators: University of Maryland, USA; University of Calgary, Canada) and Cl isotopes (collaborator: University of Alberta, Canada)• Current data collection campaign eclipses similar work recently done for the Yellowstone (USA), Central Massif (France), and French West Indies geothermal M if (F ) dF h W t I di th l systems
  72. 72. Example 2: silica mobilization inreservoir fluids — the role of feldspar• Aim: determine the ultimate sources of silica in g geothermal fluids, silica that causes scaling and , g a threat to power generation; describe reaction kinetics, pathways, and assess mitigation strategies.• Data: experiments on natural feldspar crystals from reservoir rocks and gem-quality end- member compositions from elsewhere elsewhere. Analytical data will include infra-red, Raman, X- ray diffraction, NMR, and synchrotron analysis.
  73. 73. Structural controls on geothermalfluid flow• Current funded research is both fundamental and applied i nature. li d in t• Scope of research includes regional-scale controls on upflow zones and local-scale controls on fluid flow within the reservoir reservoir.• Lead researcher: Julie Rowland, Ph.D. (Otago University, NZ).
  74. 74. Example 1: Tracking upflow throughtime in a migrating arc• Aim: decipher the tectonic and magmatic controls on 15 million years of hydrothermal fluid flow in the central North Island, New Zealand• Data: synthesis of various geological and geophysical data y g g g p y sets(collaborator: Victoria University, NZ).• This work will identify vectors for prospectivity (epithermal and geothermal) geothermal).
  75. 75. Example 2: Generation of high-fluxpathways within the reservoir• Aim: determine the fundamental controls on the development of high-flux pathways within the d l t f hi h fl th ithi th geothermal reservoir.• Data: 3 D geological and hydrological models for 3-D selected geothermal systems within the Taupo Volcanic Zone.• This work will improve targeting of wells for geothermal production.
  76. 76. Trenching campaign to determine fault slip rates, Taupo Volcanic Zone 2010
  77. 77. Field mapping to determine paleohydrology of a 8500 year old sinter exposedon the footwall of an active normal fault.
  78. 78. Conceptual model of controlson fluid flow in a generalisedgeothermal reservoir, TaupoVolcanic Zone.
  79. 79. Geothermal reservoir modelling Wairakei model
  80. 80. The R&D modelling team • Team leader: Professor Mike O’Sullivan • Two other academics: Associate Professor Rosalind Archer, Archer Dr Sadiq Zarrouk • Three post-doctoral research fellows • Three R&D engineers • Six graduate studentsMain research topics • Calibration of geothermal models g • Improved modelling methods • Fluid/rock interaction • Large-scale convection L l ti
  81. 81. Calibration of geothermal models• The problem: How to assign permeabilities, porosities and other parameters in a g p geothermal reservoir model• The solution: Many hours of manual calibration by a modelling expert or use automatic calibration One of our main research topics is automatic calibration of geothermal models
  82. 82. Automatic calibration ofgeothermal models th l d l• Inverse modelling using iTOUGH2 and PEST• Statistical sampling approach using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods (MCMC)• Expert system approach using a guided application of inverse modelling. For example use an expert system: (i) to choose which model parameters are used for the inverse model and (ii) to decide how to systematically introduce new parameters
  83. 83. Improved modelling methods The aim is to be able to run bigger and better models. Current projects include: • Introduction of a supercritical equation of state • Investigation of parallel solvers • Euler-Lagrange differencing • Modelling of surface features
  84. 84. Fluid/rock interaction Several of our current research topics involve fluid rock interaction. We are combining TOUGH2 for modelling heat and mass transfer with ABAQUS for the rock mechanics. We are also using FEHM for the coupled problem. Topics i l d T i include: • Subsidence in geothermal fields • Fracturing and permeability changes caused by injection of cold water • Tectonic activity and permeability structure
  85. 85. Large scaleLarge-scale convectionOur interest in this topic arises from our work on particular fields such as Wairakei and also from trying to understand large sections of the T i f h Taupo volcanic zone. l i • For example: why do the three upflow zones at Te Mihi, Tauhara and Rotokawa occur close together? What large- large scale structures determine their positions? • Similarly, what determines the locations of Wairakei, Mokai, Ohaaki etc? Is it the deep permeability structure or the deep heat inflow?
  86. 86. The ‘Development’ part of ‘R&D’ Development R&DWe are currently working on computer models of severalgeothermal fields: • Wairakei and Ohaaki (Contact Energy) • Lihir (Newcrest Gold) • Wayang Windu (with SKM for Star Energy, Indonesia) • Palinpinon and Mindanao (in collaboration with EDC, Philippines)
  87. 87. Related modelling research• Coal-bed methane extraction• Gas hydrate Gas-hydrate reservoirs• In-situ gasification• Carbon sequestration• Oil and gas reservoirs
  88. 88. Numerical models of the Taupo pVolcanic Zone (TVZ) Aim: to investigate interplay between faulting, geothermal circulation and volcanism in the TVZ. model slice TVZ faults TVZ geothermal fields TVZ volcanism
  89. 89. Tectonic model of faulting 1 m slip Coseismic 0.5 m uplift displacements stress increase Coseismic stress drop stress changes Earthquake! conceptual model numerical model Fluid model of geothermal circulation Geothermal plume Geothermal plumedepth
  90. 90. Gas Hydrates• New Zealand (and other countries) may have huge resources of natural gas stored in hydrate deposits in shallow sediments.• Hydrates are ice-like solids that release methane from their structure as they are depressurised.• TOUGH+HYDRATE code (derived from the TOUGH2 geothermal code) being used to model resource development in NZ in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories. k l b
  91. 91. Integrating Indigenous Valuesinto Geothermal DevelopmentDan Hikuroa1Te Kipa Kepa Brian Morgan2, Manuka Henare3, Darren Gravley 41 – Institute of Earth Science & Engineering, Uni..of Auckland (UoA)2 – Senior Lecturer, Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering (UoA)3 – Director, Mira Szaszy Research Centre, (UoA)4 – Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury
  92. 92. Papatuanuku and R P t k d Ranginui i ihttp://www.teara.govt.nz/file e Nga Roimata O Ranginui es/p14121enz.jpg p Nga Puna Tapu O Nga Atua
  93. 93. OutlineGeothermal Energy • Renewable • Sustainable • Desirable to MaoriKaitiakitanga (Guardianship) Approach to GeothermalDevelopment Photo: GNS Science
  94. 94. Maori ViewDevelopment Attributes: • Long-term – IntergenerationalQuadruple bottom-line: bottom line: • Economic • Environmental • Social • CulturalCreating Kaitiaki Geothermal Development Model Photo: GNS Science
  95. 95. Kaitiaki GeothermalDevelopment ModelIntegrates: - GGeothermal science & engineering h l i i i - Appropriate governance - Management systems g y - Investment opportunitiesUnderpined by kaitiakitangaIntergenerational approach
  96. 96. Kaitiaki DevelopmentApproachStrategy incorporates quadruple bottom-line of well-beings: Environmental, Social, Economic & CulturalThese are also the four well-beings in the RMA g
  97. 97. Geothermal Overview,Education and Seismic ResearchThe U iTh University of A kl d it f AucklandThank you

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