Regional Global Conventions treaties DGs DGs DGsEuropean European European Court of Council Commission Parliament Justice Committees NGOs Member StatesResearch Sectors (industry) Regions
Marine policy domains Integrated CommonMaritime Policy Fisheries Policy (IMP) (CFP)Marine Strategy Framework Natura2000 Directive (MSFD) Water Labour Spatial Framework Transport Energy Regions conditions planning Directive
Integrated Maritime Policy (IMP)• DG MARE „Communication‟• Vision, not law• “policy framework that will allow for the optimal development of all sea-related activities in a sustainable manner”• Action: marine spatial planning, coordinating research, ...• No direct effects on Member States
Common Fisheries Policy (CFP)• DG MARE „Regulation‟• EU competentence• GVB 1982, 1992, 2002, 2012 (?)• Aim: sustainable fisheries• Member States implement EU policy• Pillars – Conservation – Structure – Market – International
Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Kaderrichtlijn Mariene Strategie (KRM) • DG ENV „Directive‟ • Aim for 2020: – Good Environmental Status (GES) • Member States need to develop regulations • Regional coordiantion • 11 descriptors (themes) with indicators • Measures via other policy domains (e.g. CFP)
MSFD and institutional ambiguity1. Establishment of marine regions (who has competence and authority)2. A framework directive vis-a-vis other (common) marine policies and directives (Member States in charge?)
Context of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) Kaderrichtlijn Mariene Strategie (KRM) • DG ENV „Directive‟ • Aim for 2020: – Good Environmental Status (GES) • Regional coordination • 11 descriptors (themes) with indicators • Member States need to develop regulations • Measures via other policy domains (e.g. CFP)
Status of the directives• MSFD – Commitment for actions• WFD (Water Framework Directive) – Commitment for results
MSFD „speak‟Good Environmental Status Environmental status of marine waters where these provide ecologically diverse and dynamic oceans and seas which are clean, healthy and productive ....Descriptor Qualitative descriptors for determining good environmental status; i.e. themesIndicator Operationalizing descriptors; things you can „measure‟Target Target value for an indicatorMeasure Means to change the system and achieve targets
MSFD: what came before? 2008 2008 Request for scientificMSFD agreed advice to ICES/JRC 2010 ICES/JRC specify indicators and potential targets 2012 July 2010National Initial EC: criteria andAssessments standards
NL Initial Assessment Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu. 2012. Ontwerp Mariene Strategie voor het Nederlandse deel van de Noordzee 2012-2020.
Stakeholder involvement • Varying involvement • Shipping, Oil&gas, Wind energy, NGOs actively involved • Fisheries and Tourism limited involvement Ounanian, K., Delaney, A., Raakjær, J., and Ramirez-Monsalve, P. 2012. On unequal footing: Stakeholderperspectives on the marine strategy framework directive as a mechanism of the ecosystem-based approach to marine management. Marine Policy, 36: 658-666.
Policy involvement• Common Implementation Strategy (CIS) – Marine Environmental Policy Makers from Member States.
MSFD = management by indicator• Science: – Defining good environmental status – Defining indicators• Policy – Selecting indicators – Getting the indicator at the right level• Stakeholders – Comment on proposals
Governance aspects of MSFD• Command-and-control policy• Regional coordination (new!)• Emphasis on ecological targets• Integration limited• Instrumental participation process (reflecting not shaping)
Baltic Sea: HELCOM• Helsinki Convention• 8 EU Member States + Russia• Baltic Sea Action Plan (2007) – Eutrophication – Biodiversity – Maritime activities – Hazardous substances
HELCOM coordination of MSFD• Strong link between Baltic Sea Action Plan and MSFD• Low institutional ambiguity
North Sea: OSPAR• 1992 Oslo Paris convention• 2010 Northeast Atlantic Environmental Strategy – Biodiversity – Eutrophication – Oil and Gas – Radiation – Integrated management
OSPAR coordination of MSFD?• OSPAR adapted to MSFD requirements• Different implementation phases in Member States• Institutional ambiguity – OSPAR vs. Member States – Who deals with what topics?
Mediterranean Sea: Barcelona convention• Many non-EU countries• 2008 Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) – Ecosystem approach – 7 steps• No formal link to MSFD
Barcelona Convention and MSFD? • Substantial Institutional Ambiguity • Many non-EU countries • Will MAP be adapted to MSFD? • Will EU-regional coordination develop?
Black Sea: Bucharest Convention• 1992 Convention• 1996 Strategic Action Plan• 2009 new Strategic Action Plan – Ecosystem approach• No references to MSFD
Bucharest Convention and MSFD? • Many non-EU countries • Will the Convention be coordinating? • Role still needs to be decided / developed
Comparing Regional Conventions EU countries Mismatch with Institutional GES objectives AmbiguityHELCOM Majority Low LowOSPAR Majority Low Low-moderateBarcelona Minority Moderate HighBucharest minority High ModerateVan Leeuwen, J., Van Hoof, L. J. W., and Van Tatenhove, J. 2012. Institutional ambiguity in implementing the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Marine Policy, 36: 636-643.