David Henshilwood UK Protected AreasDelivering national objectives in local settings
Natural England’s Designations Role• We advise Defra and the Secretary of State on the selection of Natura 2000 sites, Ramsar sites, Marine Conservation Zones, and National Trails.• We designate Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONBs) and National Parks.• We declare National Nature Reserves and directly manage some 140 with other partners.
Our existing Programmes• Marine Conservation Zone - 127 recommended, 1 designated, and phased designation of a proportion of these sites over three years from 2013• Marine SAC - Nearing sufficiency• Inshore Marine SPA - Challenging programme of identification requiring completion by end 2015• Terrestrial SAC - Substantially complete; future selection requirements likely to be small• Terrestrial SPA - Outstanding actions from 2001 review, current review reports 2012. Likely to lead to substantial work programme• Ramsar - No new work planned• SSSI - Work underway to review the series likely to result in significant programme• National Park/AONB - Lakes Dales National Park extension boundary review. 2 AONBs where further investigation planned• National Trail - No new work planned• National Nature Reserve - On-going programme to ensure series is both representative and meets criteria
DWhat we have now. What’s going wrong? The network of protection
MakingSpace forNature –Lawton 2011Report 2010
What do we need to do? - ecological solutions“MORE, BIGGER, BETTER AND JOINED”
Localism Act and National Planning PolicyFramework• Localism Act: – Duty to Co-operate and changes to local plans – Neighbourhood Plans – National Planning Policy Framework:• Policies to protect and enhance natural environment• Local Green Space Designation• Ecological Networks• Strategic approach to Green Infrastructure• Major infrastructure planning
Think Global – Act Local – NEWP 2011 Reconnecting nature New Nature Improvement Areas (NIAs), transforming rural and urban areas and providing bigger, connected sites for wildlife to live in and adapt to climate change. With a £7.5 million fund for 12 initial NIAs to demonstrate just what can be done. Biodiversity offsetting – new way for developers to ensure we don’t lose wildlife sites and make them better by making and improving other sites. New Local Nature Partnerships to strengthen joined-up action across local agencies and organisations Phasing out peat – working with the horticulture industry to phase out peat use, which will help to protect and restore our peatlands, which are valuable carbon sinks, habitats and part of our ecological network.
Designations Strategy - What’s different?• We consider how, collectively, the whole suite of designations can be used to deliver ecological networks and the full range of ecosystem services.• Wherever possible, we will focus our efforts on areas where we can work in partnership with others to: – designate new sites – manage existing sites – better manage the wider landscape and our seas.
National Character Areas
Legal obligations for MPAs• Habitats & Birds Directives;• Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) - well managed UK MPA network in place by 2016;• MSFD - ecologically coherent and well managed UK MPA network contributing to Good Environmental Status by 2020;• Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 – requires MPA network to conserve or improve the UK marine environment; and protect representative features.
Natural England’s Role in DesignationsName of designation Current Number Type Natural England’s Role in DesignationSpecial Areas of 241 European Site identificationConservation (SACs) Advice to DefraSpecial Protection Areas 81 European Site identification(SPAs) Advice to DefraRamsar 70 International Site identification Advice to DefraMarine Conservation Zone 1 Domestic Advice to Defra(MCZ)Sites of Special Scientific 4118 Domestic Site selectionInterest (SSSIs) NotificationNational Nature Reserves 225 Domestic Site selection(NNRs) DeclarationNational Trails 13 Domestic Propose Advice to DefraAreas of Outstanding 34 Domestic DesignationNatural Beauty (AONB)National Parks 9 Domestic Designation
Introducing Ecosystem Approach : Making nature’s benefits visible to decision makers Provisioning services Cultural services Fresh water Cultural heritage Food (eg crops, fruit, fish, etc) Recreation and tourism Fibre and fuel (eg timber, wool, etc) Aesthetic value Genetic resources (used for crop/stock breeding and biotechnology) Spiritual and religious value Biochemicals, natural medicines, pharmaceuticals Inspiration of art, folklore, architecture, etc Ornamental resources (eg shells, flowers, etc) Social relations (eg fishing, grazing, cropping communities) Regulatory services Supporting services Air quality regulation Soil formation Climate regulation (local temp. /precipitation, GHG sequestration, etc) Primary production Water regulation (timing/scale of run-off, flooding, etc) Nutrient cycling (water recirculation in landscape) Natural hazard regulation (ie storm protection) Water recycling Pest regulation Photosynthesis (production of atmospheric oxygen) Disease regulation Provision of habitat Erosion regulation Water purification and waste treatment What you don’t consider you may lose! PollinationThanks to Mark Everad from EA for this slide
Environmental Stewardship –locally responsive
Existing and proposed MPAs in English waters andthe offshore area adjacent to England
A Strategic Approach• The Lawton Report suggests that priority for action at a landscape scale should be as follows: – 1st Manage existing sites better – 2nd Make existing sites larger – 3rd Create new sites – 4th Enhance connectivity – 5th Create new corridors
Nature Improvement Areas A popular competition - 76 applications for NIA status 20 were selected to progress to stage 2 Final 12 were selected by the independent judging panel, and ratified by Secretary of State, The 12 will receive a share of £7.5 Million from NE (& Defra funding) over 3 years and will draw on other resources